In the South following the Civil War, the white governments sought to avoid losing economic and political power to the newly freed slaves. The Black Codes were laws enacted in 1865 and 1866 to reduce the rights of blacks.
Under the Codes, they were not allowed to vote, to hold office, or to serve on a jury. They were also not guaranteed any sort of public education. In effect, their rights under the Constitution and the Bill of Rights were being denied.
The Black Codes led to further exertion of power by the North, which demanded that states ratify the 13th and 14th Amendments before being allowed to regain their representation in Congress. Military rule was established and new Republican governments soon repealed the Black Codes.
Although they were ruled unconstitutional, the Black Codes were soon supplanted by the Jim Crow laws, so that the separate-but-equal doctrine allowed states to continue to repress their black populations for another century.
In addition, attacking the Black Codes were a high priority for Congress. The Civil Rights Act of 1866, was a step towards this goal.
The Wade-Davis Bill was about reconstruction after the Civil War. It mainly consisted of three demands before rebel States could be re-admitted to the Union:
Its power to protect the rights of individuals increased ~ APEX
they put in place many of the rights enjoyed today
Sharecroppers who made money in a growing season could rent more land, could find another landowner to share crop for, or they could look for work in a town. (all of the above)
Democrats had gained enough power to make a change.
Tenant farmers paid rent to the landlord while sharecroppers received a portion (share) of the income and had to give the landlord a portion. Tenant farmers take total risk for the harvest while sharecroppers share the risk with the landowner.
The Wade-Davis Bill of 1864 was proposed because the Northerners thought that Abraham Lincoln was being too easy on the Southerners with the 10% Plan. The Wade-Davis Bill was written by two Radical Republicans, Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland.
The Wade-Davis Bill stated:
1. States that still need to be re-admitted to The Union, after the Civil War, would have the govenor to be appointed by the President.
2. 50% or more of the population is require to take "Ironclad Oath", then they can elect representatives to Congress.
3. Punish Confederate Leaders by stripping them of their property and pay back depts during the War.
4. The South must abolish Slavery.
If the states met all requirements, the states could be re-admitted to the Union.
Reconstruction didn't work after the civil war because the goal of reconstruction was to reintroduce the south back into the union as quickly as possible. There would be no real victory from the war unless the country was put back together. After the south was defeated in 1865 the reconstruction act of 1867 was set into place. Although slaves were freed the south established Black codes that treated the Blacks as slaves but weren't considered slaves. It set limitations on them so it kept them at the bottom of the food chain. Reconstruction ended in 1877 because the military pulled out of the south. The north got tired of spending so much money on the Reconstruction when little was being achieved. Ultimately reconstruction did work just not at the time that the north wanted it to work.
The Radical Republicans (a large group in the Republican-dominated Congress) thought that the government should be punishing the rebellious South, not helping it.
Lives of African Americans changed because they were free. However, they often led more dangerous lives because they were still not able to get what the white people had. Most turned to tenant farming because they had no money.
With that said, African Americans gained civil rights that white people had.
The Reconstruction era ran from 1865 to 1877. Though in the long run, it really didn't work out.
the Radical Republicans in Congress
Using fear and violence for political gain most directly affected African Americans.
Southerners who were for redemption wanted to return power to the white Democrats
Pardon for Confederate Leaders
that would be the civil war
Andrew Johnson and Ulysses S. Grant.
The sooth was all but destroyed. It was also bankrupt. Hope this helps :)
They were the ones to lose the war, and had more destruction and damage caused to them, especially Georgia. They also had to go through "reconstruction" to reenter the United States before they could repair all the damage.
The former Confederate States were readmitted to the Union in various years after the end of the Civil War. In order to rejoin the United States, the southern states had to follow certain guidelines and ratify the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution. To learn more about this, you may refer to http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/history/chapter11section3.rhtml The actual order and years the states were formally admitted into the Union again are as follows: Tennessee July 24. 1866 Arkansas June 22, 1868 Louisiana, Florida, North Carolina, and South Carolina June 25, 1868 Alabama July 14, 1868 Virginia January 26, 1870 Mississippi February 23, 1870 Texas March 30, 1870 Georgia July 15, 1870 Dates and order taken from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/reconstruction/states/sf_timeline.html and http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/reconstruction/states/sf_timeline2.html
The end of the US's Reconstruction Era saw the Federal government retreat from taking an interest in Southern affairs. This resulted in the white Southern leaders reestablishing the white political power structure.
In the United States, a Scalawag was a Southern white who joined the Republican party in the ex-Confederate South during Reconstruction. They formed a coalition with Freedmen (blacks who were former slaves) and Northern newcomers (called Carpetbaggers) to take control of their state and local governments. Two of the most prominent scalawags were General James Longstreet (Robert E. Lee's top general), and Joseph E. Brown, the wartime governor of Georgia. Those who had not supported the Confederacy were eligible to take the "ironclad oath," as required by the Reconstruction laws in 1867 to vote or hold office. In the 1870s, many switched from the Republican Party to the conservative-Democrat coalition, called the Redeemers, which defeated and replaced all the state Republican regimes by 1877. See Wikipedia online about reconstruction
Northern industrialists taking advantage of the south's recourses.
Black Codes existed in many southern states, the main 13 southern states included South Carolina, Oklahoma, Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana, Florida, North Carolina, Alabama , Texas, Mississippi, Georgia, & Kentucky. Although black codes were different from state to state they all restricted black people. Black people (former slaves) were free however they couldn't vote or interracial marry.
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