E Coli Infections

E. coli is and abbreviation for Escherichia coli. It is a drink and food borne pathogen that causes severe cramps and is the leading cause of bloody diarrhea, strains, symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatments may be asked and answered here.

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E Coli Infections

Which fungus causes diarrhea?

old moldy mushrooms

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E Coli Infections

How do you get rid of e coli virus?

E coli is not a virus - it's a bacteria. The best way to get rid of it is to cook meats - especially beef - until there is no trace of pink left.

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What is the growth rate of E coli?

There are three stages the lag, log and stationary

During the log phase E. coli is supposed to double every 20 minutes

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What foods cause E Coli?

Raw meats like beef, untreated milk and water.

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Main groups of disease causing organisms?

A disease is a condition in which the health of an organism is impaired. There are four main groups of diseases:

  • Pathogenic
  • Deficiency
  • Hereditary
  • Physiological

Pathogenic

Diseases caused by organisms in humans are known as pathogenic diseases. The word pathogen is derived from a Greek word that means 'giving rise to suffering'. Pathogenic diseases can be caused by a number of agents like bacteria, viruses, fungi, prinons, etc. All these pathogenic agents can lead to a variety of diseases and conditions. In this article we will concentrate on pathogenic diseases due to bacteria.

Deficiency

Disease associated with characteristic and identifiable symptoms, signs, or pathological findings, due to insufficient intake, defective absorption or utilization, or excessive metabolism of one or more nutrients. See also anaemia-3;beriberi; pellagra; protein-energy-malnutrition-3; scurvy.

Hereditary

A disease or disorder that is inherited genetically, where illness is transmitted form parent to child.Examples of hereditary disease consists of sickle cell anemia, cancer of the breast, as well as diabetes and hypertension can lso be in that category.

Physiological

A physiological disease is a disease in which the organs or the systems in the body malfunction causing illnesses. ADHD, stress, sleep disorder, bipolar, Alzheimer disease, eating disorder, anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), gender identity disorder, depression, gambling, etc. are all example of Physiological diseases.

Written by Romario Jarrett

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E Coli Infections

Difference between SDH and PDH stransmission?

  • SDH and PDH are two digital hierarchies in which different line speeds (e.g. E1, T1, STM1) are categorized.
  • PDH (plesiosynchronous digital hierarchy) was replaced by SDH (synchronous digital hierarchy) due to its drawback in synchronisation where plesio refers to nearlysynchronous.
  • E1, T1 and J1 are generally categorized under PDH. STM1, OC3, STM4, OC12 etc. are categorized under SDH.
  • E1 is used worldwide nowadays in 2G technologies except North America and Japan (who are using T1 and J1 respectively). It is the line speed of 2Mbps. But how this speed comes along? The derivation is as follows.
  • The audio signals were sampled and converted to digital signal at 64kbps, since 1960s for digital transmission of voice calls. When 32 channels (30 assigned for voice channels and 2 channels for framing and signaling), with each having speed of 64kbps are put together (or we call multiplexing), a line speed of E1, i.e. 2Mbps is produced by having 32 x 64kbps = 2.048Mbps.
  • T1 line, which transmits at 1.544 Mbps can be interconnected with E1 for international use.
  • Having 3 different speeds (E1, T1 and J1), PDH was later replaced by SDH in order to standardize the speed, making only 1 standard speed worldwide, which is STM1 having the speed of 155.52Mbps.
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What is the natural habitat of E. coli?

The E. coli was first identified in the colon region of large intestine and so it was given the name "coli" (found in colon) they are coliforms. It luxuriously grows in our large intestine and it is an important normal microflora of human. Most strains won't do any harm when present in the intestine. If they enter the blood or other sites of the body, the bacteria can cause infections, including urinary tract infection. E. coli lives inside you! It is found in your intestines and also your feces. This is why E. coli is a problem in places with poor water sanitation. The fecal material gets into the water and contaminates it.

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What medium does E. coli prefer to grow on or in?

mostly stagnant water

Answer

E.coli is a commensal organism found in the gut of all humans from shortly after birth. It does not have fasitdious growth requirements and can be easily grown on nutrient agar. The problem is normally that E.coli is found with many other types of bacteria for example in stools. The number of species needs to be reduced using a selective agar, MacConkey's agar and EMB are used to isolate E.coli from stool samples, however E.coli grows more quickly (prefers) on nutirent agar.

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What is E. coli?

