Paralympics

This category is for questions about the Paralympics, which is a multi-sport event for persons with physical and visual disabilities.

1,767 Questions
Swimming
Paralympics

Does Eleanor Simmonds have siblings?

She has 1 sister.

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Table Tennis
Paralympics

What date do the London 2012 Paralympics start?

The Opening Ceremony of the 2012 Olympic Paralympic Games is on Wednesday, 29 August 2012

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Paralympics
Olympics

How many events were there in the first games?

javilin

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Paralympics

Who thought of the Paralympics?

Answer Dr Ludwig Guttmann in 1948

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Wheelchairs
Paralympics

What are the sports featured in the Wheelchair Olympics?

Basketball, Racing, tennis.

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Olympics
Olympic History
Paralympics
Olympic Symbols and Flag

Does the Olympic torch burn continuously or is it lit prior to each Olympics?

the torch is lit 3-4 months before the date of the olympics. the relay then takes place and is taken to the new venue of the olympics.

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Scattergories and Words Starting with Certain Letters
Paralympics

What country did the Paralympic Games start in?

The first Paralympic Games was held in Rome Italy in 1960.

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Paralympics

Where have the paralympics been held since 1960?

london

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Paralympics

What do the codes in the Paralympics mean?

Disability categories

- Amputee: Athletes with a partial or total loss of at least one limb.

- Cerebral Palsy: Athletes with non-progressive brain damage, like cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, stroke or similar disabilities affecting muscle control, balance or coordination.

- Intellectual Disability: Athletes with a significant impairment in intellectual functioning and associated limitations in adaptive behavior. (This category is currently suspended.)

- Wheelchair: Athletes with spinal cord injuries and other disabilities which require them to compete in a wheelchair.

- Visually Impaired: Athletes with vision impairment ranging from partial vision, sufficient to be judged legally blind, to total blindness.

- Les Autres: Athletes with a physical disability that does not fall strictly under one of the other five categories, such as dwarfism, multiple sclerosis or congenital deformities of the limbs such as that caused by thalidomide. (The name for this category is the French for "the others").

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paralympics

International Blind Sports Association (IBSA) Classes

B1 -- An athlete in this class will either have no light perception at all in either eye or may have some light perception but an inability to recognize the shape of a hand at any distance or in any direction.

B2 -- The athlete can recognize the shape of a hand and has the ability to perceive clearly up to *2/60. The visual field of the athlete is less than five degrees.

*2/60: A person can see at two meters what is normally seen at 60 meters. B3 The athlete can recognize the shape of a hand and the ability to perceive clearly above 2/60 up to 6/60. The visual field of the athlete varies between more than 5 degrees and less than 20 degrees.

Cerebral Palsy International Sport and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA)

CP1, CP2, CP3, and CP4 are classes of athletes with cerebral palsy who use a wheelchair during competition (excluding swimming).

CP5, CP6, CP7, and CP8 are athletes with cerebral palsy who do not use a wheelchair during competition.

CP1 -- Athletes with poor functional range of movement and poor functional strength in arms, legs, and trunk. The athletes use electric wheelchairs or assistance for mobility. They are unable to propel a wheelchair. The athletes compete in a wheelchair.

CP2 -- Athletes with poor functional strength in arms, legs, and trunk. The athletes are able to propel a wheelchair. The athletes compete in a wheelchair.

CP3 -- The athletes show fair amount of trunk movement when pushing a wheelchair, but forward trunk movement is often limited during forceful pushing. Although showing some trunk movement while throwing, motions are mostly from the arm. The athletes compete in a wheelchair.

CP4 -- The athletes show good functional strength with minimal limitations or control problems in arms and trunk. The athletes show poor balance. The athletes compete in wheelchairs.

CP5 -- The athletes have normal static balance, but show problems in dynamic balance. A slight shift of center of gravity may lead to loss of balance. The athletes may need an assistance device for walking, but not necessarily when standing or throwing (in athletics field events). The athletes may have sufficient function to run on the track.

CP6 -- The athletes do not have the capability to remain still: They show involuntary cyclic movements and usually all four limbs are affected. The athletes are able to walk without any assistance. They usually have more control problems with the arms and they have better leg functions than CP5, especially when running.

