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Does the Philippines have the right to claim Sabah?
of course specially the sultan of sulu under the kiram carpenter agreement.
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Because of the oil and money the malaysia goverment is so greedy. Malaysia is currently profiting out of sabah which is part of the philippines if I were the sabahan I wou…ld have joined the philippines instead,but I dont blame them they were tricked into voting against the Philippines. local Sabahan's illiteracy where exploited into voting against the Philippines.
Malaysia was formed and given independence by the British Government in 1963. The Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo was also given by the British Government the 'Letter of Ad…ministration to Sabah, acknowledging all the property of the Sultanate of Sulu over Sabah in 1939. To the effect that 1939 is earlier than 1963 explicitly telling us which one is genuine and legal. Another striking solid and legal evidence of the Sabah ownership is the case filed by Indonesia to the United Nations to claim part of Sipadan,Sabah against Malaysia . The UN ruling under ICJ explicitly stated that Indonesia has no sovereign rights over Sipadan ,Sabah because it is owned by the Sultanate of Sulu under administration of Malaysia. Therefore, if Malaysia will not acknowledge the ownership by the Sultanate of Sulu over Sabah, Malaysia is directly violating ( for in fact being violated for 47 years) the UN sanctions over Sipadan, Sabah stating that the Sultanate of Sulu is the legitimate owner of Sabah. Moreover , if Malaysia will not acknowledge the 1939 High Court decision and the implementation of the 'Letter of Administration over Sabah that the Sultanate of Sulu is the owner of Sabah , Malaysia has to nullify their Independence given by the British Government in 1963 ,simply because it is the same government , the British Government who gave authority over the ownership of Sabah which is far earlier than their independence in 1963. The continued ignoring of Malaysia to this day of the rights to possessed the ownership, over Sabah by the Sultanate of Sulu Kingdom, creates a continuous anger on the part of the Sultanate people for prohibiting them ti live in their own land and even expulsing the people of the Sultanate living in Sabah today.
Supposedly, the Philippines will not claim the Spratly Islands because it is within the Philippine waters. But other countries claim it and those countries claiming it are… giants so the Philippines don't have any other choice than to contest instead of just giving an order to move out from the Philippine Territory. The disputed Spratlys are within the Philippine Waters. The Philippines is the legal owner of the islands in the Spratlys as it is within the 200 Nautical Mile Exclusive Economic Zone according to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
Sabah is part of the Philippine terretory as stated in the Grade IV book used by our elementary students right now. Teaching our children of this claim, it should be exercise …by our government (Philippine) so for them to have faith in our system. Damb it! People in the southern part of the Philippines were fighting for ancestral domain yet they are not fighting for their right of SABAH. Why not start fighting in Sabah to regain it? Sometimes War is necessary to expedite the matter then may be later discuss it in proper. Because the Muslims who leased it always prefer to do transactions with co-muslims. Religion always have a role in this so conflicts of interests can't be resolved. The international law should disregard such transaction and respect the Phillipine's rights to its territory. Clearly, the international law is still being blind folded by pathetic excuses of religion and tradition.
