Bilateral Oligopoly is a market structure in which a few sellers and a few buyers exist and both demand and supply sides have market power. There is no absolute equilibrium defined for such structure. the example is the intermediate goods market that is a few suppliers compete each other to sell and a few buyers compete to buy. collusion may happen on both sides.
Because of their availability and selection. McDonald's has thousands of locations around the world and appeals to a wide range of people.
If you have a monopoly, why would you want an oligopoly? You make more profit alone.
An oligopoly is an economic condition in which there are so few independent suppliers of a particular product that competitive pricing does not take place. Oligopoly is a form of market where there is domination of a limited number of suppliers and sellers called Oligopolists. A situation in which a particular market is controlled by a small group of firms.
An oligopoly is much like a monopoly, in which only one company exerts control over most of a market. In an oligopoly, there are at least two firms controlling the market. An oligopoly is a market dominated by a few large suppliers. The degree of market concentration is very high. Firms within an oligopoly produce branded products and there are also barriers to entry. Another important characteristic of an oligopoly is interdependence between firms. This means that each firm must take into account the likely reactions of other firms in the market when making pricing and investment decisions. This creates uncertainty in such markets - which economists seek to model through the use of game theory. The retail gas market is a good example of an oligopoly because a small number of firms control a large majority of the market. Economics is much like a game in which the players anticipate one another's moves. Game theory can also be applied in this situations as if decision makers must take into account the reasoning of other decision makers. It has been used, for example, to determine the formation of political coalitions or business conglomerates, the optimum price at which to sell products or services, the best site for a manufacturing plant, and even the behavior of certain species in the struggle for survival.
The ongoing interdependence between businesses can lead to implicit and explicit collusion between the major firms in the market. Collusion occurs when businesses agree to act as if they were in a monopoly position. KEY FEATURES OF OLIGOPOLY - A few firms selling similar product - Each firm produces branded products - Likely to be significant entry barriers into the market in the long run which allows firms to make supernormal profits. - Interdependence between competing firms. Businesses have to take into account likely reactions of rivals to any change in price and output THEORIES ABOUT OLIGOPOLY PRICING There are four major theories about oligopoly pricing: (1) Oligopoly firms collaborate to charge the monopoly price and get monopoly profits (2) Oligopoly firms compete on price so that price and profits will be the same as a competitive industry (3) Oligopoly price and profits will be between the monopoly and competitive ends of the scale (4) Oligopoly prices and profits are "indeterminate" because of the difficulties in modelling interdependent price and output decisions Distinct features of an oligopolistic market: - An oligopolistic market comprises a handful of firms, engaged in selling analogous products - All oligopolistic markets increase mutual dependence among the firms involved in similar competition. It also prepares businessmen to accept the outcomes arising from rivalries with respect to alterations in the production and prices of goods. - In near future, an oligopolistic market is likely to impose restrictions on admission, in an attempt to incur abnormal profits. - Each of the business houses involved with this market produces branded goods THE IMPORTANCE OF PRICE AND NON-PRICE COMPETITION Firms compete for market share and the demand from consumers in lots of ways. We make an important distinction between price competition and non-price competition. Price competition can involve discounting the price of a product (or a range of products) to increase demand. Non-price competition focuses on other strategies for increasing market share. Consider the example of the highly competitive UK supermarket industry where non-price competition has become very important in the battle for sales - Mass media advertising and marketing - Store Loyalty cards - Banking and other Financial Services (including travel insurance) - In-store chemists / post offices / creches - Home delivery systems - Discounted petrol at hyper-markets - Extension of opening hours (24 hour shopping in many stores) - Innovative use of technology for shoppers including self-scanning machines - Financial incentives to shop at off-peak times - Internet shopping for customers Price leadership: Oligopolistic market The dominance of one firm in the oligopolistic market results in price leadership. Firms having less market shares only follow the prices fixed by leaders. Oligopolistic competition: Effects - Oligopolistic competition in most cases leads to collaboration of the business firms on issues like raising the prices of various goods and subdue production process. - Under other given market conditions, the competition between the sellers acquires a violent form, on the grounds of lowering the prices and increasing the production. - Collaboration of various firms also brings about stabilization in the unsteady markets. PRICE LEADERSHIP IN OLIGOPOLISTIC MARKETS When one firm has a dominant position in the market the oligopoly may experience price leadership. The firms with lower market shares may simply follow the pricing changes prompted by the dominant firms. We see examples of this with the major mortgage lenders and petrol retailers. In reality, it is the Oligopoly market which exists, having a high degree of market concentration. This indicates that a huge percentage of the Oligopoly market is occupied by the leading commercial firms of a country. These firms require strategic planning to consider the reactions of other participants existing in the market. This is precisely why an oligopolistic market is subject to greater risk of connivances.
By: Schafaq Chohan
An oligopoly is a market form in which a market or industry is dominated by a small number of sellers. Barriers to entry are high.
Since P>MC for an oligopoly, the output effect is that selling one more unit at the sales price will increase profit.
The price effect is that an increase in production will increase the total amount sold, which will decrease the price and decrease the profit on all other units sold.
No, because of two reasons.
An oligopoly is a market form in which a market or industry is dominated by a small number of sellers (oligopolists).
BP is not a market form, but a global oil company.
And BP is certainly not small.
Well, the obvious disadvantage is the trouble they would face if they were caught - it's illegal.
