aristrachus of samos
When the right half of the moon is illuminated it would be called first quarter.
(That's when you see the Moon from the Northern Hemisphere.)
The point where the southern hemisphere has the greatest exposure to the sun is the winter solstice.
soviet Luna 2
u.s poastal service
*Pluto is not a planet but in case your are curious...
Astronomy, the study of the stars, has been around since the first cavemen looked up at night. We know more about what the Greeks did because they wrote about it, and their books survived.
Before the Greeks, we know that the Sumerians, the Babylonians and the Egyptians all studied astronomy, but relatively few of their writings survived the thousands of years since.
U.S. F-86 and MIG-15
In many places including the United States, winter is defined as the period from the winter solstice to the vernal equinox, spring is defined as the period from the vernal equinox to the summer solstice, summer is defined as the period from the summer solstice to the autumnal equinox, and fall or autumn is defined as the period from the autumnal equinox to the winter solstice. In the northern hemisphere, the winter solstice is the December solstice, the vernal equinox is the March equinox, the summer solstice is the June solstice, and the autumnal equinox is the September equinox. In the southern hemisphere, the winter solstice is the June solstice, the vernal equinox is the September equinox, the summer solstice is the December solstice, and the autumnal equinox is the March equinox. The dates of the March equinox range from the 19th to the 22nd of March, the dates of the June solstice range from the 19th to the 23rd of June, the dates of the September equinox range from the 21st to the 24th of September, and the dates of the December solstice range from the 20th to the 23rd of December. Examples of the earliest season start times are in 2096, and examples of the latest season start times are in 1903.
They're called craters.