Philippines is right. Like, "Do you want to go to the Philippines?":)
The existence of the Iranun in Sabah, Malaysia is one of the untold episode or history of the Iranun as Nation of the world, way back from the Uranen Kingdom of the prehistory… period. Iranun tarsila narrates that the original inhabitants of the Island was Iranun. During the prehistory period of the Iranun, immigration was already observed. The Iranun was used to sail and navigate going west and southwest direction for socio-economic-political objective. They reached Java, Sumatra, Makassar, Johore, Borneo (Brunie) and other places/nations. Iranun tarsila narrates that the mother of Princess Pagunguwan (daughter of Rajah Urangguwan) was the daughter of the last Emperor of the Sri Vishaya Empire. It happened that Borneo was then one of the naval bases and tributary to the Sri Vishaya Empire. Therefore, there was a social relationships established between the two sovereigns through marraige. From then the two sovereign nations interacts in all aspects of statehood or nationhood. Until finally history period came. The whitemen (Spaniards) arrived in the shores of the Island in 1521. During the height of the realm of Sultan Kudarat at Ramitan, the first seat of Sultanate; his neighbor Sultan, the Sultan of Brunie faced a heavy problem in his realm. There was an uprising organized by some group of people who can not accept the sovereignty of the Sultan. Thus there was rebellion in his Sultanate. The Sultan of Brunie requested a reinforcement from Sultan Kudarat to augment his royal army to protect and defend his sovereign nation from the rebellion. Sultan Kudarat answered the request in favor of his neighbor sultan of Brunie. Sultan Kudarat sent a big military expedition to Brunie. According to the Iranun tarsila, the military expedition was composed of twelve (12) vessels. Each vessel was composed of forty (40) army (warrior). Therefore, there were four hundred eighty (480) armies (warriors) who were sent to Brunie to help the Sultan of Brunie. To compensate the assistance extended to him by the Iranun armies (warriors) of Sultan Kudarat, and for owing his gratitude, the Sultan of Brunie offered them some portion of his sovereign state to the Iranun armies. Majority of the Iranun armies accepted the offer with the consent of Sultan Kudarat. They lived there with their families with harmony and prosperity. They are the descendants of the Iranuns in Sabah, Malaysia. The present situation wherein many of the people from different nations migrate to other nation for the reason of green pasture is common to nations which are economically unstable. In the case of the people of Mindanao, especially Iranuns migrated to Sabah because they are seeking greener pasture for them to sustain the basic nessessity of their families. They are adventuring to Sabah with a hope that they can be able to strengthen their economic capability. Therefore, the presence of the Iranuns in Sabah, Malaysia can be described into two plausible reasons. The first reason is historical. The first wave of migration of the Iranuns in Sabah, Malaysia was attributed to the socio-political relationships of the the two nations: Iranun and Malaysia during the 16th century. Second reason is economy. At present time many people in the Philippines not only Iranuns but other tribes migrate to Sabah, Malaysia for economic reason. Many Iranuns at present time seek greener pasture to Sabah, Malaysia. Malampayan, Likas, Lahd Datu, and Tbok are identified Iranun communities in Sabah, Malaysia.
Malaysia did not have interest in the spratlys, But when the philippines started exploring the island and found gas and oil resserve malaysian goverment suddenly had inter…est is spratlys. If your going to ask me How did the Philippines claim Spratly and Sabah Islands? Answer: I think the 90% Christian majority of the Philippines understand and share the feelings of the Sabahans. Middle age Filipinos had the felling of connectivity towards the Sabahans for the Philippine history dictates the historical connection and experiences. If Sabah chose to be part of the Philippines, then their interest will be well protected and respected. The Philippine government is the bastion of democracy in Asia and the Filipinos knows it by heart. It is said the majority of the Christian Sabahans are fearful of the mass immigration if Sabah would be integrated to the Philippines, will that fear is unfounded, the Philippine government respect diversity and would surely protect the interest and right of its citizens. Like the Christian Filipino, Christian Sabahans will also enjoy the same, and be protected to the fullest extent of the law. Christian Sabahans should not be fearful to their brother Filipinos; they are the same and have shared the same in time and space. Let lost that fear, look forward for the brighter future! Spartly Island is not completely owned by Philippines the Philippines is only protecting the 9 islands against invaders and one of those island contains oil and gas and the china think it is unfair so they are trying to claim it note: as you can see all Islamic country has a oil (middle east) Philippines is a Islamic country before but it became christian when the Spaniards came and also there are oil and gas in mindanao Philippines that Islam people are protecting it but the government doesnt know this yet. Malaysia is currently profiting out of sabah which is part of the philippines