E. ColiEscherichia coli , usually abbreviated to E. coli, (coli is latin for "of the colon") discovered by Theodor Escherich, a German pediatrician and bacteriologist, is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of mammals, known as gut flora. Specimens have also been located on the edge of hot springs. According to US Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the E. coli strain O157:H7, one of hundreds of strains of the bacterium E. coli, causes illness in humans. Presence in surface water is a common indicator of fecal contamination. It belongs among the Enterobacteriaceae, and is commonly used as a model organism for bacteria in general. One of the root words of the family's scientific name, "enteric", refers to the intestine, and is often used synonymously with "fecal". The number of individual E. coli bacteria in the feces that one human passes in one day averages between 100 billion and 10 trillion.

All the different kinds of fecal coli bacteria, and all the very similar bacteria that live in the ground (in soil or decaying plants, of which the most common is Enterobacter aerogenes), are grouped together under the name coliform bacteria. Technically, the "coliform group" is defined to be all the aerobic and facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that ferment lactose with the production of gas within 48 hours at 35 �C (95 �F). In the body, this gas is released as flatulence. E. coli cells are elongated, 1�2 �m in length and 0.1�0.5 �m in diameter. As Gram-negative organisms, coli are unable to sporulate. Thus, treatments which kill all active bacteria, such as Pasteurization or simply boiling, are effective for their eradication, without requiring the more rigorous sterilization which also deactivates spores. As part of their adaptation to mammalian intestines, coli grow best at the higher temperatures characteristic of such an environment, rather than the cooler temperatures found in the soil or other environment.

Strains

A strain of E. coli is a sub-group within the species that has unique characteristics that distinguish it from other E. coli strains. These differences are often detectable only at the molecular level; however, they may result in changes to the physiology or lifecycle of the bacterium. For example, a strain may gain pathogenic capacity, the ability to use a unique carbon source, the ability to take upon a particular ecological niche or the ability to resist antimicrobial agents. Different strains of E. coli are often host-specific, making it possible to determine the source of fecal contamination in environmental samples. For example, knowing which E. coli strains are present in a water sample allows to make assumptions about whether the contamination originated from a human, another mammal or a bird.

New strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological process of mutation, and some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is unpleasant in healthy adults and is often lethal to children in the developing world. More virulent strains, such as O157:H7 cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young or the immunocompromised.

Biology and biochemistry

E. coli is Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic and non-sporulating. Cells are typically rod-shaped and are about 2 micrometres (μm) long and 0.5 μm in diameter, with a cell volume of 0.6 - 0.7 μm3. It can live on a wide variety of substrates. E. coli uses mixed-acid fermentation in anaerobic conditions, producing lactate, succinate, ethanol, acetate and carbon dioxide. Since many pathways in mixed-acid fermentation produce hydrogen gas, these pathways require the levels of hydrogen to be low, as is the case when E. coli lives together with hydrogen-consuming organisms such as methanogens or sulfate-reducing bacteria.

Optimal growth of E. coli occurs at 37°C but some laboratory strains can multiply at temperatures of up to 49°C. Growth can be driven by aerobic or anaerobic respiration, using a large variety of redox pairs, including the oxidation of pyruvic acid, formic acid, hydrogen and amino acids, and the reduction of substrates such as oxygen, nitrate, dimethyl sulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide.

Strains that possess flagella can swim and are motile. The flagella have a peritrichous arrangement.

E. coli and related bacteria possess the ability to transfer DNA via bacterial conjugation, transduction or transformation, which allows genetic material to spread horizontally through an existing population. This process led to the spread of the gene encoding shiga toxin from Shigella to E. coli O157:H7, carried by a bacteriophage.

Role as normal flora

E. coli normally colonizes an infant's gastrointestinal tract within 40 hours of birth, arriving with food or water or with the individuals handling the child. In the bowel, it adheres to the mucus of the large intestine. It is the primary facultative organism of the human gastrointestinal tract. As long as these bacteria do not acquire genetic elements encoding for virulence factors, they remain benign commensals.

Therapeutic use of nonpathogenic E. coli

Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 is used as a probiotic agent in medicine, mainly for the treatment of various gastroenterological diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease.

Role in disease

Virulent strains of E. coli can cause gastroentritis, urinary tract infections, and neonatal meningitis. In rarer cases, virulent strains are also responsible for hæmolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), peritonitis, mastitis, septicemia and Gram-negative pneumonia.

Gastrointestinal infection

Certain strains of E. coli, such as O157:H7, O121 and O104:H21, produce potentially-lethal toxins. Food poisoning caused by E. coli is usually caused by eating unwashed vegetables or undercooked meat. O157:H7 is also notorious for causing serious and even life-threatening complications like hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). This particular strain is linked to the 2006 United States E. coli outbreak of fresh spinach. Severity of the illness varies considerably; it can be fatal, particularly to young children, the elderly or the immunocompromised, but is more often mild. Earlier, poor hygienic methods of preparing meat in Scotland killed seven people in 1996 due to E. coli poisoning, and left hundreds more infected. E. coli can harbor both heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins. The latter, termed LT, contains one "A" subunit and five "B" subunits arranged into one holotoxin, and is highly similar in structure and function to Cholera toxins. The B subunits assist in adherence and entry of the toxin into host intestinal cells, while the A subunit is cleaved and prevents cells from absorbing water, causing diarrhea. LT is secreted by the Type 2 secretion pathway.