CP7 -- The athletes have uncontrollable muscular spasms in one half of the body. They have good functional abilities in the dominant side of the body. They walk without assistance but often with a limp due to uncontrollable muscular spasms in the leg. While running, the limp may disappear almost totally. Their dominant side has better development and good follow-through movement in walking and running. Arm and hand control is affected only on the nondominant side; good functional control is shown on the dominant side.

CP8 -- The athletes show a minimum of uncontrollable spasm in either one arm, one leg, or one half of the body. To be eligible, these athletes need to have a diagnosis of cerebral palsy or other nonprogressive brain damage.

International Sports Federation for Persons with Intellectual Disability (INAS-FID)

To become eligible to compete in the Paralympic Games, all athletes with an intellectual disability have to reach the minimum disability criteria, which, in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) definition, are determined by:

An IQ score below 70. (The IQ score of the average person is 100.)

Limitations in regular skills areas (communication, self-care, social skills, etc.).

Onset before the age of 18.

Following is a list of the 18 medal sports with their classifications and a brief explanation of the physical function of each class. The classifications reflect the functional ability a particular athlete is expected to have. (Wheelchair basketball and intellectual disability basketball together are one medal sport; similarly, sitting volleyball and standing volleyball.)

Archery

The archery classification system is divided into three different classes:

Archery Standing = ARST Archery Wheelchair 1 = ARW1 Archery Wheelchair 2 = ARW2

ARST -- Archers in the standing class have no disabilities in the arms. The legs show some degree of loss of muscle strength, coordination and/or joint mobility.

ARW1 -- Archers in the ARW1 class have disabilities in arms and legs. They have limitations in range of movement, strength and control of arms, and poor or nonexisting control of the trunk. The legs are considered nonfunctional due to amputations and/or similar limitations of movement, strength and control. They compete in a wheelchair.

ARW2 -- Archers in the ARW2 class have paralysis in the lower part of the body, including the legs. They compete in a wheelchair.

Athletics (Track and Field)

In athletics, competitors from all six disability categories compete: visually impaired; intellectually disabled; cerebral palsy; amputees; les autres; and spinal cord injury athletes competing in wheelchairs.

Therefore, the class nomenclature is structured accordingly:

Classes 11-13 cover the different levels of vision impairment.

Class 20 covers intellectually disabled athletes.

Classes 32-38 cover the different levels of cerebral palsy.

Classes 42-46 cover the different levels of amputations and other disabilities (les autres).

Classes 51-58 cover the different levels of spinal chord injuries.

The letter "T" marks track events; the letter "F" stands for field events. The lower the class number, the higher the level of disability; the higher the class number, the lower the level of disability.

Track Classes

T11 -- B1 athletes.

T12 -- B2 athletes.

T13 -- B3 athletes.

T20 -- Athletes with an intellectual disability.

T32 -- CP2 athletes. There are no events in class T32. The athletes compete together with athletes in class T33.

T33 -- CP3 athletes. T32 athletes (CP2) compete in this class.

T34 -- CP4 athletes.

T35 -- CP5 athletes.

T36 -- CP6 athletes.

T37 -- CP7 athletes.

T38 -- CP8 athletes.

T42 -- Single above-knee amputation or combined arm/leg amputations.

T43 -- Double below-knee amputation or combined arm/leg amputations.

T44 -- Single below-knee amputation or athletes who can walk with moderately reduced function in one or both legs.

T45 -- Double above-elbow amputations or double below-elbow amputations.

T46 -- Single above-elbow amputation, single below-elbow amputation, or athletes who have normal function in both legs but impairment in the trunk and/or arms.

T51 -- Mild weakness in shoulders. Can bend elbows normally but have limited ability to straighten. Can bend wrists backward but not forward. No movement in fingers. No trunk or leg function.

T52 -- Have good shoulder, elbow and wrist function. Have limited finger movements. No trunk or leg function.

T53 -- Have normal arm and hand function. Have no or limited trunk function. Have no leg function.

T54 -- Have normal arm and hand function. Have a range of trunk function from some to normal. May have some leg function.

Field Classes

F11 -- B1

F12 -- B2

F13 -- B3

F20 -- Athletes with an intellectual disability.

F33 -- CP3

F35 -- CP5

F37 -- CP7

F38 -- CP8

F42 -- Includes single above-knee amputation, double above-knee amputations, and athletes with combined arm/leg amputations. It may also include athletes with severe problems when walking, such as impairments in one leg from polio.