if I were the sabahan I would have joined the philippines instead,but I dont blame them they were tricked into voting against the Philippines. local Sabahan's illiteracy where exploited into voting against the Philippines. And if your going to ask me if Why Malaysia keeps holding Sabah if not belong to them? Answer: Malaysia has seen what the British has done and so they imitate to grab the opportunity when they got their independence from the British empire in 1963. Peninsular government of Malaysia slowly edge to make it appear Sabah is part of Malaysia by appointing interim administration and change the name from North Borneo to Sabah in a blink of an eye. It was also clear to the Malaysian Constitution that Sabah is a partner rather than a member state of Malaysia. It was also clear that Sabah is only interim member state. Sabah is now currently contributing 30% to the whole economy of Malaysia. From this standpoint, simple calculations will give us at least US$12 billion dollars generated income annually. Malaysia has all the reason to hold Sabah ,a merely US$1,500 dollars rental to Sabah since 1963 is being paid by Malaysia. In short, the only capitalization involved is the rental versus billion dollar earning every year, Is that not enough reason to hold Sabah? It was said that Malaysia is continually muddling the traditional leadership of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo by paying fake sultans among the relatives to the throne, to make it appear that squabble is there to reason out that they do not know who is the genuine sultan of whom Sabah will return. There is also rumors that even the past and present administrations of the the Philippine government is continually secretly receiving dole out money from Malaysia in condition not to interfere or help the now traditional governance of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo. And also if your going to ask me Why Malaysia says they own Sabah? Answer: The basis of Malaysia in owning Sabah is based on Landgrabbing Principle employed by the British government. The original lessee is a private british company, British North Borneo Company. The British government has signed a 'Friendship Treaty ' to the Sultanate kingdom .The British government broke the Treaty of Friendship when they absorbed the lease of which they are not an entity to the 'Lease Contract of 1878" and clearly stipulates the non transferrability. Malaysia followed this suit by absorbing the same when they got their independence in 1963 - If the modern world cannot understand this then let us live like a hypocrites and forget the Omnipotent creator that we all believe., whether Allah, God or Yahweh.The Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo now is politically diminished but not culturally and traditionally. the history never lie only the Spanish and American people who wrote the historical hoax of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo Kingdom to achieve their colonizations. And also if your going to ask me if Is Sabah part of Malaysia? Answer: Sabah and Sarawak is legally not a part of Federal Malaysia based on conditional partnership they agreed when Peninsular Malaysia become Federated in 1963. The 3 major reason for Sabah and Sarawak to join in partner with Federal is Military , Monetary and Taxation. Sabah and Sarawak has partnered with Federal Malaysia based on 20 point agreement, their own State Constitution separate from Federal Constitution. The 20 point agreement has been forged prior to Sabah and Sarawak association to Federal Malaysia . Being a partner to the Federation does not mean to become a state of Malaysia. This is very clear that separate State of Sabah and Sarawak Constitution is in place. unlike the Peninsular Malaysia that all covers by Federal Constitution. The conditional partnership of Sabah and Sarawak cannot be contituted as full member of the Peninsular Federation of Malaysia. Sabah and Sarawak can at anytime decide if they still want to be a part of the Federal Malaysia through partnership by simply passing a law by the State Government annulling the partnership. This is the point of view by State MP's to segregate because the federal is abusive of the Financial allocation exercise over the two State. Sabah and sarawak combined contribute 60% of Malaysian economy and yet they only receive 5% of the total economic contributions to those two state. Sabah and Sarawak has their own rights, religions and land laws , they pay in return a tribute to Federal Malaysia in return of providing the Military and Monetary by paying excessive Taxation. The philippines can sustain sabah militarily and financialy
Because logically the Sabah is rightfully in the Philippine territory. It was just LEASED by Muslims residing in there who always love to claim things as their own regardless …of whatever legal rights of the country. It can also be linked to religion since Muslims always prefer to do any transactions with their co-Muslims for the sake of their ever-discriminating leg god allah's Islam. Religion and World power's influences will always play a big role in this dispute however, no matter how they claim whether be cultural or traditional reasonings, the rights should be to the Philippines and the international law should stop playing blind about this matter.
Yes but you have to claim it within 6 months of the date indicated
yes,,,the Philippines own the sabah and spatly island....