Colluding is good for the oligopic firms as it means they can raise their prices without losing customers to the rivals, so they earn more profit. It is bad for the consumer, however, as they are forced to pay an artificially high price.
To control the price of oil for the benefit of the producers. This is done by setting pricing and production targets to meet demand, thus avoiding either a shortage or surplus in world markets.
OPEC Mission Statement
"OPEC's mission is to coordinate and unify the petroleum policies of Member Countries and ensure the stabilization of oil markets in order to secure an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consumers, a steady income to producers and a fair return on capital to those investing in the petroleum industry."
Under perfect competition, since there is no room in perfect competition to earn any abnormal profits
inperfect oligopoly is a market the very few suuliers of aparticular item. if there is a quuta system in operation it means the few companies can not produce more than the quota; in so doing they are restricting supplies to the market thereby maintaining the desires amount on the market.
the features of oligopoly is that there are barriers to enry which disallows incapable firms to enter the market. also they can achieve supernormal profit in the long run.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
United Arab Emirates
To pressure the United States not to support Israel
A cartel is a formal agreement and oligopoly is a small market that dominate
I believe 7-11 is not renewing their contract with Venezuela.
I found this website that has a more complete listing, though they do have a disclaimer regarding the accuracy, as many oil companies shop around a lot.
OLIGOPOLY :In Economics, an oligopoly is a market form in which a market or industry is dominated by a small number of sellers (oligopolists). Because there are few sellers, each oligopolist is likely to be aware of the actions of the others. The decisions of one firm influence, and are influenced by, the decisions of other firms. Strategic planning by oligopolists needs to take into account the likely responses of the other market participants.
DUOPOLY: A true duopoly is a specific type of oligopoly where only two producers exist in one market. In reality, this definition is generally used where only two firms have dominant control over a market. In the field of industrial organization, it is the most commonly studied form of oligopoly due to its simplicity.
Kristallnacht was the brain child of the Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels. Property of small Jewish merchants all over Germany was destroyed and window glass smashed in a show of nazi force. It was a wakeup call for many Jews who intensified their efforts to get out of Germany altogether. Unfortunatly, many other countries of the world, the US included had set limits on immigration of these persecuted people and they did not have a place to go. Soon it was too late. To the world the nazi press sanitized kristallnacht and lied about its true intent, but the die was cast and the Holocaust began that night. I guess the roll it played was to further degrade the Jews and embolden the Nazis to believe that they could do what they wanted to them with impunity. The German people wimped out and never spoke against it, so the Nazis then were bolder. When it was all over the vengence of God was unleashed on Germany for touching His ancient people and their cities bombed, their people burned and their beloved Nazi party driven from the face of the earth. === === == The Kristallnacht took place on 9-10 November 1938, in other words several months before the outbreak of World War 2. There is no link between the two.
A monopoly is a market structure in which there is only one producer/seller for a product. In other words, the single business is the industry. Entry into such a market is restricted due to high costs or other impediments, which may be economic, social or political. For instance, a government can create a monopoly over an industry that it wants to control, such as electricity. Another reason for the barriers against entry into a monopolistic industry is that oftentimes, one entity has the exclusive rights to a natural resource. For example, in Saudi Arabia the government has sole control over the oil industry. A monopoly may also form when a company has a copyright or patent that prevents others from entering the market. Pfizer, for instance, had a patent on Viagra.
In an oligopoly, there are only a few firms that make up an industry. This select group of firms has control over the price and, like a monopoly, an oligopoly has high barriers to entry. The products that the oligopolistic firms produce are often nearly identical and, therefore, the companies, which are competing for market share, are interdependent as a result of market forces. Assume, for example, that an economy needs only 100 widgets. Company X produces 50 widgets and its competitor, Company Y, produces the other 50. The prices of the two brands will be interdependent and, therefore, similar. So, if Company X starts selling the widgets at a lower price, it will get a greater market share, thereby forcing Company Y to lower its prices as well.
There are two extreme forms of market structure: monopoly and, its opposite, perfect competition. Perfect competition is characterized by many buyers and sellers, many products that are similar in nature and, as a result, many substitutes. Perfect competition means there are few, if any, barriers to entry for new companies, and prices are determined by supply and demand. Thus, producers in a perfectly competitive market are subject to the prices determined by the market and do not have any leverage. For example, in a perfectly competitive market, should a single firm decide to increase its selling price of a good, the consumers can just turn to the nearest competitor for a better price, causing any firm that increases its prices to lose market share and profits.
Gyan Prakash Singh
Argualbly there are a few oligopolies in Australia but traditionally the main industry that is dominated by "the big 4" is banking being made up of the National Australia Bank (NAB), the Commonwealth Bank (CBA), Westpac and ANZ.
a pure oligopoly is when few producers dominate the production of on item
According to the "Beverage Digest," two companies controlled approximately 70% of this industry in 2009 -- Coca-cola Co. at 41.9% and PepsiCo at 29.9%. Their nearest competitor was Dr. Pepper Snapple at 16.4%, then Cott Corp. (Cott, RC, Vintage, and other brands sold through Wal-Mart and other retailers) at 4.9%. This market has been termed a "differentiated product oligopoly" -- that is, they differentiate themselves on the basis of product characteristics but use three main methods of promotion -- price (mostly promotional offers), advertising, and new brands. "New brands" is sometimes product extensions such as Diet Coke or Pepsi, but can also include entirely new products (such as Mello Yello [Coca-cola] and Sierra Mist [PepsiCo]).
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