Where did harry tuman drop the atomic bombs?
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
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President Harry Truman authorised and ordered the dropping of the two atomic bombs. He was following up the plans made under the Roosevelt administration. He didn't actually drop it himself, I doubt that he could have even picked it up.
The dropping of the atomic bombs, nicknamed "Little Boy" and "FatMan," on August 6th and 9th, 1945, on the cities of Hiroshima andNagasaki respectively, brought about the immediate andunconditional surrender of Japan. Estimates of allied lives thatwould have been lost in the otherwise inevitable inv…asion numberedin the millions. The moral implications of President Truman'sdecision have been, and will continue to be, the subject of intenseand passionate debate for generations to come. it killed many people, plus caused harm to the environment and manyof the offspring of survivors have mental disabilities and havebeen known to get all types of cancers They were very dangerous the caused a lot of cancers and more, butthe U.S.A. soon didn't use them anymore cause the were killing someof there own people. To end the war sooner, saving American lives (MORE)
Neither he nor the builders knew what the "physical" after effects of the explosion might include. However, Truman may have had several motivations for its use as a weapon. The first was obviously to coerce the surrender of Japan. But he also may have hoped to dissuade the Soviet Union from trying t…o exploit the war to gain territorial concessions. A successful atomic weapon might also extend US foreign power without the need for massive conventional military forces. And to some extent, it did. (MORE)
The Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and the Fat Man was dropped on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. PS: Little Boy and Fat Man are the names of the bombs.
Answer 1 . Harry Truman. Answer 2 Additional Input . Harry S. Truman did not order , the dropping of the atomic bombs. He did approve the order of the "War Department" [now known as the Department of Defense].
The compromise was if Japan wanted to fight more, then Truman was going to drop the bomb and if they surrended, then the bomb wouldn't needed to be dropped.
Two bombs were dropped, Both on the mainland of Japan. One bomb was dropped at Hiroshima on August 6th with the other one being dropped three days later at Nagasaki.
It prevented a conventional invasion of Japan itself and the casualties that would have accompanied that invasion.
The US dropped the atomic bomb because it was the was Truman wanted to end the war. So they dropped 2 bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki 2 major cites in Japan and that ended the war, Japan Finally surrendered and America had won WWII
An attempt (right or wrong) to save Allied lives by unleashing a weapon so terrible that the Japanese would surrender immediately, rather than fight inch by inch to the death - which was the US experience at that time.
The first atomic weapon used in combat was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan on 9 August 1945. The second was dropped three days later, this time on Nagasaki, Japan.
There were two atomic weapons dropped on Japan in 1945. The first was over Hiroshima on August 6th, and the second was over Nagasaki on August 9th.
No he thought it was the best solution and would save millions of american lives, along with the lives of allied troops. He fully supported the idea of dropping the bomb fully.
He thought of it as a necessary evil, and he didn't regret dropping it at all. He preferred the loss of the Japanese lives rather than American soldiers dying.
At the end of World War II, few questioned Truman's decision to drop the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Most Americans accepted the obvious reasoning: the atomic bombings brought the war to a more timely end. They did not have a problem with over one hundred thousand of the enemy being kill…ed. After all, the Japanese attacked America, and not the other way around. In later years, however, many have begun to question the conventional wisdom of "Truman was saving lives," putting forth theories of their own. However, when one examines the issue with great attention to the results of the atomic bombings and compares these results with possible alternatives to using said bombs, the line between truth and fiction begins to clear. Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb on Japan was for the purpose of saving lives and ending the war quickly in order to prevent a disastrous land invasion. (MORE)
\n \n Normal \n 0 \n \n \n \n \n false \n false \n false \n \n EN-US \n X-NONE \n X-NONE \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n …\n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n \n\n Good afternoon fellow members of this\nclass! \n\n 70,000 people were killed by the first bomb\nat Hiroshima but by 1950, another 130,000 people had died. They mostly died\nfrom a sickness that in source 12; (page 99) is described as âthe atomic\nplague or radiation sicknessâ. Radiation sickness is described more in source\n11 (page 99). \n\n I think that Truman shouldnât have dropped\nthe bomb because he killed innocent people and their families as shown in source\n6 (page 101). I think that he may have wanted to save lives but more than\nanything he wanted power and to prove that he had won the war. I think given a\nlittle more time to the Japanese, they would have surrendered. I agree with\nGeneral Eisenhowerâs comment â We\ndidnât need to hit them with that awful thingâ. \n\n One of Trumanâs motives was âdropping the\nbomb will end the war quickly and will save the lives of our soldiers. This tells us that he didnât care about the\ninnocent Japanese people who were going to be killed. All he cared about was\nsaving his soldiers lives. He also dropped the bomb so that he could show the\nRussians who he called âcommunistsâ that he had more power. \n\n. I donât think at all Truman was\nright to drop the bomb as he said that it was just a test to see how bad the\naffects were. If that was the case why couldnât he of dropped it on a deserted\nisland. Why did Truman drop it? Truman said he was ending the war and saving\nAmerican lives but even though he did end the war, the Japanese were going to\nsurrender anyway. Another reason he dropped it was to scare the Russians and to\nshow them that U.S.A was the number 1 country, but does a number 1 country drop\na bomb that was unnecessary. \n\n \n\n (MORE)
If Hirohito had decided that regardless of what happened, the Japanese would never surrender, it could have been decades before we brought Japan to heel, and the country would have been destroyed. The Japanese people were unimpressed by the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: more had died in… the firebombings of Tokyo, and neither events made the Japanese people lose heart. Hirohito, however, saw that, yes, Japan could keep fighting to the end, but his country would face utter destruction. We hoped that the prospect of unending destruction from the sky (we were bluffing, we only had 2 bombs and we used them both) would cause those in power to surrender. Luckily, we were right. Hindsight is 20/20, and anyone who says we should not have used the a bomb is not aware of all the issues, but at the time it could easily have made little difference. (MORE)
They dropped it because japan refused to make efforts to end the war peacefully, and would not give on fighting the war until the US controlled every Japanese island.
