Persian Empire

At different times, under different ruling families, there were several different Persian Empires. Usually, the term refers to the Achaemenid dynasty empire founded by Cyrus the Great (559BC - 530BC) which was eventually conquered by Alexander the Great. To rule such a large empire, new groundbreaking systems were set up which influenced all who came after.

7,570 Questions
Iran
Persian Empire

When did the country Persia become Iran?

1963

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Religion & Spirituality
Persian Empire

What is the religion of Persia?

The ancient Iranians separated from the Indo-Aryan branch around 4,700 years ago. Since then, they followed a religion similar to Hinduism, with gods that could find parallels in the Hindu pantheon as well as divinities that were proper to the Irnaians alone.

The ancient Iranians who lived on the steppes of Central Asia followed a set of beliefs that incorporated various deities such as Mitra (Mithra or Mehr), Varuna, Verethragna (victory), Hvar Kshaethra (sun), Vayu (wind) etc... mostly nature deities but also anthropomorphic gods, that had human qualities of bravery, piety, compassion and daring.

The prophet Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) preached between 3,100 and 3,400 years ago, amongst the Bronze Age Iranians (who lived from the western regions of China to the plains of Moldova) of the east, in the Kingdom of Bactira, that covered eastern Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, parts of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. The first convert was Kavi Vishtaspa, a king of the Kayanid dynasty (Bronze Age to Iron Age?) who championed Zoroaster's cause and helped spread the new religion throughout his Kingdom.

While some Zoroastrians and scholars see him as an innovators who created a new religious system, many others however believed that he merely reformed the old Aryan pantheon and modified the already existing Mazdean religion into a belief that disfavor the anthropomorphic gods or Daevas in favor of the Asuras, while India did the exact opposite.

Though some argue in favor of the first monotheism, Zoroastrian developed from an early date an ambiguous belief system that prior to its canonisation could be interpreted at times as monotheistic, dualistic, or even pantheistic with arguments in favor of all three continuing to this day.

The Mede Kingdom (625-549 BC) supplanted the Kayanids and it is believed that the rulers and much of the populace followed a localized form of Zoroastrianism, judging by names of people and rulers as well as the importance of the city of Ray near modern Tehran among Zoroastrian pilgrims and travellers spreading the faith westwards.

Contrary to popular belief, the Arsacid Parthians/Scythians were not purely Mithraic nor were they indifferent to religion as it was during the reign of King Balash or Valash (51-80) that Zoroastrian priests were ordered to compile Avestan religious and liturgy traditions into texts. While the early Parthians were no doubt sympathetic to the ecult of Mithra, the late Arsacids no doubt followed Zoroastrianism, at least under its contemporary form mixed with ancient Mazden beliefs.

The Sassanians revived the Zoroastrian religion under various forms including its dualistic and Zurvanist forms, and for a short time, under the Mazdakite form.

Zoroastrianism was once practiced widely from western China and the Tarim basin, the cities of Kasghar and Hotan to modern day Turkey and beyond.

In late Sassanian times, Christianity and Manicheism made many inroads into the Persian Empire, gaining many followers, including among influential people such as nobles and priests though such conversions were viewed with disfavor.

The collapse of the Sassanian Empire between 633 to 651 brought Islam to what had been Persian lands from Yemen and Oman to Pakistan and Turkmenistan. Zoroastrianism remained the religion of the majority of Iranians however, according to Jamshid Choksy, at least till the 11th century when Islam became the majority religion until today. Since 1935, a greatly shrunken core of what was Persia has become Iran.

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Babylon
Persian Empire

Prophet who served in the government of Babylon and Persia?

Nebuchadnezzar

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Nintendo DS
Prince of Persia
Persian Empire

How do you help Zal from the corruption on Prince of Persia for Nintendo ds?

chase him and then beat him up for the first time

or if its when he goes black and still follows you and sticks every now and then you should find an item that looks a bit like health but has a blue gem and that saves him.

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Ancient History
Countries, States, and Cities
International Government
Persian Empire

What present day country covers Persia?

Iran

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Persian Empire

How long did Persian Empire last?

ca. 550 BCE-336 BCE

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Persian Empire

Who expanded the Persian Empire to its largest area?

Cyrus the Great

555657
Prince of Persia
Persian Empire

Who plays the princess in Prince of Persia?