F43 -- Double below-knee amputations or athletes with combined leg/arm amputations. Athletes may also have normal function in the throwing arm in association with reduced function in the legs or certain balance problems.

F44 -- Single below-knee amputation. Athletes with normal function in the throwing arm and slightly reduced function in the legs or slight balance problems.

F45 -- Double above-elbow amputations and double below-elbow amputations.

F46 -- Single above-elbow amputation and single below-elbow amputation. Athletes may also be ambulatory with normal function in the throwing arm and minimal trunk or leg disability or reduced function in the nonthrowing arm.

F51 -- Mild weakness in shoulders. Can bend elbows normally, but have limited ability to straighten. Can bend the wrists backward but not forward. No movement in fingers. No trunk or leg function. Athletes from CP2 compete in this class.

F52 -- Shoulders and elbows are normal. Usually have good wrist function but limited finger movement. No trunk or leg function.

F53 -- Have normal shoulders, elbows, and wrists, with mild limitation of hand function. No trunk or leg function.

F54 -- Have normal arm and hand function. Have no trunk or leg function.

F55 -- Have normal arm and hand function. In relation to the trunk, can extend the spine in an upward direction and can rotate the spine. No leg function.

F56 -- Have normal arm and hand function. Can extend the trunk upward, can rotate, and can move backward and forward in a sitting position. Have some leg function.

F57 -- Have normal arm and hand function. Can move the trunk in an upward direction, can rotate, can move backward and forward, and can move side to side. Have an increase in leg function in comparison with F56.

F58 -- Have normal arm and hand function. Have normal trunk function. Have more leg function than F57.

Basketball - Wheelchair

To be eligible to play wheelchair basketball an athlete must have a permanent physical disability in the lower limbs that prevents him or her from running, jumping, and pivoting as an able-bodied player.

Once a player has met this requirement, he or she is classified to play under the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation's (IWBF) Player Classification System.

Players are assigned a point value from 1.0 through to 4.5 according to their level of physical function. These points are then added together with a team not permitted to exceed 14 points for the five players on court at any given time. This ensures that any player, regardless of degree of disability, has an integral role to play within the team structure.

Observed trunk movements and stability during actual basketball competition, not medical diagnosis, form the basis of player classification.

1 point players -- Have no lower limb movement, and little or no controlled trunk movement. Their balance in both the forward and sideways directions is significantly impaired, and they rely on their arms to return to the upright position when unbalanced. These players have no stability in a contact situation and usually rebound overhead single-handed.

2 point players -- Usually have no lower limb movement, but have some partially-controlled trunk movement in the forward direction. They do not have controlled sideways movement or trunk rotation. Players have limited stability in a contact situation, often relying on their handgrip to remain upright in a collision.

3 point players -- May have some lower limb movement. Have controlled trunk movement forward to the floor and up again, and have some rotation control. Players do not have good sideways trunk control, but are more stable in a contact situation and able to comfortably rebound overhead with two hands.

4 point players -- Have normal trunk movement, but due to some reduced lower limb function are unable to lean sideways to both sides with full control. Stable in contact and rebounding, with normal forward and rotation movements.

4.5 point players -- The players with the least disability on court. Usually have only minimal lower limb dysfunction or single below-knee amputation. Normal trunk movement in all directions. Very stable in contact and rebounding.

There are situations where a player does not fit into the exact categories for classification. In these cases, the classifiers may assign a player a half-point above or below a certain class. This creates players with 1.5, 2.5, or 3.5 points assigned to them. The team total of 14 points on court does not alter when this occurs.

Basketball - Intellectual Disability

To become eligible for basketball intellectual disability, all athletes have to reach the minimum disability criteria laid down by INAS-FID, the world governing body for athletes with an intellectual disability.

Boccia

BC1 -- CP1 and CP2. Compete with assistance.

BC2 -- Only CP2. No assistance permitted.

BC3 -- Severe CP1. Compete with some assistance device.

Cycling

CY -- B1, B2, and B3. The athletes compete together in an open class.

LC1 -- The athletes have minor or no leg disabilities and no other disabilities. The class includes athletes with an amputation of more than half-foot (forefoot) or a leg length difference of 7-12cm.