I think the 90% Christian majority of the Philippines understand and share the feelings of the Sabahans. Middle age Filipinos had the felling of connectivity towards the Saba…hans for the Philippine history dictates the historical connection and experiences. If Sabah chose to be part of the Philippines, then their interest will be well protected and respected. The Philippine government is the bastion of democracy in Asia and the Filipinos knows it by heart. It is said the majority of the Christian Sabahans are fearful of the mass immigration if Sabah would be integrated to the Philippines, will that fear is unfounded, the Philippine government respect diversity and would surely protect the interest and right of its citizens. Like the Christian Filipino, Christian Sabahans will also enjoy the same, and be protected to the fullest extent of the law. Christian Sabahans should not be fearful to their brother Filipinos; they are the same and have shared the same in time and space. Let lost that fear, look forward for the brighter future! Spartly Island is not completely owned by Philippines the Philippines is only protecting the 9 islands against invaders and one of those island contains oil and gas and the china think it is unfair so they are trying to claim it note: as you can see all Islamic country has a oil (middle east) Philippines is a Islamic country before but it became christian when the Spaniards came and also there are oil and gas in mindanao Philippines that Islam people are protecting it but the government doesnt know this yet
Sabah and Spratly island The Spanish was forced to sell the Philippines to America for 20 million dollars when they learned that the USA has far superior battleship and …ammunition against their wooden Galleon's during the battle of Manila bay. The Spanish crafted the Treaty of Paris and put the technical description covering all the archipelago including the Sulu group of islands. The Treaty of Paris has put the USA in jeopardy by signing the one sided Treaty in favor of Spain. The setback was later found by the USA, but it was too late because according to the Treaty the USA has to protect whatever Spain or any of their relatives owned within the Philippines, not realizing that the whole archipelago land has almost land titled to the five main groups of religious order. This practically meant the USA bought nothing but the political administration only because they are strongly opposed by Aguinaldo in Phil American war, until they give independence to the Philippines, due to costly war in the Philippines. The sale under the Treaty of Paris is illegal because Spain included the Sulu Kingdom which they never defeated in war. The war protocol prohibit to include any territory which is not conquered or defeated and not part of the spoils of war. When Philippine Republic was formed, Sulu Kingdom was included for in fact the inclusion to the sale is only Luzon and Visayas. Mindanao and Sulu Kingdom is not included because the Spanish failed to conquer the Sulu Kingdom. During the time of president Macapagal , the Philippine government was given authority to claim Sabah in bahalf of the Sultanate of Sulu but failed until it was revoked in 1989. It is clear therefore that the Philippines has no more authority over Sabah and Spratly island. The owner of Sabah and Spratly is the Royal Sulu and North Borneo kingdom. The current and legitimate Sultan is his HRH Sultan Esmail D. Kiram (www.sulu.gov.pH). The problem of the kingdom is apparent between Malaysia and Philippines since the kingdom now is traditional rather than political, both Malaysia and Philippines were playing fire not to recognize the traditional governance of the Sultanate for fear to escalate as a political power. Malaysia and Philippines has clamped the economic capacity of the kingdom via proprietary property. This has been solved by the current hierarchy by appointing a private company in Hongkong, to undertake the total administration and management of the said proprietary property of the kingdom. Neither Malaysia nor the Philippines can manipulate the Hongkong Company politically since it is now in a neutral ground. His Royal Highness Sultan Esmail D. Kiram has given a "Decree and Authority to the Hongkong Company to fast track the implementation of the 1939 High Court of North Borneo Ruling to Audit and Inventory the property of the Kingdom in Sabah as well as the property in the Philippines..(www.sultanatesulu.org) The issue of legitimate Sultan is now overdue because the political manuever behind to pay many sultans of Sulu and North Borneo, to make it appear chaotic is finished. Royal Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo has only one Sultan from the hierarchy. The legitimate Sultan has to become a Maharajah Adinda first then Rajah Muda before he assume the Sultan Proper. None among claiming Sultans has become Maharajah Adinda and Rajah Muda, they claimed straight forward from the lineage the position without undergoing to the process of unbroken hierarchy to the throne. The Sultan chooses his Rajah Mudah, the Rajah Muda chooses his Maharajah Adinda, therefore before becoming a Sultan , he has to pass through the process of being a Maharajah Adinda to Rajah Muda then to Sultan proper. This eliminates the fake and bogus sultans. (www.wiki.answer.com) who is the Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo ?
