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Animals have evolved a lot of methods of dealing with the conditions of deep oceans. The general problems that are constant are lack of light, high water pressure, lack of food sources, and frigid temperatures.

To combat lack of light, some animals develop bioluminescence. Fish use it as a lure to attract other fish toward it to eat; a certain type of squid uses it for distraction to escape predators. Animals without bioluminescence generally don't even have eyesight. There's no point if there's no light. They develop higher senses elsewhere, like smell or taste or feeling out vibrations in the water.

High pressure requires animals to create an outward pushing force to resist being crushed at extreme depths, like pockets of air in their bodies, or sponge-like structures.

Lack of food means that the deeper into the ocean you go, usually, the smaller the life. Smaller bodies means it requires less food and energy to break down to function. Some exceptions are that while 'giant squid' are found often enough by us and even caught in nets, colossal squid live much deeper in the water and are much bigger. They also scrap for what little food they can, going so far as to eat sea snow, or animal waste that drifts down from the top of the ocean to the bottom (it has to go somewhere, right?)

Frigid temperatures aren't always the case deep in the ocean. There are hydrothermal vents that spew hot water, like hot springs and geysers on land. Animals and archaic bacteria flock to these vents for warmth.

We're not sure how far down animals live. As we develop better technology to reach deeper and deeper down, we're constantly surprised at the life we find and the adaptions we get to see them develop.

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14y ago
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13y ago

Mainly due to the conditions they need to survive, some may need light some dark, some colder temps some warmer temps so stay nearer the surface, other reasons could be that they adapt to where they can best hunt/ eat. Better surroundings for shelter. Basically because not all fish/ water dwellers have the same requirements to survive and so live deeper down where conditions best suit them!

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12y ago

Gills

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Q: What makes an animal able to live in the deeps of an ocean?
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