LC2 -- The athletes have a disability on one leg, but they are able to pedal normally using both legs (with or without prosthesis). The class includes athletes with single above- or below-knee amputations or a length difference of more than 12cm.

LC3 -- The athletes have a disability on at least one leg, and pedal only with the other leg. The class includes athletes with loss of muscle strength in both legs or the limited flexion ability of the knee less than 50 degrees.

Division 2 CP5 and CP6 together (tricycle).

Division 3 CP5 and CP6 together (bicycle).

Division 4 CP7 and CP8 together.

Equestrian

Grade 1 -- The athletes are mainly wheelchair users with either poor trunk balance or the limitation of function in all arms and legs. Athletes with no trunk balance but good arm functions are also eligible in this class.

Grade 2 -- The athletes are mainly wheelchair users or those with severe movement disabilities, involving the trunk balance, but with good to mild arm functions. Athletes with loss of function of both arm and leg on one side of the body are also eligible in this class.

Grade 3 -- The athletes are mainly able to walk without support. The may have either disabilities in both arm and leg on one side of the body, moderate disabilities in both arms and both legs, or severe arm disabilities. Athletes classified as B1 are also eligible in this class.

Grade 4 -- The athletes have a disability in only one or two extremities or some visual impairment (B2, B3).

Fencing

In fencing, only athletes in a wheelchair can compete.

A Category

Athletes from Class 3 and 4.

Class 3 -- The athletes have a good sitting balance of the trunk without support of the legs (double above-knee amputations). The arm used for fencing is functional.

Class 4 -- The athletes have good sitting balance and support of the legs. The arm used for fencing is functional.

B Category

Athletes from Class 2.

Class 2 -- The athletes have bad or fair/moderate sitting balance. The athletes with bad sitting balance have no problem with the fencing arm. The athletes with good sitting balance have a minimally affected fencing arm.

(Athletes from Class 1 do not compete in the Paralympic Games.)

Football (Soccer)

Athletes with the classes CP5, CP6, CP7, and CP8 are eligible to compete.

One player from classes CP5 and CP6 must be in the field at all times. (If not, the team must play with six players instead of seven.)

Goalball

Athletes with the class B1, B2, and B3 are eligible to compete.

The athletes compete together in an open event. During competition all athletes have their eyes covered.

Judo

Athletes with the class B1, B2, and B3 are eligible to compete. The athletes compete together in an open event. The same seven weight divisions in Olympic judo competition are in Paralympic judo.

Powerlifting

In powerlifting, athletes with amputations and other (les autres) disabilities can compete together with CP athletes, wheelchair athletes, and dwarfs. Competition is divided into different weight classes.

To become eligible in international powerlifting competition, the athletes have to meet the minimum disability criteria, as outlined in the relevant publications of ISOD, CP-ISRA, and ISMWSF.

Amputees and les autres (ISOD): Amputation through or above ankle of one leg. Slightly reduced function in the legs or slight balance problems.

Cerebral palsy (CP-ISRA): Minimal but obvious impairment of functions. Evidence of spasticity and/or involuntary movement in at least one limb.

Wheelchair athletes (ISMWSF): Athletes must have at least 10 percent loss of function of their lower limbs.

Additionally, the competitor must have the ability to fully extend the arms, with no more than 20-degree loss of full extension in either elbow, to perform an approved lift according to the IPC powerlifting rules.

Sailing

Sailing is a multidisability sport, where athletes from the following disability groups can compete together:

Amputees / les autres athletes

Spinal cord injuries athletes

Cerebral palsy athletes

Visually impaired athletes

The classification system is based entirely on the functions required to compete in sailing.

Four functional classes have been identified:

Stability

Hand functions

Inability

Vision

In each functional class the athletes are categorized under one of several categories, depending on their functional limitations, and are finally rated according to a point system, from one point, describing the most limited functional ability, up to seven points, describing the highest level.

Each crew of three sailors is allowed a maximum of 12 points.

Shooting

In shooting, athletes with a physical disability (amputees and les autres, cerebral palsy or spinal cord injuries) reaching minimum disability criteria can compete.

The shooting classification system is divided into two main classes:

SH1 -- Pistol and rifle competitors who do not require a shooting stand.

SH2 -- Rifle competitors who have no ability to support the weight with their arms and therefore require a shooting stand.