Because Philippines is the only Country near in Sabah and Spratly Island and also the Philippines has a Right to Claim it it is on the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Philippin…es. And also is is a res nullius(nobody's property). and the Filipinos are the First who established resources there. DAMN YOU CHINESSE,MALAYSIAN and even TAIWANESSE and Idiots VIETNAMESSE. The YANKEES will ATTACK YOU ANYTIME they WANT!!!... ------------------------------------------ You want to know how STRONG are the Philippines claim on Sabah? Below are the answers:- Oh, SO FUNNY.... I CANNOT STOP LAUGHING..... So u wanna take Sabah away from Malaysia? Want Sabah be a part of Philippine? Then u guys must be prepare to go to war with us, Malaysians. We will not give away Sabah, not without a fight. U have to taste ur nose get bloodied very bad first before u ever think of getting Sabah out of Malaysia. So you want WAR with Malaysia? Oh wait... 1) Malaysia is the only country that successfully defeat the communist insurgent in the whole wide world. Malaysia & The Philippines communist insurgents problem started about the same time, but the Philippines until now cannot defeat the NPA communist, even after more than 40 years! If Philippne Army invade Sabah, the Malaysia Army will slaughter the Philippine Army just like we slaughter the communist decades ago. Now want to claim Sabah? Even the NPA, u guys cannot beat them, now what to take a fight with the Malaysia Army? What a shame... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communist_Insurgency_War http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_People%27s_Army 2) Philippines Army are also facing insurgents group like MILF,MNLF & Abu Sayaf, & until now cannot even defeat one of them for decades now! Even the MILF u guys cannot beat, now want to fight the Malaysian Army? What a shame... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communist_insurgency_in_the_Philippines http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moro_Islamic_Liberation_Front http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Sayyaf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moro_National_Liberation_Front http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajah_Sulaiman_Movement 3) Philippine Army of 120,000 soldier cannot even defeat the 500-1000 Abu Sayaf fighter! Even 500 -1000 bandits also u guys cannot beat, now what to take away Sabah from Malaysia? What a shame.... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armed_Forces_of_the_Philippines http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Army http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Air_Force http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Navy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Marine_Corps http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Sayyaf 4) Philippine Air Force don't have any operational jet fighter!!! Malaysia have 18 Mig-29, 8 F-18 & 18 Su-30, all are considered the latest & the most modern fighter aircraft in the world. All are equipped with Beyond Visual Range (BVR) missiles. Philippine Air force don't even have an operational aircraft & NO air to air missile (forget about Beyond Visual Missiles), now shamely want to claim Sabah? The Philippine Air Force will be slaughter by the Malaysia Air Force like peanuts! What a shame.... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Air_Force http://www.timawa.net/forum/index.php?topic=28998.0 http://www.timawa.net/forum/index.php?topic=29066.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Malaysian_Air_Force http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_aircraft_of_the_Royal_Malaysian_Air_Force http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sukhoi_Su-30 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_F/A-18_Hornet http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikoyan_MiG-29 5) Philippine Army don't have any Main Battle Tank. Malaysia have PT-91M Main Battle Tank. Maybe not the best in the world, but considered the best in this region. U guys don't even have an anti tank missile (ATM), now shamely want to claim Sabah? Our Malaysia PT-91M will roll over your soldiers away & blow away them to pieces easily. What a shame.... