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Speleology

Parent Category: Earth Sciences
Speleology is the scientific study and exploration of caves; including the surveying, mapping and cartography of caves and reporting on the flora and fauna found in them. The Speleology topic includes questions related to the geology, biology, chemistry, archaeology, hydrogeology,and karst topography of caves; the history of and trivia about specific caves; and published findings related to the research of those who study caves called Speleologists.
Stalactites grow downwards (hang down); Stalagmites grow upwards.  How to remember the difference: Stalactites "hold tight" to the  ceiling.
The majority of caves are formed in limestone by water  dissolving the rock along its joints, bedding-planes and other  discontinuities to form a network of tiny conduits. Defined paths  for the water develop through these, and enlarge into enterable  cave passages. Eventually the passages lose...
Calcite rather than limestone - the crystalline version of  calcium carbonate which is limestone's primary constituent. However  it is only being deposited in speleothems (stalactites and  stalagmites).  .  Elsewhere in the cave, limestone is being removed, not  deposited, by any stream(s)...
Principally, as by far the majority of the world's caves are  formed in limestone uplands, by dissolution of the rock's calcium  carbonate by slightly acid rain-water seeping through the joints  and bedding-planes.  .  In time the water forms discrete conduits though the rock mass,  and these...
Principally, as by far the majority of the world's caves are  formed in limestone uplands, by dissolution of the rock's calcium  carbonate by slightly acid rain-water seeping through the joints  and bedding-planes. These, and other discontinuities such as faults  and shale bands, provide a "leak...
  The joints, bedding-planes and faults provide conduits for water to penetrate the limestone mass; and it is the water, slightly acidified by absorbed carbon dioxide, that dissolves the rock to form the cave.  
where are most caves foundÉ
Carlsbad Caverns may be found near the city of Carlsbad in NewMexico.
For their intrinsic beauty, scientific interest and often  "sporting" attraction; to preserve their indigenous wildlife; and  because if they are active they are water-courses every bit as  important ecologically or as water-sources at their resurgences.
It's called a cave system. They are quite common.There are even more systems that are connected hydrologically although with no humanly-passable links.Wookey Hole, at the foot of the Mendip Hills in SW England is one such example. It discharges the River Axe whose tributaries are several major caves...
The Ellora Temples in Aurangabad in Maharashtra, India
It is the study of caves.
National Park status was achieved on 1 July 1941 because the American people had a strong desire to preserve this glorious natural wonder for the viewing of future generations.
 What may be found where groundwater erodes limestone to form  valleys sinkholes and caverns 
    Their degree of difficulty of the cave you choose depends on 3 sets of factors:   1)  The number and character of any given cave and its natural obstacles.   2) The choice, quality and condition of the caver's clothing and equipment, and the choice of techniques - ...
Limestone is slightly soluble in carbonic acid: rain-water  acidified by carbon dioxide dissolved from the atmosphere. As the  water seeps down through the joints, faults and bedding-planes  within the limestone massif, from catchment area to rising  (spring), it dissolves the rock's main...
The generic name for such a landscape is 'Karst', from the Slovac  type-name 'kras'; and is mainly in limestone.
Wherever there are deep beds of limestone of suitable structural  integrity, in landscapes and climates offering suitable, long-term,  hydrological conditions for cave development. Such areas are found  in many areas of the world: Europe, N & S America, parts of  Africa and the Middle East,...
I'm sorry, but when I read questions as badly worded as this I find  it hard to pitch the answer suitably. Do you mean "break"? If so,  yes, as internal weathering attacks the roof and walls, leading to  collapses that can choke the passage completely. Eventually they  are un-roofed and finally...
A spelunker-enthusiast . +++ "Caver" - see Discussion note.
Wear and tear, basically. The most common is unwitting trampling of  floor sediments, perhaps followed by accidental muddying or  breaking of stalactites and stalagmites. Some disturbance to  cave-dwelling organisms, such as by trampling through pools and  stream inhabited by the animals. The...
