Mexican-American War

Beginning after the annexation of Texas in 1845, this lasted about two years from 1846-1848. Many of the Civil War Generals gained combat experience in the engagements that eventually drew the Border between the US and Mexico.

4,628 Questions
Mexican-American War

What were the causes of the Mexican-American War?


the dispute over the border between Texas and Mexico

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History of the United States
War and Military History
Mexico
Mexican-American War

What lands did the US acquire from Mexico after the Mexican War?

The whole states of California, Nevada, Utah and Texas, as well as parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, Colorado, Oklahomaand Kansas.

The original US-Mexico border was defined by the Sabine River north from the Gulf of Mexico to the 32nd parallel north (32°N), then due north to the Red River, west along the Red River to the 100th meridian west (100°W), due north to the Arkansas River, west to its headwaters, north to the 42nd parallel north (42°N), and finally west along that parallel to the Pacific Ocean.

Texas was lost during the Texas Revolution (1835-1836). Territory of Texas at the time included present-day Texas, as well as those parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado and Wyoming described above.

During the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) Mexico lost all the remaining territories, including present-day California, Nevada, Utah and the rest of Colorado as well as most of northern New Mexico and Arizona. Also at the end of the war Mexico was forced to cease any attempt on reclaiming Texas. This is also known as the Mexican Cession (1848).

During the Gadsden Purchase (1853), Mexico sold parts of southern Arizona and New Mexico to the United States. This was the only peaceful purchase of land made from Mexico.

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US Civil War
Slavery
Mexican-American War

How did the outcome of the Mexican War affect the debate over the expansion of slavery?

Because the new state of California extended so far either side of the Missouri line that it could not fit the terms of the Missouri Compromise.

A new compromise had to be worked out, and this one did not last.

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Mexican-American War

What were the long-term effects of the Mexican American War?

The Mexican-American War had many long-term effects. The first and most obvious is the vast territory Mexico was forced to cede to the United States, including the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, part of Colorado, most of northern New Mexico and Arizona, and cease any claims on Texas, which at the time included present-day Texas, parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Wyoming and the rest of Colorado described above. This loss of territory was forced upon Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, and is also known as the Mexican Cession (1848).

The actual reason of the conflict, California, had also become a state after the war, following the short-lived 'California Republic' (June-July 1846) which had been declared in Sonoma by American settlers in revolt against Mexico: their flag is now the California state flag.
The leading American general of the war, Zachary Taylor (1784-1850), would later be elected the 12th President in 1849 (he died in office in 1850). The Mexican-American War also served as a training ground for many officers who would later lead men on both sides of the American Civil War (1861-1865), such as Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee.

The most important event in American history as a result of the Mexican-American War, was the American Civil War: with the introduction of new states, as well the potential for many more in the newly conquered territories, the delicate balance between slave states and free states was threatened. Although the Wilmot Proviso (1847) was designed to eliminate slavery within the territories acquired from Mexico, it was never fully enforced -- territories such as New Mexico began to practice slavery on Native Americans as soon as they were incorporated into the United States, while Texas never really ended such practices. Each side was afraid of losing political power to the other, and as tensions grew, so did the threat of secession, which ultimately did in 1861.

As for Mexico, the war meant a long period of indebtedness and political turmoil that lasted until the 1860's. This perceived weakness prompted the French Empire, led by Napoleon III, to invade Mexico. Napoleon's true aim was to prevent the rising of the United States as a world power by establishing a foothold in the Americas, and supporting the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. As a secondary objective, he was interested in exploiting the large silver, copper and iron mines located in northern Mexico.

The causes can bee checked at the related links section.

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History of the United States
War and Military History
Mexico
Mexican-American War

What present USA States were part of Mexico in the past?

The whole states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas, as well as parts of Wyoming, Colorado, Oklahoma and Kansas.

The original US-Mexico border was defined by the Sabine River north from the Gulf of Mexico to the 32nd parallel north (32°N), then due north to the Red River, west along the Red River to the 100th meridian west (100°W), due north to the Arkansas River, west to its headwaters, north to the 42nd parallel north (42°N), and finally west along that parallel to the Pacific Ocean.