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Army http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PT-91_Twardy 6) Phillipine Navy have only 2nd hand World War 2 era ship that was build in 1943 as it's main capital ship. Donated by the Americans. Plus no surface to surface missile, only equipped with 76mm guns. Malaysia have tons of modern frigates, corvettes & Offshore Patrol ships, all equipped with the latest & modern electronic sensors & surface to surface missiles. It's going be a massacre if your navy want to pick a fight with our Navy. Now still want to claim Sabah? What a shame.... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Navy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BRP_Rajah_Humabon_(PF-11) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Malaysian_Navy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scorp%C3%A8ne_class_submarine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lekiu_class_frigate 7) Philippine Navy have no submarine. Malaysia have 2 Scorpene submarines & 1 Quessant submarines. The Scorpene submarine is considered as one of the best & quitest submarine in the world with torpedo & sub-surface to surface missiles. The sub-surface missile, SM-39, can be fired underwater to target surface warship 50km away & equipped with GPS, in case want to fire at ports. Actually, Malaysia bought 4 Scorpene but claim only 2. Your navy don't even have a decent capability for submarine warfare & don't even have any submarine, now want to fight with a navy who have the most modern diesel submarine fleet in the region? Your World War 2 era ships will be massacred easily by our modern submarines. What a shame.... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Navy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BRP_Rajah_Humabon_(PF-11) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Malaysian_Navy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scorp%C3%A8ne_class_submarine 8) Finally, why did u guys always BEGGING from the Americans, South Koreans, Thais, Singaporeans, Australians and China to give you guys FREE or CHEAP 2nd hand military hardware? Why do u guys need to BEG from them? Most of donated 2nd hand ships should be scrapped anyway, but because u guys keep BEGGING from them, they feel pity to this little child & give it away for FREE or CHEAP to u guys. Can u guys have dignity & buy those military hardware using your own money instead of BEGGING from other countries to supply it for u guys? And please, if u want to buy any military hardware, don't buy a 2nd hand one, buy a brand new ones. If u guys still buy 2nd hand military hardware instead of brand new ones, it just show how cheap & poor u are. U guys cannot even buy a brand new military hardware, always BEGGING from other countries for 2nd hand ones, now want to claim Sabah? What a shame... http://www.timawa.net/forum/index.php?topic=28683.0 http://bulatlat.com/main/2011/09/16/after-60-years-us-rp-defense-pact-proved-useless-disadvantageous-to-philippines/ http://bulatlat.com/main/2011/09/16/mdt-license-for-us-direct-intervention/ http://bulatlat.com/main/2011/09/02/benjie-oliveros-a-symbol-of-subservience-a-milestone-in-the-struggle-for-national-sovereignty/ http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90883/7196633.html http://z3.invisionfree.com/Defense_Philippines/index.php?showtopic=4105 http://www.stopnato.net/?p=20827 http://www.defencetalk.com/forums/air-force-aviation/philippine-air-force-discussions-updates-11182-14/ There any many more I want to write, but I guess its enough for today. Your own mess inside your country also cannot handle, now want to take care of another new territory. In your dreams lah... Remember: Malaysia have BIGGER DICK (New, Large & Modern Military Hardware) than your SMALL DICK (2nd hand, small, donated & obsolete military hardware). So just shut up & be happy with your small dick. _________________________________________________________ Jeremiah 17:5 Thus says the Lord:"Cursed is the man who trusts in man And makes flesh his strength,Whose heart departs from the Lord. Jeremiah 17:7 "Blessed is the man who trusts in the Lord,And whose hope is the Lord. This idiot depends on their latest whatever they have. Claiming victory over Philippines. You, Idiot must read the how the tiny state of Israel defeat her enemy.