          Basically all the equipment used is safety equipment because we are not aquatic creatures!   About the only equipment used in cave-diving that is not usually used in open water is duplicated kit, appropriate lighting on a safety-helmet, and a line-reel....
Depoists of calcite precipitated from solution in the ground-water feeding them. The calcite (crystalline calcium carbonate) has been dissolved from the limestone around the inlet.
Generally in regions holding large areas of massive limestone, and  with suitable accompanying geological and hydrological conditions.  Caves do form in other rocks by other processes, but these are a  lot rarer.
It is called a Stalagmite. The corresponding formation on the cave  roof is a Stalactite.
I don't think there are any smugglers caves but me and a friend have uncovered what looks like an opening to a cave of some sort.also my name on moshi monsters is glitter7776 and my friends is xforce1! On club penguin my name is Sledge Star and my friend is xforce3!thanx 4 reading this, and pleez...
  Most caves are in limestone, and formed by carbonic acid - rain-water acidified by dissolved carbon-dioxide from the atmosphere - dissolving the rock as it sinks through the joints and other fractures in the rock mass.
rain water waves winds Most of the world's caves are in limestone, including its metamorphosis, marble) by the dissolution of the rock's primary constituent, calcium carbonate, by rain / snow-melt water acidified by carbon dioxide absorbed from the atmosphere percolating through the rock's joints...
Nabula is the plant of the nabs, they live there in peace and from time to time people from earth are sent to this magical place.
a leaf is colorful , beutiful etc. i really dont know but those are a couple of stuff a leaf is
1. they are used for tourist attraction sites 2.they are used as  bat and other animals homes.  +++  You could also have suggested their attraction to cavers, both  for "sport" caving - the pursuit itself - and for amateur and  professional scientific study. 
Dragons live in vulcanic caves because they are cold blooded and are hunted for their scales.
Caves are most commonly carved out in sedimentary rocks such as limestone and kaoline. Caves are also associated with igneous rocks but mostly due to structural defects during emplacements, or adjustment due to post-orogenic activities. Nevertheles, caves can form in any rock types, and are mostly...
Caves are recorded by passage length totals, not area, except perhaps when analysing their local geographical context. The World's longest is the Mammoth Cave - Flint Ridge Cave system.
spelunkers, speleologist
puting yo big black dick in it.
From limestone by water and carbon-dioxide!   How Caves Form in Limestone       That is such a common question on ‘Answers’ I wrote this single reply! The technical terms are introduced by capital initials.   Most of the world’s caves are in Limestone.   Caves need three...
Streams and rivers - but the local flow across a discrete area, and feeding them, is called Run-off.
A lot of the features in caves form through the running or dripping of water. Over many years this water will leave deposits of minerals resulting in the cave's formations.
Yes, no, maybe so. Find a better source.
By waves smashing against the sea walls
Primarily in their mode of formation: dissolution of limestone by water acidified by atmospheric CO2 (forming carbonic acid).
    It was the geological and volcanic activities created the caves, which have evolved over the last 30 years.       ++       Volcanic? Limestone caves are formed by rain water absorbing atmospheric CO2, forming the weak Carbonic Acid that slowly dissolves the...
Tanggapan Cave was a reception and meeting place for the Katipuneros during the Philippine-Spanish revolution. Along with other caves in the area, it is now part of Biak-na-Bato National Park.
In prehistoric times habitable caves offered shelter to people living in their vicinity.Various caves have had various uses down the centuries - the huge entrance hall of Peak Cavern in Derbyshire's Peak District (UK) once held rope-walks, and shows one today, though I don't know if it's original or...
Not a helpful question - unclear meaning.Limestone is a sedimentary rock and the exposure or burial of any given limestone formation depends on its regional, subsequent geological processes.It is also soluble in weakly-acid ground-water, giving rise to karst lansdcapes and features.As for "use" by...
The cone-shaped mineral deposit that hangs from the roof of a cave is a stalactite. See the related question for more information.
