What is the difference between Integrated Circuits and Printed Circuit Boards?

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to the man in the street: An integrated circuit is something like an eprom ( a small unit like a chunk of chocolate) that is usually soldered onto a circuit board.
A printed circuit board is a slab of board with holes in it. (like a smaller version of a pegboard) that has lines of copper or similar printed on it for the purpose of connecting all the integrated circuits and resisters together.

short answer = Size

breadboard =
insulation with holes where you mount components
and run wires to interconnect them

printed circuit board=
insulator with copper laminated. copper is etched away to leave wires .. sometimes in several lamentations components are soldered into holes drilled in the wires

Hybrid module=
usually a ceramic insulator with copper laminated wires
components in beam lead packages electron beam welded to the copper

integrated circuit =
the insulator is the substrate usually a diode done over most of the Si wafer in the first diffusion components are built by diffusing different materials in more and more layers
packages or carriers
7400 ic dip 1" x 1/2" surface mount 1/4" x 1/8" beam lead .050" x .025"


SSI MSI LSI small scale, medium scale, large scale... integration
has to do with the color of the light red light 760nm won let you work much smaller than 1 micron... blue light 350Nm maybe 0.5 micron uv perhaps .2micron
xrays gamma rays are a bit more difficult to mask and control
so electron beams are used for smaller stuff perhaps tunneling electrons can bring it down some.
perhaps an order of magnitude breakthrough will give us nanotek
3 people found this useful
Ω

What is an integrated circuit?

An integrated circuit - or IC - chip is a circuit made withcomponents such as transistors, diodes and resistors that areusually formed simultaneously on a small chip of silicon. ...... Two or more transistors (and they're up to many millions now) ANDsome (or all) of their interconnections on a single (tiny) slab ofsilicon. ...... The components are connected with aluminum wires deposited both onthe surface and within the body of the chip. ICs can contain as fewas several to as many as hundreds of thousands of transistors. Integrated circuits are electronic parts that have a completeelectronic circuit inside formed by transistors, resistors andcapacitors, that has the purpose of simplifying some branchs of thecircuit in a electronic device.

When was first printed circuit board developed?

Related Photo:. http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/icons_of_invention/imgIM.1201_el.jpg. This radio is the first working device to use a printed circuit board (PCB), the electronic technology invented by Paul Eisler. An Austrian refugee in London, Eisler made this radio in 1942, following on from initial experiments in 1936. At the time, it was usual to interconnect all components in electronic goods with hand-soldered wires, a method of manufacture which did not lend itself to any high degree of automation. First applied in proximity fuses for anti-aircraft missiles, PCBs have subsequently found near universal application in electronic goods, yielding highly miniaturised devices which can be mass produced.

How do you design printed circuit board?

If you want to know a printed circuit board is designed here is the explanation in simple terms. 1. First you decide on the components which are in the design. 2. Need a software in which you can get symbols (both schematic symbols and physical symbols) of standard components and which also allows you to create your own symbols for new components which are not in the standard tool library. 3. In schematic capture tool, you will use symbols of components and also connect the pins of components with wire lines to complete the schematic drawing. Based on complexity and size of the design this can be few pages or hundreds of pages. 4. In the layout tool you will have to make a board outline (based on the shape/size of PCB you want to design) and define number of layers etc. 5. Schematics need to be exported to layout using the board outline you designed. Result will be that all the physical symbols will appear in the layout tool along with un-routed wire connections. 6. Now you can place components on the PCB based on floor plan (where you want to place what components) and start routing the connections. Decide thickness of routes or traces based on impedance and current these nets need to carry. Based on how many layers have been defined and needed as per design traces can run through multiple layers 7. When routing is complete, with help of tool you need to create PCB fabrication data for PCB fabricator. These are top level steps involved in a PCB design. There are finer steps like back annotation (process to sync up layout and schematics) which also important. Many tools give options for auto placement, auto routing which can aid in the design. These used with proper constraints and care can help speed up the design process. Check for PCB tool vendor websites. - Neeraj Answer Proton led displays says: Go to www.circuitboards.com scroll down to the links area and click free cad software by cadsoft. My friend told me the other PCB designing software mentioned makes you pay for there software if you want it manufactured outside of there facility. Basically locking you into there price or no price. Cadsoft is free up to a certain layer count I believe.