Territories claimed by the Philippines Spratly IslandsPhilippines claim 52 features in the Spratly Island Group. Among these, Philippines were only able to occupy 7… islands and 2 reefs. These include Thitu (Pagasa) island (2nd largest), West York (Likas) island (3rd largest), Northeast (Parola) cay (5th largest), Nanshan (Lawak) island, Loaita (Kota) island, Flat (Patag) island, Lankiam (Panata) cay, Commodore (Rizal) reef, Irving (Balagtas) reef and Second Thomas (Ayungin) reef. Other features claimed by the Philippines were either occupied by Vietnam, China, Taiwan or Malaysia or unoccupied by any other countries. Parts of Spratly Islands group that is not claimed by the Philippines are those that are near to Vietnam. The farthest feature that they claim is Ladd Reef which is nearer to and occupied by Vietnam. Philippines established a municipality named Kalayaan under the province of Palawan for all the features they occupied. See Spratly Islands for more details. SabahThe status of the territory of Sabah, previously known as North Borneo, is currently disputed between Malaysia and the Philippines. Presently, Sabah is one of the states that formed Malaysia in 1963. Despite that, the Philippines and the heirs of the Sultanate of Sulu have made claims to the territory though the claim is currently dormant. On 23 January 1878, in exchange for modern weapons with which to keep Spanish colonizers away from the Sulu Archipelago, the ruler ofSulu, Sultan Jamalul Alam, leased the territory of North Borneo to Gustavus von Overbeck, an Austrian who was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire's consul-general in Hong Kong. This was accomplished via a trading company belonging to von Overbeck's British partner Alfred Dent, and later via the British North Borneo Company. Von Overbeck procured the necessary firearms and also paid the Muslim dignitary an annual sum equivalent to 5,000 Malaysian dollars (now known as ringgit). The key word in the agreement was "padjak," which has been translated by American, Dutch and Spanish linguists to mean "lease" or "arrendamiento." The agreement further states explicitly that the rights to the territory may not be transferred to a nation or another company without the sultan's expressed permission. In 1906 and in 1920, the United States formally reminded Great Britain that North Borneo did not belong to the Crown and was still part of the Sultanate of Sulu. However, the British did turn Sabah into a Crown leased Colony. The Philippine Constitution of 1941 states that the national territory of the Philippines included, among other things, "all other areas which belong to the Philippines on the basis of historical rights or legal claims." Malaysia was federated in 16 September 1963. Even before Sabah was incorporated into Malaysia, the Philippines sent delegations to London reminding the British Crown that Sabah belonged to the Philippines. Malaysia insists that Sabah is under the sovereignty of Malaysia based on the fact that under agreements that Baron von Overbeck and Alfred Dent secured with the Brunei Sultanate on 29 December 1877 and the Sulu Sultanate on 22 January 1878, the sultanate of Sulu agreed to lease Sabah to Malaysia. The British Crown renewed the lease on 15 July 1946, but finally ceded Sabah to Malaysia on 16 September 1963. Malaysia is still believed to be paying the annual rent to the Sultan of Sulu. Malaysian control was further strengthened by two referendums: the first facilitated by the United Nations-backed Cobbold Commission, from February to April 1962 and the second before the formation of Malaysia in September 1963. Both referendums recorded 70% of Sabahan population voting for Sabah to be part of Malaysia. Scarborough ShoalThe Scarborough Shoal or Panatag Shoal or Huangyan Island (黄岩岛), more correctly described as a group of islands, atolls, and reefs than a shoal, is located in the Luzon Sea or South China Sea. The nearest landmass is Palauig town, Zambales province, Luzon Island, with only 221 kilometers. It is about 123 miles west of Subic Bay. Both the Philippines and the People's Republic of China claim it. The Philippines base their claim on its proximity, its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and the principle of terra nullius (which can only be valid if no one ever owned it before). The Chinese basis for claim is that the shoal would have been first discovered by Chinese in the 13th century and historically used by Chinese fishermen. Many Chinese fishermen were already[when?] arrested here by the Philippine Navy for using illegal fishing methods and catching of endangered sea species. Palmas or Miangas Island Main article: Island of Palmas Case It involved a territorial dispute over the Island of Palmas (or Miangas) between the Netherlands and the United States which was heard by thePermanent Court of Arbitration. This case is one of the most highly influential precedents dealing with island territorial conflicts. Palmas, also referred to as Miangas, is an island of little economic value or strategic location. It is two miles in length, three-quarters of a mile in width, and had a population of about 750 when the decision of