Swimming

Swimming is the only sport that combines the conditions of limb loss, cerebral palsy (coordination and movement restrictions), spinal cord injury (weakness or paralysis involving any combination of the limbs), and other disabilities (such as dwarfism or major joint restrictions) across classes.

All classes begin with an "S."

Classes S1-S10 -- are for swimmers with a physical disability.

Classes S11-S13 -- are for swimmers with a visual impairment.

Class S14 -- is for swimmers with an intellectual disability.

The prefix "S" to the class denotes the class for freestyle, backstroke and butterfly.

The prefix "SB" to the class denotes the class for breaststroke.

The prefix "SM" to the class denotes the class for individual medley.

The range is from the swimmers with severe disability (S1, SB1, SM1) to those with the minimal disability (S10, SB9, SM10).

In any one class some swimmers may start with a dive or in the water depending on their condition. This is factored in when classifying the athlete.

Below are some examples of swimming functional classes:

S1, SB1, SM1 -- Swimmers who have severe coordination problems in four limbs or have no use of their legs, trunk, hands and minimal use of their shoulders.

S2, SB1, SM2 -- Similar disabilities to class S1, but these athletes would have more propulsion by using their arms and legs.

S3, SB2, SM3 -- Swimmers with reasonable arms strokes but no use of their legs or trunk. Severe limb loss to four limbs. Athletes in this class would have increased ability when compared with S2.

S4, SB3, SM4 -- Swimmers who use their arms and have minimal weakness in their hands but have no use of their trunks or legs. Swimmers with coordination problems affecting all limbs but predominantly the legs. Also for severe limb loss to three limbs. Increased ability when compared with S3.

S5, SB4, SM5 -- Swimmers with full use of their arms and hands but no trunk or leg muscles. Swimmers who still have coordination problems.

S6, SB5, SM6 -- Swimmers with full use of their arms and hands, some trunk control but no useful leg muscles. Swimmers with coordination problems, although usually these athletes can walk. Also for dwarfs and swimmers with major loss in two limbs.

S7, SB6, SM7 -- Swimmers with full use of their arms and trunk with some leg function. Swimmers with coordination problems or weakness on the same side of the body. Limb loss in two limbs.

S8, SB7, SM8 -- Swimmers with full use of their arms and trunk with some leg function. Swimmers with use of one arm only or some limb loss.

S9, SB8, SM9 -- Swimmers with severe weakness in one leg only. Or swimmers with very slight coordination problems or with one limb loss. Usually these swimmers start out of the water.

S10, SB9, SM 10 -- Swimmers with minimal weakness affecting the legs. Swimmers with restriction of hip joint movement. Swimmers with some deformity in their feet or minor loss of a part of a limb. This class has the most physical ability.

S11, SB11, SM11 -- These swimmers are unable to see at all and are considered totally blind. They must wear blackened goggles in this class and will require someone to tap them when they are approaching the wall. B1 athletes.

S12, SB12, SM12 -- These swimmers can recognize shapes and have some ability to see. There is a large range of vision ability within this class. B2 athletes.

S13, SB13, SM13 Swimmers who have the most sight but legally are still considered to have a vision impairment problem. B3 athletes.

S14, SB14, SM14 -- Swimmers who have a recognized intellectual disability according to the international standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and adopted by the governing sports body, INAS-FID.

Table Tennis

The table tennis classification system comprises 10 functional classification classes for athletes with cerebral palsy, with amputations and other disabilities (les autres), and one class for athletes with intellectual disability.

TT1 -- Elbow and hand extension are achieved by a swinging movement initiated from the shoulder. Coordination of arm movement is significantly different from nonimpaired arm.

(CP: Severe muscle stiffness in the whole body, reducing speed and precision of arm movement and reducing sitting balance.)

TT2 -- Elbow extension is sufficient and hand movements are well coordinated but without normal power.

(CP: Same as TT1 with almost-normal playing arm.)

TT3 -- Minimal loss of function in playing hand. Slight changes in body position are secured by the free hand propping, holding, or pushing at wheelchair or thigh. Lower part of body keeps in contact with the back of the seat. Backward movements of the arm are reduced because of body balance disorders.

(CP: Minimal limitations in control of both arms and severe stiffness in both legs.)

