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They can acquire genes through one of ways: mutations, transduction, transformation or conjugation.Mutations to DNA can occur at any time and might change the structure of the proteins produced but these are rare events. Transduction is the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the action of viruses. Certain species of bacteria can ingest DNA segments, known as plasmids, from their surroundings and incorporate the plasmids into their own chromosomes in a process called transformation. Conjugation is the bacterial equivalent of sex. It involves physical contact between two cells, possibly via a bridging structure called a pilus.

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11y ago

im sorry i only know 3 but hears one abuse with antibiotics meaning to much or not finishing your course also have some that aren't prescribed to you

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Q: Three ways bacteria gain antibiotic resistance genes?
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Can plasmids be transferred into other bacteria?

Plasmids are often transferred to other bacterial cells via the sex pilus. This mechanism is a major cause in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.


Describe the use of plasmids as vectors in biotechnology?

Plasmids are often used as expression vectors in biotechnology. Plasmids are small, circular or linear pieces of DNA containing non-essential genes that are found in all life, although much more common in prokaryotes, especially bacteria. These genes confer abilities such as metabolizing a previously unusable compound, building an amino acid previously unbuildable, or even antibiotic resistance. Plasmids are used in research to induce the expression of a gene usually not found in the given organism. For example, you can construct a plasmid with a bacterial promoter connected to the gene for a human protein through a process called 'cloning'. The plasmid with the human gene can then be introduced into bacteria by transforming a competent gram-negative with the plasmid. Usually the plasmid also has an antibiotic resistance gene in addition to the target gene. This antibiotic resistance can be used to select for bacteria containing the plasmid. For example, the most common resistance gene is ampicillin resistance gene. If you grow the transformed bacteria in a culture containing ampicillin, only bacteria containing the antibiotic resistance, and therefore containing the plasmid, can survive. This will ensure that what you have is a pure culture of bacteria containing the plasmid. After selection, these bacteria can be cultured in suitable media to increase their numbers to a point that their production of the human protein becomes appreciable. Then these bacteria are usually lysed (killed) to extract the protein. Sometimes, however, these bacteria can also be made to secrete the protein into the medium.


What is direct evidence of evolution?

direct evidence is the observation of evolution as it occurs. We have discovered novel genes conferring an advantage in an environment in which the ancestral population lacked those genes entirely. One example is flavobacterium that evolved nylonase enzymes. Antibiotic resistance is another example.


Viruses frequently infect bacteria and insert new genes into the genetic material of the bacteria When these infected bacteria reproduce asexually which genes would most likely be passed on?

Both the original and the new genes


Why did the mice die when giffith mixed the live R bacteria and the heat killed S bacteria?

Ikd

Related questions

How can specialized transduction contribute to the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in a bacterial population?

Specialized transduction involves the transfer of a specific set of bacterial genes by a temperate bacteriophage during its lysogenic cycle. If the bacteriophage integrates into the bacterial chromosome near antibiotic resistance genes, they can be co-transferred to other bacteria upon phage infection. This process can facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance genes within a bacterial population.


What are r plasmids and why are these a problem to humans?

R-plasmids contain genes for antibiotic resistance and they can be transferred among bacteria. It is common for gut bacteria of humans and other animals to spread antibiotic resistance this way. It is a problem for humans because many bacteria have become resistant to multiple antibiotics.


What structures contains genes for enzymes and antibiotic resistance?

plasmid


Why are some bacteria resistant to treatment?

Because they inherited or borrowed genes for antibiotic resistance on tiny "microchromosomes" called plasmids. The ancestors of these plasmids had grown for many thousands of bacterial generations in medium level concentrations of antibiotics causing strong selection pressure for effective antibiotic resistance genes to those antibiotics.


Why do bacteria have extra chromosomal DNA?

Extra chromosomal DNA - plasmids- are useful to bacteria as they possess favourable genes conferring resistance to certain toxins/antibiotics and/or assist with the survival of the bacteria through metabolic benefits. The extra chromosomal DNA is only maintained if it has a purpose so a plasmid conferring antibiotic resistance will not be maintained by a bacterium in an antibiotic free environment...


Why do some plasmids contain a gene for resistance to antibiotic?

Plasmid contain a few genes including antibiotic resistance genes .Bacteria are highly active metabolically and many mutation are produced in them . These genes are produced by evolution.


Can plasmids be transferred into other bacteria?

Plasmids are often transferred to other bacterial cells via the sex pilus. This mechanism is a major cause in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.


Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is the result of?

It is due to a selection process. Bacteria, like us, have individual genes and the antibiotics will kill off those that are affected by it but not the ones that resistant. These resistant forms will be the ones that survive. We are actually selecting for one that are immune to the antibiotic.


How does plasmid allow for antibiotic resistance?

A plasmid (conjugative plasmid) that has a resistance gene on it, can transfer itself to another bacterial cell (called conjugation) or assist in the transfer of a non-conjugative plasmid that has a resistance gene to another cell (called mobilization). Whichever way it happens, once the plasmid is transfered to the new cell, this cell too may show signs of resistance to the particular antibiotic. This is one of the ways of the speard of resistance amongst bacteria


What is an example of genes becoming more common in a population?

One example of a gene becoming more common in a population is antibiotic resistance in bacteria. When the antibiotics kill the bacteria some have a mutation that makes them resistant. These bacteria then reproduce and over time the species genetic code changes so that they are antibiotic resistant. This is the reason new vaccines are constantly released. The same basic principle works in pesticide resistance of rats.


What is one way to determine whether a bacterial culture has received a recombinant plasmid?

The plasmid have a "reporter gene" inside it, generally resistance to specific antibiotic. the plasmid is transformed into bacteria that don't have resistance to that specific antibiotic drug, and than the cultured on a petri-dish that contain the antibiotic drug. Only bacteria that had receive the plasmid will have resistance and grow, all the other will die.


What is the role of antibiotic resistance gene in recombinant DNA technology?

Uñderstand by example: Bacteria that have pSC 101 plasmid, this plasmid have antibiotic resistant gene for tetracycline.when gene of interest in attached to plasmid to produce clone to get many genes of interest, it is placed in a medium contaning tetracycline for culturing bacteria(bactria made colonies which would separate out and remain safe because of they have resistance against tetracycline while other phothogen donot häve)