the arbitrator was handed down. The island is located betweenMindanao, Philippines and the northernmost island, known as Nanusa, of what was the former Netherlands East Indies. In 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States and Palmas sat within the boundaries of that cession to the U.S. In 1906, the United States discovered that the Netherlands also claimed sovereignty over the island and the two parties agreed to submit to binding arbitration to resolve the dispute on January 23, 1925. The arbitrator in the case was Max Huber, a Swiss national. The question the arbitrator was to resolve was whether the Island of Palmas (Miangas), in its entirety, was a part of the territory of the United States or the Netherlands. The arbitrator ruled in favor of the Netherlands' position and stated that the Netherlands held actual title to Palmas: For these reasons The Arbitrator in conformity with Article I of the Special Agreement of January 23, 1925 DECIDES that : THE ISLAND OF PALMAS (or MIANGAS) forms in its entirety a part of the Netherlands territory done at The Hague, this fourth day of April 1928 Max Huber, Arbitrator Michiels van Verduynen, Secretary-General In the first of the United States' two arguments, the United States argued that it held the island because it had received actual title through legitimate treaties from the original "discoverer" of the island, Spain. The United States argued that Spain acquired title to Palmas when Spain discovered the island and the island was terra nullius. Spain's title to the island, because it was a part of the Philippines, was then ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Paris (1898) after Spain's defeat in the Spanish-American War. The arbitrator noted that no new international law invalidated the legal transfer of territory via cession. However, the arbitrator noted that Spain could not legally grant what it did not hold and the Treaty of Paris could not grant to the United States Palmas if Spain had no actual title to it. The arbitrator concluded that Spain held an inchoate title when Spain "discovered" Palmas. However, for a sovereign to maintain its initial title via discovery, the arbitrator said that the discoverer had to actually exercise authority, even if it were a simple an act as planting a flag on the beach. In this case, Spain did not exercise authority over the island after making an initial claim after discovery and so the United States' claim was based on relatively weak grounds. The United States also argued that Palmas was United States territory because the island was closer to the Philippines than to Indonesia, which was then held by the Netherlands East Indies. The arbitrator said there was no positive international law which favored the United States' approach of terra firma, where the nearest continent or island of considerable size gives title to the land in dispute. The arbitrator held that mere proximity was not an adequate claim to land noted that if the international community followed the proposed United States approach, it would lead to arbitrary results. The Netherlands' primary contention was that it held actual title because the Netherlands had exercised authority on the island since 1677. The arbitrator noted that the United States had failed to show documentation proving Spanish sovereignty on the island except those documents that specifically mentioned the island's discovery. Additionally, there was no evidence that Palmas was a part of the judicial or administrative organization of the Spanish government of the Philippines. However, the Netherlands showed that the East India Company had negotiated treaties with the local princes of the island since the 17th century and had exercised sovereignty, including a requirement of Protestantism and the denial of other nationals on the island. The arbitrator pointed out that if Spain had actually exercised authority, than there would have been conflicts between the two countries but none are provided in the evidence. Under the Palmas decision, three important rules for resolving island territorial disputes were decided: Firstly, title based on contiguity has no standing in international law. Secondly, title by discovery is only an inchoate title. Finally, if another sovereign begins to exercise continuous and actual sovereignty, (and the arbitrator required that the claim had to be open and public and with good title), and the discoverer does not contest this claim, the claim by the sovereign that exercises authority is greater than a title based on mere discovery. However, up to this day, several Philippine legislators claim that the island cannot be part of Indonesia today because the ethnic group living in this island is far more related by language to the Sarangani people of Mindanao than any ethnic group in Indonesia (eg, Minahasa). However this is not entirely true, since languages spoken in Miangas such as Sangir and Talaud are spoken also in North Sulawesi province with significant numbers. Currently, the Philippine Government has no desire to contest the sovereignty of Indonesian Government over Miangas Island and respect the Indonesian administration over the Island.