What causes caves, caverns, and sinkholes
There are actually many different types. Some examples are talus, slate, solutional, granite, sand stone, sea caves, man-made and emerged sea caves.
  A solution of calcium carbonate dissolved from the limestone above the cave by weakly-acidic ground-water, drips from the cave roof and some of the carbonate is precipitaed as the mineral calcite, slowly building up the deposit to form the stalagmite. Stalactites form in much...
The Naracoorte Caves are located in the South-East of South Australia
  To get in the Cerulin cave which Mew 2 is in lv 70 u need A. 3 or more lv 50+ B.A Pokemon lv 80+C.50 ultra balls D.HM?Surf E.Must have beaten Pokemon luge Hope I helped!   FЯED RULES
Based on the burial sites located to date, humans have known the Mammoth Caves for at least 6,000 years.
Fallen boulders, calcite formations and sediment!Mammoth Cave is a karst cave; formed within limestone.
All 50 of 'em. (:
Limestone caverns are formed when the acid in the rain drops or sea water erodes the stone through attrition and eliminates to rock. Limestone is a permeable rock - which means it can soak up liquid, like a sponge.
carbonation is on that is really significant, and solution is another
pit cave, shaft cave or vertical cave. it is a type of natural cave  which contains one or more significant vertical shafts rather than  being predominantly a conventional horizontal cave passage
a mammoth cave is over 9,000 years old
Yes, it continues to expand, but, very, very slowly. Do NOT think in terms of years, lifetimes or generations. This geological transition is well beyond centuries. (Native Americans once proclaimed that "Only the Rock Lives Forever", they were wrong. Few mineral can survive the efforts of wind and...
The NPS web-site brought up Cumberland Gap Park and Gap Cave (formerly called Cudjo's Cave). Is this major show-cave the one you have in mind?The web-site implies but does not state it is used by bats, and asks visitors to any of the Park caves to wear clothes and footwear than have not been...
SPELEOTHEMS: Stalactites, stalactites, curtains (draperies in US  caving), straws (fine tubular stalactites - 'soda straws' in US),  flowstone, gour pools (I think 'rimstone' pools, ditto), cave  pearls, helictites (aka 'erratics' but rather unwisely because that  is already a definite...
Stalactites - their rock is precipitated calcite.
    The forests that grows over the limestone forms mulch that produces the acid required.       That's true but the prime solvent is Carbonic Acid: atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolved into rain-water.
If you mean what I think you mean, the erosion cutting a large hole through a narrow headland, then it's a ROCK ARCH, simple as that.If the length is significantly greater than its diameter, producing a tunnel-like structure, then it would still be correct to call it a CAVE.If the breach is from...
The vast majority are karst caves, found in limestone uplands offering a suitable combination of geological, hydrological and long-term climatic controls conducive to cave development.Lava tubes develop in basalt (low viscosity) lava flows.Boulder (or talus) and Mass-movement Caves form as a result...
They didn't. Most caves are formed in limestone, by rain-water  slightly acidified by abosrbing atmospheric carbon-dioxide slowly  dissolving the rock.
No, it is however listed as an endangered species.
Most caves are the result of erosion.    The vast majority by far are in limestone, as it is soluble in  weakly-acid ground-water (chemcial weathering).    Mass-movement fissures result from a type of landslip mechanism.    Talus caves are cavities between boulders and the rock-fce...
Not an answerable question: what did you have in mind?Caves are individual but are not exactly "phenomena". Too many of them for that.
Dissolution of the rock's primary ingredient, calcium carbonate, by water slightly acidified by absorbed atmospheric carbon-dioxide and percolating through the rock bulk's joints and other discontinuities. Eventually the network of initial tiny conduits will start to coalesce and capture, leading to...
Yes, they do, although in a few areas ferruginous igneous rocks or magnetic iron-ore close to the cave can introduce errors.Until the recent invention of range-finding and position-locating instruments like the "Disto" (t.m.) the three measurement instruments for surveying caves were a builder's...