Gemma Arterton

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Persian Empire

What are three continents to which the Persian Empire extended?

Europe, Asia and Africa.

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Persian Empire

Why did the Persian Empire decline?

It was progressively swallowed up by Alexander the Great, and on his death was divided up between his generals into the Hellenistic Kingdoms and given a veneer of Greek culture.

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War and Military History
Greece
Iran
Ancient Wars
Ancient Greece
Persian Empire

What caused the Persians to invade Greece?

During the Ionian Revolt of the Greek cities in Asia Minor, they received military assistance from Athens and Eritrea. The Persian privincial capital Sardis was sacked and burnt. King Darius of Persia wanted not only vengeance but also to warn the mainland Greek cities to stop interfering in his empire so he mounted a punitive expedition against the two cities in 490 BCE. It was not an invasion of Greece.

When this expedion ended in failure after defeat at the battle of Marathon, Darius decided that the only way to fix the problem of external interference was to establish an ethnic frontier by bringing mainland Greece within his empire. He died before he could execute this but his successor King Xerxes invaded in 480 BCE to complete the project. He also failed, and sporadic fighting continued until a peace was made in 449 BCE.

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Ancient History
Persian Empire

Who was the first person to create an imperial bureaucracy in ancient Persia?

Darius

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Prince of Persia
Persian Empire

What is the name of the actor who plays the main character in the new Prince of Persia movie?

it's Jake gyllenhaal

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History of Asia
Iran
Persian Empire

Why did Persia change its name to Iran?

Historical name for a region roughly coterminous with modern Iran. The term was used for centuries, chiefly in the West, and originally described a region of southern Iran formerly known as Persis or Parsa. Parsa was the name of an Indo-European nomadic people who migrated into the area c. 1000 BC; the use of the name was gradually extended by the ancient Greeks and other Western peoples to apply to the whole Iranian plateau. The people of Iran have always called their country Iran, and in 1935 the government requested that the name Iran be used instead of Persia.

Britannica.com

Iran has had this name from first. but 2 thousand years ago the famous empire of Iran established , and because the kin is from "pars" tribe , they called the capital pasargad and some forein countries as Greece recognized as 'parse' which later changed to Persia.
the British and Americans mostly in 1935 , Persian/Persia is still a distinction jsut not as widely used internationally.

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Ancient Wars
Ancient Greece
Persian Empire

When did the Peloponnesian War begin?

431 BCE - between Athens and its empire and Sparta and its allies. It lasted on and off until Athens' defeat and occupation in 404, causing great havoc and loss throughout the whole Greek world from Asia Minor, through the Aegean, to Sicily. As a result of later infighting between the mainland Greek states, Persia was able to reverse its loss of the Xerxes invasion of 480, and the King's peace was imposed on the Greek states.
The Peloponnesian War : 431 to 404 BC .

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Tanakh and Talmud
Purim
Persian Empire

What is one quality of Esther Queen of Persia?

Perseverance and piety.


More information:

Esther was the heroine and central figure in the Biblical book of Esther. She was crowned about 55 years after the destruction of the First Temple, and fifteen years before the Second Temple was built. The Jews were in the Babylonian exile. A few of them, such as Nehemiah, Mordecai and Daniel, rose to positions of prominence under the Babylonian kings.
The last of the Prophets of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) were still living.
King Cyrus had recently made his famous proclamation (2 Chronicles 36:22-23) allowing the Jews to resettle Judea (Israel), and some had gone up with Zerubavel, but the enemies of the Jews had then slandered them (Ezra ch.4), causing the Babylonian king to put a stop to the rebuilding and resettlement of Judea. This last event was around the same time that Esther became Queen.

When she became orphaned, she was adopted by her cousin Mordecai.

Later, when Queen Vashti refused to appear before Ahasuerus (in Esther ch.1), Memuchan, a Persian royal adviser, advised King Ahasuerus (Xerxes I) to remove Vashti from being Queen of Persia, and King Ahasuerus agreed to his advice.

In Esther Chapter 2, royal eunuchs advised Ahasuerus to look for a new queen. Esther was the best-looking woman, and Ahasuerus picked her to replace Vashti as Queen.