What is the difference between integrated circuit and microcontroller?

A micro controller is a programmable device, it is a small computer on one chip, it can be programmed to control devises in the outside world, IE a PIC see more here http://patenttrade.net, where an integrated circuit is normally a device that is made to do a predefined function like the 555 timer/counter device.

How much gold is in printed circuit boards?

Typically very less. Selective gold plating is done in PCBs usually on certain pins, mounting holes, edge fingers or guide rails for specialized applications. The amount of gold plated is very less as the thickness of gold plating is very less (typically few microns). So overall amount of gold on each PCB is very less.

How are printed circuit boards manufactured?

Printed circuit board are electronic circuits created by mounting electronic components on anonconductive board, and creating conductive connections between them. The creation ofcircuit patterns is accomplished using both additive and subtractive methods. The conductivecircuit is generally copper, although aluminum, nickel, chrome, and other metals are sometimesused. There are three basic varieties of printed circuit boards: single-sided, double-sided, andmulti-layered. The spatial and density requirement, and the circuitry complexity determine thetype of board produced. Printed circuit boards are employed in the manufacturing of businessmachines and computers, as well as communication, control, and home entertainment equip-ment.

What is the lifetime of printed circuit board?

Depends on the material it's constructed from, the application for which it's being used and the atmospherics to which it's exposed. I have printed circuit boards from the very first model of an RCA transistor radio made in 1957 and the circuit board as well as the electronics still work.

Who repairs integrated circuit boards?

One possibility is the manufacturer of that particular board. Many have repair/exchange programs.. If the board itself is physically broken and/or burned, it is probably not repairable. If components on the board are bad, it may be repaired.. One possibility is the manufacturer of that particular board. Many have repair/exchange programs.. If the board itself is physically broken and/or burned, it is probably not repairable. If components on the board are bad, it may be repaired.

How much does a printed circuit board cost?

That will vary depending on the size of the board, number ofcircuit layers in the board, number of drill holes needed, if theholes must be plated through or not, cutouts or nonrectangularshape of the board, quantity price breaks available, etc.

Difference between an integrated circuit and transistor?

Basically a transistor is just one single component andhas no function by itself, while an IC is composed of severalcomponents of various types (transistors, diodes, resistors,and capacitors) pre-wired into a specific circuit having a specificfunction that it performs. An IC can now have as few as two components in it to hundreds of billions of components in it, soon thetechnology for making ICs will probably be able to put hundredsof trillions of components in one IC and the ultimate limit isstill uncertain.

What does a Printed Circuit Board do in a circuit?

A Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is the skeleton of most electronicdevices. It provides not only a solid physical base for thecomponents to be mounted upon, but also the electricalinterconnects (traces) between the components.

How does a printed circuit board work?

A: To make thing to work each independent device must be connected together to work. PCB does nothing else but provide real estate for devices to be installed and copper trace etched on the board provide the connection. To begin with the board is nothing but a copper clad and circuit connections are etched to connect tall these device together

What can printed circuit boards be used for?

PCB or printed circuit board are copper clad that are chemically etched to establish connections with parts installed on it making it a working circuit Today, just about every electronic appliance in your home contains a printed circuit board of some type: computers, printers, televisions, stereos, musical instrument amplifiers and synthesizers, digital clocks, microwave ovens, telephone answering machines and even cell phones. The "motherboard" in a computer is the main printed circuit board that is the heart of a computer. Other circuit boards inside a computer performs functions such as RAM (random access memory), power supplies, modems and video "cards."

What are the differences between hybrid and monolithic integrated circuits?