Texas was lost during the Texas Revolution (1835-1836). Territory of Texas at the time included present-day Texas, as well as those parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado and Wyoming described above.

During the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) Mexico lost all the remaining territories, including present-day California, Nevada, Utah and the rest of Colorado as well as most of northern New Mexico and Arizona. Also at the end of the war Mexico was forced to cease any attempt on reclaiming Texas. This is also known as the Mexican Cession (1848).

Finally, during the Gadsden Purchase (1853), Mexico sold parts of southern Arizona and New Mexico to the United States. This was the only peaceful purchase of land made from Mexico.

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Mexican-American War
Mexico

Where did Miguel Hidalgo live?

Dolores, Mexico

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US Presidents
Mexican-American War

Why did Polk urge war?

As he told his Cabinet and wrote in his diary, Polk wanted above all else to acquire California for the United States, mainly to prevent the militarily strategic Bay of San Francisco falling into British hands. He wanted to avoid war if this was possible. In late 1845 he sent diplomats to Mexico City to purchase California in exchange for eliminating the several debts that American merchants claimed they were owed for ship cargoes seized by Mexico during the previous 10 years. The American diplomatic effort failed because the idea of surrendering more land was extremely unpopular. Polk now sent troops into the land that the United States regarded was part of western Texas which they had just acquired. Mexico was not prepared to cede this land to the United States and defended it militarily. The killing of American soldiers on what the United States regarded as their territory allowed Polk to announce to Congress in 1846 that a state of war already existed and more troops would be needed to be sent to Texas and into Mexico. Polk sent messages to his navy in the Pacific to immediately seize Californian ports and hold onto them so that whenever a peace treaty was signed with Mexico, the United States would already be in possession of California. By the end of the war the United States was in possession of not only California, but also Baja Californa, and most of Mexico including Mexico City. From a position of strength they could now negotiate what they wanted to keep.

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History of the United States
War and Military History
Mexican-American War

Why was the land we gained from the Mexican Cession important?

It gained the Important West Coast ports essential to commerce and defense.

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US Civil War
War and Military History
Mexican-American War

Which general served during the Mexican War and the Civil War?

Do you mean 'Who served at the rank of General in both wars?' Probably Winfield Scott would be the only one of that seniority.

But if you mean 'Which Civil War Generals had served in Mexico?', the answer is that nearly all of the officers promoted at the outset of the Civil War were Mexico veterans, and it was taken as a standard mark of credibility.

Sherman was a rare case of an officer who had been in uniform at the time, but posted away from the action, in Northern California. Only through his good performance at Bull Run and his growing friendship with U.S. Grant did he overcome this handicap.

On the Confederate side, Jefferson Davis was made President, and effectively General-in-Chief, because of his respectable record as a Colonel in Mexico, fifteen years earlier. This did not translate into effective leadership at high levels.

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Mexican-American War

What triggered the Mexican-American War?

American presidents John Tyler (term 1841-1845) and James K. Polk (term 1845-1849) wished to add the Pacific coast and California to the US, and sought to acquire it by any means necessary. The annexation of Texas as a state in 1846 led almost immediately to border conflicts that escalated into war.

The background of the war :

When Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, the territories it possessed included Mexico, most of Central America (Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) as well as today's US States of California, Nevada, Utah, Texas and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

Due to the extremely low population for such territorial extension (estimated at only 12 million residents in 1824), Mexico relaxed its immigration policies and allowed American settlers to help populate the northern territories. The conditions to settle were simple: 1) to pledge allegiance to Mexico and 2) observe the Mexican Law and customs. In 1830, these laws incorporated the banning of slavery. Due to the fact that many American settlers in such territories were slave owners, they looked for any pretext to secede from Mexico.

Later, Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took measures to transform Mexico from a Federal Republic to a Centralist Republic. This move prompted Yucatan and Texas to secede from Mexico. Santa Anna's government invaded both republics; while Yucatan was regained, Texas was lost. Mexico looked at Texas as a rebellious province to be reincorporated at a later time, preferably by diplomatic means, but by force if necessary.

American President John Tyler found out about California and its riches. In a letter, the American Plenipotentiary Minister in Mexico, Waddy Thompson, Jr. said:

"As to Texas I regard it as of very little value compared with California, the richest, the most beautiful and the healthiest country in the world... with the acquisition of Upper California we should have the same ascendency on the Pacific... France and England both have had their eyes upon it."