If E. coli bacteria escape the intestinal tract through a perforation (for example from an ulcer, a ruptured appendix, or a surgical error) and enter the abdomen, they usually cause peritonitis that can be fatal without prompt treatment. However, E. coli are extremely sensitive to such antibiotics as streptomycin or gentamicin. This could change since, as noted below, E. coli quickly acquires drug resistance. Recent research suggests that treatment with antibiotics does not improve the outcome of the disease, and may in fact significantly increase the chance of developing haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

Intestinal mucosa-associated E. coli are observed in increased numbers in the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.Invasive strains of E. coliexist in high numbers in the inflamed tissue, and the number of bacteria in the inflamed regions correlates to the severity of the bowel inflammation.

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E Coli Infections

What percent volume of an E coli cell is occupied by its DNA?

Less than 1%.

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Can someone be infected with the e-coli after a prostate biopsy?

yes.

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Can dogs get e-coli?

I suppose that dogs can get any disease or illness, though the fact that strays forage through trash cans and continue to live might prove me wrong.

Ans#2

There is what is referred to as the species barrier, this is why we can not become infected by the same strains that affect the family dog.

Ans#3

Dogs can, and do, get e-coli. All mammals have e-coli living in their gut. E-coli is a member of the normal flora of the intestines. This bacterium is Gram-negative and has a cell wall that releases toxins when the bacterium dies. These toxins cause the problems associated with the ingestion.

E-coli is not a particular concern for dogs because the bacteria that they ingest are easily digested by the dogs' digestive system that is more robust than a human's.

The recent e-coli infections in humans result from the vero cytotoxin. for more information on this, follow this link: http://www.amm.co.uk/files/factsabout/fa_vtec.htm

Dogs can get e-coli, my aunts dog died that way, they get it usually from drinking out of puddles that have been sitting there for a while.

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What food does E coli grow in?

It does not really grow in food. It is found in fecal matter (crap). Food that comes into contact with this crap becomes contaminated. Also, certain types of fertilizer can contain e-coli. If this fertilizer is put on crops such as lettuce, then even a salad can be contaminated if not washed properly beforehand.

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Can animals get e-coli?

yes even horses can get it and well they are animals

by eliza Coleman and connor thorley

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Is insertion of the insulin gene in E. coli an example of gene therapy?

No, its a good example of genetic engeneering though.

To be more specific, it is an example of recombinant DNA technology.

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Where does the bacteria e coli come from?

uncooked food

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What does it mean when E. coli is found in urine?

Urine is supposed to be sterile. When any type of bacteria is found in a urine sample, it is indicative of a urinary tract infection (UTI). E. coli is a colliform that is naturally found in our digestive tract, particularly the large intestine. Normally there are not enough bacteria present to cause harm (the bacteria will not become pathogenic and produce thair toxin until enough are present, which happens when we eat something contaminated with them). If E. coli are present in the urine, this could indicate that somehow the bladder has become infected with something from the colon.

This is not an official diagnosis by any means, merely an observation. Professional advice should be sought for a true diagnosis and treatment.

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Can you die from ecoli food poisoning?

Yes , it has happened before. Ecoli is a bad germ from animal droppings, so if you think you have been poisoned contact your doctor or a poison control centre right away.

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Kidney Stones

Is E. coli gram positive or gram negative?

E. coli is Gram-negative.

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Is e-coli prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

Prokaryotic. All bacteria are prokaryotic.

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Why does E-coli grow in nutrient broth better than in thio-glycolate broth?

The purpose of the thio-glycolate broth, which, if memory serves, is a semi-solid agar, is to determine oxygen requirements. E. coli is a facultative anaerobe which means it prefers aerobic conditions but can grow (to a lesser extent) anaerobically. So you will see growth at the top of the thio-glycolate tube mainly where there is oxygen, perhaps some just along the shallow stab line from inoculation. It will not permeate throughout the medium since it prefers aerobic respiration and oxygen is available at the top.

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What E stands for in E. coli?

Escherichia, the genus name of E. Coli. It is named after Theodor Escherich, who had discovered the bacterium.

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What is Vancomycin resistance e-coli?

a strain of e-coli which is resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin

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E Coli Infections

Video of transistor act as an amplifier?

pulse of positive voltage is not indicate to zero

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What Bacterial infection is caused by an unusual strain of E. coli?

Dysentery

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