What would you like to do?

What was rural life like in England during the late 1700's?

already exists.

Would you like to merge this question into it?

already exists as an alternate of this question.

Would you like to make it the primary and merge this question into it?

exists and is an alternate of .

From the 1780s onwards Britain was transformed by the industrial revolution. Until then most people lived in the countryside and made their living from farming. By the 1880's most people in Britain lived in towns and made their living from mining or manufacturing industries.From 1712 a man named Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729) made primitive steam engines for pumping water from mines. In 1769 James Watt (1736-1819) patented a more efficient steam engine. In 1785 his engine was adapted to driving machinery in a cotton factory. The use of steam engines to drive machines slowly transformed industry.Meanwhile Britain built up a great overseas empire. The North American colonies were lost after the War of Independence 1776-1783. On the other hand after the Seven Years War 1756-1763 Britain captured Canada and India. Britain also took Dominica, Grenada, St Vincent and Tobago in the West Indies.In 1707 the Act of Union was passed. Scotland was united with England and Wales (although many Scots bitterly opposed the move). England became part of Great Britain.In the early 18th century the population of Britain was about 6 1/2 million. In the late 18th century it grew rapidly and by 1801 it was over 9 million.Owning land was the main form of wealth in the 18th century. Political power and influence was in the hands of rich landowners. At the top were the nobility. Below them were a class of nearly rich landowners called the gentry. In the early 18th century there was another class of landowners called yeomen between the rich and the poor. However during the century this class became less and less numerous.However other middle class people such as merchants and professional men became richer and more numerous, especially in the towns.Below them were the great mass of the population, craftsmen and labourers. In the 18th century probably half the population lived as subsistence or bare survival level.In the early 18th century England suffered from gin drinking. It was cheap and it was sold everywhere as you did not need a license to sell it. Many people ruined their health by drinking gin. Yet for many poor people drinking gin was their only comfort. The situation improved after 1751 when a tax was imposed on gin.At the end of the 18th century a group of Evangelical Christians called the Clapham Sect were formed. They campaigned for an end to slavery and cruel sports. They were later called the Clapham Sect because so many of them lived in Clapham.During the 18th century agriculture was gradually transformed by an agricultural revolution. Until 1701 seed was sown by hand. In that year Jethro Tull invented a seed drill, which sowed seed in straight lines. He also invented a horse drawn hoe which hoed the land and destroyed weed between rows of crops.Furthermore until the 18th century most livestock was slaughtered at the beginning of winter because farmers could not grow enough food to feed their animals through the winter months.Until the 18th century most land was divided into 3 fields. Each year 2 fields were sown with crops while the third was left fallow (unused). The Dutch began to grow swedes or turnips on land instead of leaving it fallow. (The turnips restored the soil's fertility). When they were harvested the turnips could be stored to provide food for livestock over the winter. The new methods were popularised in England by a man named Robert 'Turnip' Townsend (1674-1741).Under the 3 field system, which still covered much of England, all the land around a village or small town, was divided into 3 huge fields. Each farmer owned some strips of land in each field. During the 18th century land was enclosed. That means it was divided up so each farmer had all his land in one place instead of scattered across 3 fields. Enclosure allowed farmers to use their land more efficiently.Also in the 18th century farmers like Robert Bakewell began scientific stockbreeding (selective breeding). Farm animals grew much larger and they gave more meat, wool and milk.However despite the improvements in farming food for ordinary people remained plain and monotonous. For them meat was a luxury. They lived mainly on bread, butter, potatoes and tea.In the 18th century a small minority of the population lived in luxury. The rich built great country houses. A famous landscape gardener called Lancelot Brown (1715-1783) created beautiful gardens. (He was known as 'Capability' Brown from his habit of looking at land and saying it had 'great capabilities'). The leading architect of the 18th century was Robert Adam (1728-1792). He created a style called neo-classical and he designed many 18th century country houses.The wealthy owned comfortable upholstered furniture. They owned beautiful furniture, some of it veneered or inlaid. In the 18th century much fine furniture was made by Thomas Chippendale (1718-1779), George Hepplewhite (?-1786) and Thomas Sheraton (1751-1806). The famous clockmaker James Cox (1723-1800) made exquisite clocks for the rich.However the poor had none of these things. Craftsmen and labourers lived in 2 or 3 rooms. The poorest people lived in just one room. Their furniture was very simple and plain.By 1783, Great Britain admits the loss of its 13 Colonies and recognizes the new United States of America. This speeds the trend towards stronger parliaments, less effective monarchs, and eventually improved representation. The slave trade is delivering 100,000 slaves to North America each year, with slaver ships following a triangular trade path from Europe (especially Britain and France) to Africa, to America and back to Europe. Anti-slavery attitudes grow. Penal colonies are established in Australia. Breech-loading guns replace barrel-loaded muskets. The spinning-mule revolutionizes thread spinning and textile industries, and is just as quickly overcome by the steam-driven loom. High quality cast iron can now be made through a continuous process and becomes prolific. Steam improves production in mines, blast furnaces, spinning and weaving factories, paper mills, flour mills and breweries where coal and iron have taken over from wood and water. Education of youth begins in "Sunday Schools", as most youths work in factories during the week. The London Times newspaper begins publication.In the 1790's the revolution in France sparks fierce debate over the freedoms and inherent rights of humanity, leading to thoughts of manhood suffrage, more effective governance, lower taxes and aid for aged and poor. France declares war on Britain, whose challenges are increased by a revolt in Ireland eventually put down through brutal violence, and a rebellion with in the British navy which resulted in better conditions and continued sea defence plus a blockade of French ports. Economic depression caused by war leads to rioting at home among the disenfranchised workers. Smuggling is rampant. Government responses to internal upheavals include banning trade unions, censoring the press, and rounding up subversives. An attempt to abolish slavery across the empire fails. Canada is divided into an upper English half, and lower French half to maintain loyalty in this age of revolution.1701The Act of Settlement is passedJethro Tull invents the seed drill1702 William dies. Anne becomes queen.1704The Duke of Marlborough defeats the French at the Battle of BlenheimThe British capture Gibraltar1706 The Duke of Marlborough defeats the French army at Ramillies1707 The Act of Union joins England and Scotland1708 The Duke of Marlborough defeats the army of Louis XIV at Oudenarde1709Abraham Darby uses coke instead of charcoal to smelt ironThe Duke of Marlborough wins the battle of Malplaquet against the French1712 Newcomen makes steam engines for pumping water out of mines1714 Queen Anne dies. George I becomes king1715 The first Jacobite uprising. The Highlanders rise but the uprising ends in an indecisive battle near Stirling.1719 Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe1720The South Sea Bubble (stocks in the South Sea Company suddenly fall in price and many people lose huge sums of money.)1721Robert Walpole becomes the king's main minister. People call him the Prime Minister. (Originally it was a term of abuse).1723 The great architect Christopher Wren dies.1727George I dies. George II becomes king.Isaac Newton dies1733 John Kay invents the flying shuttle1735 The Prime Minister moves into 10 Downing Street1739The highwayman Dick Turpin is hangedJohn Wesley founds the Methodists1742 Prime Minister Robert Walpole resigns1745 The second Jacobite uprising. The Jacobites invade England and reach as far as Derby but then turn back.1746 The Jacobites are crushed at the battle of Culloden1756 The Seven Years War against France begins1759 General Wolfe captures Quebec but is killed. His victory ensures Canada will be a British colony not a French one.1761 The Bridgwater canal opens1763 The Seven Years War ends1769 James Watt patents an improved steam engine1771 Richard Arkwright introduces a loom powered by a water mill1773 The Stock Exchange is founded1775 Jane Austen is born1779The world's first iron bridge is built in ShropshireSamuel Crompton invents the spinning muleC. 1780The Industrial Revolution begins to transform BritainLord George Gordon leads anti-Catholic riots in London1783 Britain signs a treaty recognising the independence of the American colonies1784Henry Cort invents the 'puddling' process. A new way of making wrought iron. As a result iron production booms.1785Edmund Cartwright invents the power loom (one worked by a steam engine). Cotton production grows very rapidly.1787 The first convicts leave Britain from Portsmouth for Australia1788 Lord Byron is born1792 Gas light is invented1796 Jenner invents vaccination against smallpox1799 Income tax is introduced to pay for the war against France
Thanks for the feedback!