Tyler then desperately looked to fulfill the Manifest Destiny, a term which called for the annexation of all of North America into the United States. He didn't believe in Texas but needed a way to annex all the other territories west of the Louisiana, California being the "Crown Jewel". He pushed for annexation of Texas, offering its admission to the Union in March 1, 1845. President James K. Polk then ratified by law such admission, on December 29 of that year.

These actions had the potential to lead to war with Mexico, and ultimately did. Mexico had warned the US that the annexation of Texas by the US would be seen as an act of war. Mexico did not declare war when the US annexed Texas but did break off diplomatic relations, an action which is often deemed to be a preliminary step by civilized nations prior to open conflict. President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to enter Texas and prepare to defend Texas against invasion at the Rio Grande

The US declared War based on a 25 April clash between US and Mexican forces in the Neuces Strip in what became known as the Thornton Affair. Blood was shed and men had died, Congress had causus belli to declare war although that conflict happened in what had long been considered a kind of no man's land between Mexico and Texas.

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Mexican-American War

What are he answers for mark twain media inc pulishers the Mexican war hidden message puzzle?

1. American

2. Texas

3. California

4. RioGrande

5. France

6. Nueces

7. Dispute

8. Taylor

9. Hidalgo

10. Kearny

11. SantaAnna

12. Deserts

13. MexicoCity

14. NewMexico

15. February

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Mexican-American War
African-American History
Explorers and Expeditions

When was Jim Beckwourth born and when did he die?

He was born as a Virginia slave on 6 April 1798 and died as a free Mountain Man on 29 October 1866 in Denver, Colorado

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Mexican-American War

What are the differing viewpoints of Americans and Mexicans on the Mexican-American War?

Americans viewed conflict as a necessity to expand westward, due to the Manifest Destiny: a belief proposing continental expansion of the United States. This belief however, was actively promoted by slave owners who wanted to increase their power - Polk was a North Carolinian native, and raised in Tennessee. After the war, both Texans and New Mexicans were actively targeting Native Americans to expand such dark endeavor. This way of thinking however, was unsustainable and eventually led to the American Civil War (1861-1865).

For Mexicans, it was a war provoked by the United States, who annexed Texas - a "rebel province" that had split-up from Mexico after the Texas Revolution (1835-1836). Mexico had warned the US that annexation would mean war, and it ultimately did, even if they didn't start it: due to skirmishes among Texans and Mexicans in a no man's land between the Nueces and Rio Grande rivers, the conflict escalated and was used by Polk as a pretext to start the war.

Nowadays, this war is considered the foundation of what later would be the United States as a superpower: without California and Texas, the United States may have ended up as another Canada. For Mexico, it was the beginning of a series of wars that undermined the country's economic vitality for almost a century and resulted in the struggling third world country it is today.

135136137
Mexican-American War
Military Terminology
US Civil War Generals

Where was Robert Anderson when he died?

Robert Anderson died in Nice, France, October 26, 1871.

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Mexico
Mexican-American War

Was America justified to go to war with Mexico during the Mexican-American War?

The answer is no. American presidents John Tyler (term 1841-1845) and James K. Polk (term 1845-1849) wished to extend the US territories to the Pacific coast and consolidate what they saw as the "Manifest Destiny" of the country. US interests had expanded in California and its leaders sought to acquire it by any means necessary. The American settlers in Texas had already split off from Mexico and established a republic since 1836. Its annexation as a US state in 1846 led to border conflicts that quickly escalated into war.

Background to the war

When Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, the territories it possessed included Mexico, most of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica) as well as today's US States of California, Nevada, Utah, Texas and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

Due to the extremely low population for such territorial extension (estimated at only 12 million in 1824), Mexico relaxed its immigration policies and allowed American settlers to help populate the northern territories. The conditions to settle were simple: 1) to pledge allegiance to Mexico and 2) observe Mexican laws and customs. In 1830, these laws incorporated the banning of slavery. As many American settlers in such territories were slave owners, they looked for a pretext to secede from Mexican control.