Esther and her cousin Mordecai (who had once saved the king's life) later persuaded the king to cancel an order for the extermination of the Jews in his vast realm, which had been plotted by the king's chief minister, Haman. Instead, Haman was hanged on the gallows he had built for Mordecai, and the Jews were given permission to destroy their enemies. The Jewish festival of Purim celebrates this event.


According to tradition, the book of Esther was written in the mid-4th century BCE, and was made part of the canon which was sealed a couple of decades after.

Esther was queen for about 11 years.
The name of Mordecai is the Judaised pronunciation of Marduka, which is attested in the Persepolis Texts as the name of officials in the Persian court during the period of Xerxes I. One of these officials was the biblical Mordecai.


The grave of Mordecai and Esther still stands in Hamadan; and the Jews of Iran, to this day, are referred to as "the children of Esther."

For the name of Esther, a number of etymologies are possible.
1) Esther comes from the Persian "setareh," meaning "star".
2) Esther comes from the Aramaic "istahar," meaning "moon." Beautiful as the moon (Talmud, Megillah 13a).
3) Esther comes from the Semitic root ath-tar, "morning star." There is support for this too in the Talmud (Yoma 29a).
4) Esther comes from the Median "astra," meaning "myrtle." The book of Esther (2:7) states that she had both names, Esther and Myrtle (Hadassah in Hebrew).

See also:

Why was Esther chosen as Queen?

More about the Hebrew Bible

Jewish history timeline

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Persian Empire

What countries belonged to Persian Empire?

The empire stretched from Thrace and Egypt to India.

See map:

http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/gabrmetz/map3a.gif
They took over the lands from the present-day Pakistan westward to Asia Minor.

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Sparta
Persian Empire

Who won between the Spartans or the Persians?

no one

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Judaism
Old Testament
Persian Empire

Who is the clever Persian ruler who allowed the Jews to return to jerusalem?

joshua

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Persian Empire

Which modern countries were once part of the Persian Empire?

There were several Iranian empires and at least two were called "Persian" these were the Achamenid (550-330 BC) and the Sassanid (226-651 AD).

In the former, the boundaries shifted over the course of the two hundred years that the Achaemenid Kings were in control. Egypt revolted several times and some territories that were once under control, such as Khwarazm (modern Uzbekistan) gained their independance. Much of the Caucasus also gained its independance by the time of the late Achamenids, as did the Indian and European satrapies.

At its greatest extent, it spanned from northern Greece, including the modern states of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Palestine, Jordan, Turkey, Armenia, Georgia, Abkhazia (de-facto independent) Chechnya and Ossetia regions, Azarbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Egypt, parts of Lybia and Sudan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, parts of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Kyrghystan.

This was at the time of Dariush the Great but as mentioned above, some areas passed away from control.

In Sassanian times, the same happened and at its greatest extent, the Persian empire of the Sassanids included Iran, most of Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, the Balutchistan and Sind regions of Pakistan, Kuwait, Iraq, Armenia, Georgia (independent state but vassal to Persia), Chechnya/Ingushia, Daghestan region of Russia, Bahrein, Oman, Yemen, United Arab Emirates and eastern Turkey (Kurdistant region).

Temporary conquests included the rest of Turkey, Syria, Palestine/Israel/Jordan/Lebanon, Egypt, much of Arabia.

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Ancient Greece
Alexander the Great
Persian Empire

What was the result of Alexander the Great's conquests?

A result of the conquests of Alexander the Great was the spread of the Greek language and culture.

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Thailand
Persian Empire

Was Thailand originally called Persia?

No. The historic name of Thailand was the Kingdom of Siam. IRAN was originally called Persia.

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English to Arabic
Persian Empire

What is the Arabic word for Persia?

Fares فارس

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Tanakh and Talmud
Old Testament
Persian Empire

Can you explain the history behind Esther and King Xerxes?

This is a biblical story which seeks to entrench Jewish influence in Persian history. There is no firm historical base for this, and it should be regarded as on a par with the stories which exist in each culture. Julius Caesar's claim of descent from the goddess Venus is typical of the stories which people repeat. It is interesting that ancient Roman historians warned against the descent claims in Rome; the same applies in many cultures and families then and today.

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Ancient Wars
Ancient Greece
Persian Empire

What happened at Thermopylae?

The Athenians build a fleet of about two hundred ships.

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