MONOLITHIC IC It is that the components such as semiconductor materials,passive components(resistor,capacitor,inductor and transformer) etc ,which is used in ic is fabricated within the single semiconductor(say silicon) wafer and there is no such shortages between the components and this have separate pn junctions. All the functions of the components are within the small silicon wafer and the technology used here to manufacture this ic is PLANAR TECHNOLOGY HYBRID IC It is that the components are connected individualy through the wires and the surrounded by the special polymer called EPOXY ,this is the technology used while comparing with the monolithic ic it is big in size.it contain the components all such used in the monolithic type

What is the difference between integrated circuits and vacuum tubes?

Integrated circuits use semiconductor material for the electrons to flow, and variations in the type of material to control the flow. Vacuum tubes use an electron beam and a voltage applied to a grid to slow down or speed up the electrons. One major difference in practice, is that vacuum tubes require much more power to operate, and generate much more heat than semiconductors. For some high power applications (guitar amps, radio transmission), vacuum tubes may be the best tool for the job.

What is the Difference Of an Integrated circuit with Discrete Components?

Discrete components - each component: vacuum tube, transistor, resistor, capacitor, etc. is individually packaged, then connected together to make a circuit. . Integrated circuit - multiple components are packaged together making a complete circuit as one integrated device. Modern ICs frequently contain hundreds of billions of components in one device. Discrete component circuitry is bulkier than ICs because more packaging is involved.

What is the integrated circuit about?

Integrated circuit also called as chips or microchips is a miniaturized electronic circuit made in a thin substrate of semiconductor materials. It consists mainly of semiconductors and passive components of the circuit.

Are printed circuit boards poisonous?

The short answer is no, but be careful anyway. The board itself is made of paper and epoxy resin which is nottoxic but is not good for you. The real problem is the componentson the board and the solder. All solder on older boards willcontain lead, but most newer boards use lead free solder as much aspossible. Electrolytic capacitors if they burst can releasecorrosive chemicals and many other components contain mercury,gold, silver and various heavy metals. In other words don't eat itand be sure to wash your hands after handling before you eat orsmoke. There are often flame retardants that are hazardous (carcinogenic)in PC boards.

What is a printed circuit board?

A printed circuit board is basically used to mechanically support while at the same time electrically connecting electronic components by using conductive pathways. The process is very simple. motherboard is a printed circuit ,where all components of the system is connected. Printed circuit boards are used in nearly all electronic devices. The conducting wires that connect all the components, are printed onto an insulating plastic material such as paxolin or fiberglass. These tracks are commonly made of thin copper sheet stuck to the board. The tracks are then printed using light and a chemical process to remove the unwanted copper. Some boards used in remote controls and wafer thin boards used in ipods etc, are commonly printed, using conductive ink containing silver or carbon. The alternative to printed circuits was to idividually wire the coponents using wire and solder tags. Old tube radios were originally wired this way, but had to be made by hand. Printed circuits allow for automation and mass soldering using a float soldering process on a bed of molten solder.

What is the difference between a circuit board and an intergrated circuit?

A cicuit board is a board made of plastic and metal interconnections where the various electronic devices are assembled in discrete form to make up the circuit.In an integrated circuit a semiconductor chip is so processed such that the various electronic devices and components are directly grown on it.

How a printed circuit board workes?

A printed circuit board (PCB) is a usually flat insulated board with conductors printed on it. It may be single sided, or it may be two sided, or it may have up to 50 internal layers. It is used because it eliminates the time consuming task of hand wiring individual components...they are simply soldered to the PCB.

Why put earthed strip between a circuit and the circuit board?

An earthed strip is a low resistance strip. as we know that a current always flows along a path which is having the least resistance.Whenever a fault current flows through the circuit and a possiblity is there that it may damage the ckt & ckt board the earth strip allows the fault current to flow through it and ground it. thereby preventing the damage.

What is the difference between an integrated circuit and a vacuum tube?

A: An IC can perform many functions while the tube can only amplify. The IC is very small in size1000:1 ratio. the IC is very power efficient compered to a tube. To add the IC chip is even smaller then the actual size most of the bulk is plastic and it is needed to route internal wire connection to the external terminals

How do you make Printed circuit board?