ALL caves are underground by definition. It's where they are! :-)
There is not a particular kind of limestone needed to make a canyon or valley. They form through erosion of any kind of rock.
Limestone has two salient characteristics.1) It is soluble in weak carbonic acid (formed naturally by rain-water absorbing atmospheric carbon-dioxide).2) Limestone uplands are not homogenous masses of solid limestone but beds of limestone of varying thicknesses dividided by discreet "bedding-plane"...
Lovely question! I don't know about "everyone" but I suspect far more people with an appropriately free-wheeling imagination do than they might like to admit!I do, sometimes, but not in my 'Artex' ceilings.My favourite is a shallow bas-relief "face" in the entrance shaft wall of a famous cave called...
A Boulder, or Talus, Cave is simply an enterable void or set of voids between boulders and the rock-face from which they have fallen.Collapses within existing karst, sea or lava caves may choke the passage or chamber with boulders, and such chambers are often called "boulder chambers", but that does...
The vast majority of the world's caves are in limestone, which is soluble in weakly acidic ground-water.So the conditions for cave and other karst-feature development is the presence of a soluble rock (limestone and its metamorphic form, marble; also gypsum) in upland areas having a suitablly stable...
Feldspar is a constituent of igneous rocks, primarily granite, and does not form rock masses alone. Also, although it does weather, very slowly, neither it nor the igneous rocks generally have the solubility of limestone.Caves do form in granite etc by subaeriel, sea or riverine erosion, but they...
Polaris is the north star, meaning it is always visible up in the sky if you live above the equator.
Limestone and water are usually involved.
Rarely if ever. There are a lot of romantic myths about smugglers and the dreadful "wreckers", and this is almost certainly one of them.For one thing, sea-caves are not ever so common, and those that may have been suitable by access and safety for use by smugglers are even less common. Don't forget...
A Boulder, or Talus Cave rather stretches the definition of "cave", but it's simply a void or set of voids left between fallen boulders and their source rock-face. A cave's chamber that is heavily obstructed or even terminated by collapsed rock is often called a "boulder chamber", but it's not...
In all limestone caves, the same as as is "evident" - by the cave's very existence - as in all the limesrtone caves and other karst features in your country - chemical weathering! (Dissolution by carbonic acid.)
In a cave? Yes, almost - it's actually the calcium carbonate, the main constituent of limetsone, that is dissolved by the ground-water then precipitated as calcite to form stalactites and stalagmites, and similar deposits.
A variety of things, though speleologists generally concentrate on their own fields of expertise:The primary study, usually carried out by the cave's explorers, is a high-grade survey of the cave, its relationship to the landscape and to other caves; and often a photographic record.If the cave is...
From a purely aesthetic view, caves offer a range of physical and mental challenges and often very impressive or beautiful scenery found nowhere else.Scientifically they are fascinating, with studies ranging across geology, hydrology, biology, palaeontology and archaeology. Some of these examine...
By boat: it contains a river! Then using the normal, now rather primitive, caving methods and equipment of the day.By Martel & Jamieson in 1895, then beyond their limit by the Yorkshire Ramblers in 1935.
Frankly, no-one really knows because it depends on your criteria and the records available. A few intrepid souls tried to explore caves back in the 17th, even 16th Century; and metal-ore miners broke into caves from their mines, from time to time. It's entirely possible some of these people met...
Homes, animal shelters, stores for food etc, hiding-places for goods or people, religious rites.
All over the place!** The principle caving areas, from North to South, are:The NW Pennines (the largest and with the most caves)Peak District (Derbyshire)Forest of DeanSouth Wales - esp. Mynydd Llangattwg and near SwanseaMendipSouth Devon.** Then there are various other scattered areas with fewer...
If your lamps go out they looks darks they does, very darks. :-)You can get a fair idea from the advertising web-sites for show-caves, but by no means all caves look like those! Caves are so varied - some carry rushing streams, others are dry and silent; some are richly adorned with beautiful...