In 1835, Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took measures to transform Mexico from a Federal Republic to a Centralist Republic. This move prompted both Yucatan and Texas to secede from Mexico. Santa Anna's government invaded both regions. While Yucatan was regained, Texas defeated Santa Anna and his armies and became a separate republic in 1836. As is the case with today's mainland China and Taiwan, Mexico saw Texas as a rebellious province to be reincorporated at a later time -- preferably by diplomatic means, but by force if necessary. The Mexican government warned the United States that annexation would mean war.

Texas Annexation

By this time, US President John Tyler had learned of California and its riches. In a letter to Tyler, American Plenipotentiary Minister in Mexico, Waddy Thompson, Jr. wrote :

"As to Texas I regard it as of very little value compared with California, the richest, the most beautiful and the healthiest country in the world... with the acquisition of Upper California we should have the same ascendancy on the Pacific... France and England both have had their eyes upon it."

Tyler believed in Manifest Destiny, a term which meant the annexation of all North America into the United States. He didn't believe in Texas but coveted the other territories west of Louisiana, California being the "Crown Jewel". He eventually pushed for annexation of Texas, offering it admission to the Union on March 1, 1845. His successor, President James K. Polk, ratified the admission on December 29 of that year. These moves had much potential to lead to war with Mexico, and ultimately did so.

The War Begins

Faced with the likelihood that Texas would be lost forever, the Mexican government deposed its president and refused to negotiate with US envoy John Slidell, who had been sent to broker a purchase of the lands. When a US patrol was attacked between the Nueces and Rio Grande Rivers, the US declared war on Mexico, on May 13, 1846. But the first major battles had already taken place between May 3 and 9 at Fort Texas and at Brownsville on the Rio Grande.

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History of the United States
War and Military History
Mexican-American War

What are the realities of the American Mexican war?

The U.S.-Mexican War

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Mexico
Mexican-American War
James K. Polk

Why did Polk want Mexico to attack the us first?

Polk wanted something to happen in order to get public support for a war against Mexico. This is why when American soldiers crossed the border into Mexico and were attacked by Mexicans, Polk said that "American blood had been spilled on American soil". Even though this statement was false(the soldiers were in Mexico) it was the event that now made war viable because the public would support a war to defend its borders. Polk like many presidents wanted to expand United States borders.

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Mexican-American War

What land did the US gain as a result of the Mexican-American War?

The whole states of California, Nevada, Utah, as well as parts of New Mexico and Arizona.

Texas was lost during the Texas Revolution (1835-1836). The territories of Texas at the time included present-day Texas, as well as parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado and Wyoming. It was seen as a rebel province (such as present-day Taiwan is seen by China) to be acquired later by peaceful means, but by force if necessary.

At the end of the war Mexico was forced to cease any attempt on reclaiming Texas. This is also known as the Mexican Cession(1848).

Finally, during the Gadsden Purchase (1853), Mexico sold parts of southern Arizona and New Mexico to the United States. This was the only peaceful purchase of land made from Mexico.

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Mexican-American War

How did the Americans win several battles in the Mexican-American War?

they made use of a large army - Apex

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Mexican-American War

Why did the Mormon battalion fight the Mexican-American war?

The Mormon Battalion fought in the Mexican-American War because they were asked to by the United States Government.

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US Presidents
Mexico
Mexican-American War
US Senators and Representatives

Which US Congressman objected when James A. Polk went to war against Mexico?

Abraham Lincoln among others.

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Mexico
Mexican-American War
History of US Immigration

Why did some Americans in the southwest call for the reparation of Mexican immigrants?

Because the southwest originally was part of Mexico. By conquering such territories, many of these people were swiftly sacked from their lands.

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US Presidents
Mexican-American War
Abraham Lincoln
James K. Polk

James k. Polk 3 step war plan?

1. Drive Mexican forces out of Texas and secure the border

2. Seize new Mexico and California

3.Gain control of Mexico city

232425
Mexico
Mexican-American War

How did the Mexican government try to solve the problem of more Americans in Texas than Mexicans?

They couldn't. When they figured out there was a proportion of 10 Americans per Mexican, it was too late: the Americans were already planning how to secede from Mexico.

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Brazil
Preguntas en Espanol
Argentina
Mexican-American War

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