A: To make one at home you need a copper clad of the right size a way to mask off the copper that is going to be removed and finally a chemical to do just that remove the copper. popular is ferric sulfide.

What does a printed circuit board look like?

Printed circuit boards are typically green or red, with a lot of holes on the surface through which to put the leads of electronic components. An unfinished board will have its traces (lines of conducting material) very visible, until all of the components are added and soldered on, at which point they become the main focal point.

What are the difference between vacuum tube and integrated circuit?

An integrated circuit uses transistors instead of vacuum tubes. Transistors and vacuum tubes can do the same things, in terms of how they alter the flow of an electric current in a circuit, however, vacuum tubes are much larger, and they are also much less reliable, since they will eventually burn out, unlike transistors. So with transistors you can do a lot more. Even though the earliest electronic computer (ENIAC) was made with vacuum tubes, nobody today would want to attempt to build a computer with vacuum tubes.

What is the difference between microprocessor and integrated circuit?

A microprocessor is a specific type of integrated circuit , integrating most or all of the functionality of a programmable general purpose digital electronic computer onto a single chip or small number of chips. An integrated circuit can be any of many different types of circuits integrated onto a single chip, it is called an integrated circuit because all the necessary components to make the circuit: resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors; are all built on the same chip instead of being separate. Some non-microprocessor integrated circuits are: . analog op-amps . digital logic gates . digital flip-flops . timers . RAM . ROM . Flash . sense amplifiers . inhibit drivers . power amplifiers . H-bridge motor driver . 3 terminal voltage regulators . DTMF modulator . DTMF demodulator . UART . ALU . line drivers . line receivers . etc.

What is the difference between a circuit board and a integrated circuit?

A circuit board has several components soldered to it, some of these components may be integrated circuits. . The circuit board may be changed or rewired by hand, an integrated circuit cannot normally be changed or rewired (except for some Programable Logic Device integrated circuits, which can be changed electronically). . A circuit board is typically made of fiberglass-epoxy or paper-epoxy with copper traces connecting the components, a monolithic integrated circuit is made of a semiconductor (e.g. silicon, gallium arsenide) typically with aluminum traces connecting the components, a hybrid integrated circuit is typically made of ceramic.

How is a printed circuit board fabrication created?

Printed circuit board fabrication is the process of manufacturing PCBs. PCB stands for Printed Circuit Board. Engineers designed this fabrication progress and the purpose of PCB is to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components.

How is an integrated circuit used in a circuit?

That will depend on the type of the integrated circuit. There arefar too many completely different types of integrated circuits tomake any meaningful comment here. A typical manufacturer's databook for just one family of related integrated circuit types can beover 3 inches thick! Many of the integrated circuits in such afamily are fully explained in just a couple pages of that databook. I have a set of data books (in PDF files) on using just one type ofmicroprocessor integrated circuit, each data book in this set isover 2500 pages in length. Until you read in full all these databooks in this set you will not know how to use that integratedcircuit anywhere!

What are printed circuit boards made of?

Generally,there are the below kinds materials for printed circuit boards: 1. Rigid phenolic resin laminate sheet of paper substrate CCL FR-1 economy, flame retardant 2. FR-2 high electrical resistance, flame (cold red) 3. Epoxy copper clad board FR-3 high electrical resistance, flame retardant Polyester resin copper clad board 4. Glass cloth plate glass cloth - epoxy copper clad FR-4 board 5. Heat-resistant glass cloth - epoxy copper clad board FR-5 G11 6. Glass cloth - polyimide resin copper clad board GPY

What is the material to make printed circuit board?

The board material is either a paper-phenolic composite ora paper-epoxy composite. The conductive traces are copper . Boards can be made in anything from single sidedto more than 30 layers of copper traces. Many materials have been used over the years and most are suitableas long as they are insulating. The above material is used in early PCBs also known as 'paxolin'. Modern boards are commonly fibreglass. Many plasics are used, but have to be chosen for their safety, ifheated to reduce flamabilty and or emmisions of toxic smoke.