TT4 -- Normal arm and body movements. Body movements to increase reach only possible by using free arm to prop, hold or push at wheelchair or thigh. When starting with one hand, forward body cannot lean forward optimally. Double above-knee amputees with short stumps.

(CP: Moderate stiffness and reduction of precision of arm and body movements.)

TT5 -- Athlete may bend forward and backward without using the nonplaying arm. Significant pushing actions with thighs or feet. Wheelchair handling is optimal because of good body positioning backward and forward. Some sideward movement is possible.

(CP: Slight to minimal stiffness or loss of precision in arms and body, and some affection of the legs.)

TT6 -- Combination of disabilities in the playing arm and legs.

(CP: Moderate stiffness and loss of precision more in legs than in arms, or involuntary movements in the whole body.)

TT7 -- Both arms are affected. Single (playing arm) or double above- or below-elbow amputation or combination of both.

(CP: Moderate involuntary movements.)

TT8 -- Severe disability in one or both legs. Single above-knee or double below- knee amputation.

(CP: Some loss of precision and some stiffness in legs and arms.)

TT9 -- Good dynamic balance. Minimum disability in one or both arms or differential length in legs. Single below-knee amputation.

(CP: Slight loss of precision in one side of the body.)

TT10 -- Normal function in playing arm. Minimal loss in free arm. Amputation of the free arm up to 1/3 of the forearm.

(CP: Minimal involuntary movements.)

TT11 -- Intellectual disabled athletes according to the INAS-FID/WHO definition.

Tennis - Wheelchair

The only eligibility requirement for an individual to become a competitive wheelchair tennis player is that he or she must be medically diagnosed as having a mobility-related disability. In other words, a player must have a permanent substantial or total loss of function in one or two legs.

If, as a result of these functional limitations, this person would be unable to play competitive able-bodied tennis (that is, having the mobility to cover the court with adequate speed), then this person would be eligible to play wheelchair tennis in sanctioned International Tennis Federation (ITF) tournaments.

Athletes who play in sanctioned ITF tournaments are not required to undergo classification upon arrival at the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games.

Volleyball - Sitting

Athletes in sitting volleyball only need to reach the criteria for minimum disability as described for class A in volleyball.

Sitting volleyball is played by amputees and athletes with other (les autres) disabilities.

Each team may have a maximum of one minimum-disability player on the court at any one time; the rest of the team must have a higher level of disability.

Volleyball - Standing

The volleyball classification system distinguishes between three classes: A, B, and C.

At any time a team may have a maximum of one player from class A and must have a minimum of one player from class C on the court.

Class A

An athlete with the minimum disability level related to the skills/functions to perform volleyball.

Examples include amputation of fingers, shortening of one arm/one leg to a certain percentage, fusion of ankle or wrist, as well as CP7 and CP8 and other comparable disabilities.

Class B

An athlete with a medium level of disability related to the skills/functions required to perform volleyball. Examples include below-elbow or below-knee amputations and other comparable disabilities.

Class C

An athlete with the highest level of disability related to the skills/functions required to play volleyball. Examples include above-elbow or above-knee amputations, as well as combined arm/leg amputations and other comparable disabilities.

Wheelchair Rugby

To identify the key functional abilities, the athletes are grouped within a point system ranging from 0.5 points, the most limited functional ability, up to 3.5 points, the highest level of functional ability.

A total of maximum 8 points (for four players) is allowed on the court during the game.

Wheelchair rugby players show different levels of movement, strength and control in arms, trunk and legs.

Wheelchair rugby is mainly played by athletes with spinal cord injuries involving arms and legs to some degree or other disabilities causing different levels of paralysis (cerebral palsy, polio, etc.).

0.5 -- Not a major ball handler. Scoops ball onto lap. Forward head bob present when pushing (pulling back part of the wheel). Uses back quarter of wheel to stop, start, and turn. Usually passes the ball forward to the side with a two-hand toss. Poor balance.

1.0 -- Weak chest pass or forearm pass. Has a longer push on wheel (combination of pull and push). Forearm or wrist catch. Weak or nonexistent chest pass.

1.5 -- Asymmetry is persistent in arms. Predominantly uses the stronger arm. Good blocker. Good shoulder strength.

2.0 -- Good chest pass. Good ball handler. Can hold the ball with wrists firmly.

2.5 -- Asymmetrical hands or arms. Major ball handler and fairly fast playmaker.