What was NY life like in the 1700's?

Nothing special. In only a few cases the work day was from sunrise until sunset on a year around basis. Work for advancement and work for freedom from servitude was a social n

What were schools like in the late 1700's?

Many girls were not allowed to attend school because they had to  stay home and learn about taking care of the house. Those kids who  attended school were usually wealthy an

England during the 1700's?

  In short, England during the 1700's was a filled with the revolutionaries hating the monarchies and revolting.   In short, England during the 1700's was a filled with

What was England like in the late 1700s?

  England was in poverty. It was overpopulated and over ruled. Petty criminals that got caught were sent on convict ships to Australia to colonize, with sentences of 7year

What Is rural life like in France?

The rural life like in France is very simple and can be defined as  beautiful. Most people do farming on the large farms and also rear  livestock animals among other activit

What is rural life like?

Rural life is like living on the outside of all the commotion In the city they will have traffic, skyscrapers many people and loads of job opportunities In the countryside (ru

What was life like in 1500's in England?

Life in 1500s England was very difficult for most people. There was  a huge divide between the rich and the very poor. Most people were  either nomadic, poor farmers, or ser

What is rural life like in Peru?

As a pastor, I've spread the word of our good lord and savior (JESUS HERBERT CHRIST), to many peoples of many groups. One of those groups being the people of Peru. Rural life