3.0 -- Can dribble ball well with one hand. Very good ball handler. Can begin to grip the push rim in order to maneuver the wheelchair.

3.5 -- Has some trunk function, therefore very stable in wheelchair. Usually has a very good ball control. Major ball handler and very fast playmaker.

http://sportsillustrated.cnn.c.../10/03/athlete_classification/

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Olympics
Paralympics

How old do you need to be to be in the Olympics?

Depends on the sport. Check nbcolympics.com, pick you sport and look at "inside this sport". It should tell all rules and regulations.

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Paralympics

What sport did Tanni Grey Thompson one of the UK's greatest ever Paralympians compete in?

running

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Paralympics

Where are the paralympics going to be held in 2012?

London

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Paralympics

Why do the Faroe Islands and Macau have a Paralympic team but not an Olympic team?

Because they were not recognised before the change of rules of recognition. In the past it was sufficient to declare the will of having a team at OG and to create National Olympic Commitee. Puerto Rico, Aruba, Bermuda etc are not countries but they can have their team.

I`m not sure about Macao, but Faroes made the bid to be recognised in old system - DENMARK said NO!!

Now Denmark changed it`s mind but there is new rule - country at the Olympics has to be officially recognised as a country (state) by UN. It`s of course impossible with Faroes, they are part of Denmark.

I heard that they are trying to fight for their right to party:). They say that it is a legal case, they made a bid to be in Olympic family in the old system, so now their bid should be accepted basing on old rules. I don`t know if they have any chances. Maybe IOC is affraid that it will open the gate for all others: Greenland, Gibraltar, Kosovo, Reunion, Western Sahara, Tahiti, New Caledonia, French Guyana, Guadelupe, Martinique.

As to Macao it`s part of China, so they said NO.

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Paralympics

How many Paralympic medals has Eleanor Simmonds won?

She got 43 paralympic medals.

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Paralympics

What are the Paralympics?

ParalympicsThe Paralympics were created by Ludwig Guttman in 1948.

This was created after WW2(world war 2)

It involved WW2 veterans that had spinal injuries.

There are Summer and Winter Paralympics.

So far there has been 13 Paralympic games.

The people in the paralympis include injuries like mobility disabilities,amputations,blindness and cerebral palsy.
The paralympics is the Olympic event for disabled sportsmen/women. They start on 29th August 2012.
Paralympic Games are the games for the disabled atheletes.

The Paralympic games 2008 were held in Beijing

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Olympics
Olympic History
Paralympics

Which Olympic games are held only for people with mental disabilities?

The Special Olympics.

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Paralympics

When were the first Paralympic games started?

It was first held in 1960 Rome, Italy. There were 23 countries involved and 400 contestants.

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Paralympics

The Paralympic games is for athletes with disabilities true or false?

True

Paralympic Games is for athletics with disabilites

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Paralympics

What are the colors of the Paralympic sign?

The colors are red, green, and blue.

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Disability Issues
Wheelchairs
Medical Supplies
Paralympics

What is another name for paralympic sprot wheelchair rubgy?

Murderball

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Paralympics

What are two of the varied games included in the paralympics?

Cycling and swimming are two of the varied games included in the Paralympics.

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Billiards and Pool
Paralympics

How do you play nine ball pool?

  • Place the rack at the foot spot of the table.
  • Insert the 1-ball at the corner of the rack touching the foot spot. Place two balls other than the 9-ball behind it, touching tightly.
  • Put the 9-ball behind the two balls and place one ball on each side of it. Place the remaining 3 balls in the rack to form a diamond shape, with the 9-ball at the center. Remove the rack.
  • Designate which player breaks. That player shoots the cue ball at the 1-ball to drive it into the other balls and separate them. The break must cause either four balls to hit the rail or one or more balls to be sunk, or it is ruled a foul. If the shooter sinks the 9-ball on the break, he wins. The player continues shooting if she sinks any other numbered ball. The other player shoots if the first player fails to sink any ball.
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Paralympics

Why were the paralympics started?

To give athletes with various forms of chronic injuries a chance to keep competing.

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Paralympics

Where does the word paralympics come from and what does it mean?

In this context the word para means with or along side and has nothing to with paraplegic

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Paralympics

When do the 2012 paralympics start and finish?

It starts at 29th August (opening cermony) and finishes on 9th September

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