These are the reasons for the criticisms of the atomic bomb usage. . They were responsible for the destruction of two cities. . They were responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousandsof people. . They were responsible for the radiation poison in Japan and thenearby sea waters and lands. . …They caused people to die from radiation poisoning. . They helped to spark the Cold War and the nuclear armsrace. . There is still a team of Japanese and American scientistsdealing with the after affects of the radiation sicknesses andlevels of radiation. . They cost over 2 Billion dollars in the 1940s. . The Japanese Military leaders were not impressed by the bombsbecause the incendiary bombs dropped all over Japan causedsignificantly more damage and deaths. . The Japanese would have surrendered sooner if the Allied Forceshad amended their surrender demand to allow the Emperor to remainin place. They could have avoided dropping the bombs if they hadnegotiated with the Japanese. (MORE)
In a 1986 study, historian and journalist Edwin P. Hoyt nailed the"great myth, perpetuated by well-meaning people throughout theworld," that "the atomic bomb caused the surrender of Japan." In Japan's War: The Great Pacific Conflict (p. 420), heexplained: "The fact is that as far as the Japanese mi…litarists wereconcerned, the atomic bomb was just another weapon. The two atomicbombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were icing on the cake, and did notdo as much damage as the firebombings of Japanese cities. The B-29firebombing campaign had brought the destruction of 3,100,000homes, leaving 15 million people homeless, and killing about amillion of them. It was the ruthless firebombing, and Hirohito'srealization that if necessary the Allies would completely destroyJapan and kill every Japanese to achieve "unconditional surrender"that persuaded him to the decision to end the war. The atomic bombis indeed a fearsome weapon, but it was not the cause of Japan'ssurrender, even though the myth persists even to this day." In a trenchant new book, The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb (Praeger, 1996), historianDennis D. Wainstock concludes that the bombings were not onlyunnecessary, but were based on a vengeful policy that actuallyharmed American interests. He writes (pp. 124, 132): ... By April 1945, Japan's leaders realized that the war was lost.Their main stumbling block to surrender was the United States'insistence on unconditional surrender. They specifically needed toknow whether the United States would allow Hirohito to remain onthe throne. They feared that the United States would depose him,try him as a war criminal, or even execute him ... Unconditionalsurrender was a policy of revenge, and it hurt America's nationalself-interest. It prolonged the war in both Europe and East Asia,and it helped to expand Soviet power in those areas. GeneralDouglas MacArthur, Commander of US Army forces in the Pacific,stated on numerous occasions before his death that the atomic bombwas completely unnecessary from a military point of view: "My staffwas unanimous in believing that Japan was on the point of collapseand surrender." General Curtis LeMay, who had pioneered precisionbombing of Germany and Japan (and who later headed the StrategicAir Command and served as Air Force chief of staff), put it mostsuccinctly: "The atomic bomb had nothing to do with the end of thewar. Source: Weber, Mark "Was Hiroshima Necessary? Why the AtomicBombings could have been avoided" The Journal of Historical Review , May-June 1997 (Vol. 16, No.3), pages 4-11. (MORE)
President Truman stated that he needed to end the war and to collapse Japan's means to make war ever again and it did.
Truman knew nothing of the Manhattan Project or the bomb until after he was sworn in as president. It was extremely secret. He did know, however, that the US military was already planning for the invasions of the first of the Home Islands of Japan, with one landing projected for November 1945, an…d another for March, 1946. Estimates were that there might be as many as one million American casualties in the first of these. And, it was assumed that all the Japanese would die. The military would either fight until exterminated, or commit suicide, and the civilians would try to fight or commit suicide as well. There had been mass suicides of Japanese civilians on Saipan and Okinawa, people throwing their children off cliffs and leaping after, rather than be overrun by the Americans. So, when Truman was told of the bomb program and its potential, he had to think about it. Finally, he realized that when it became known that the US had developed and possessed a weapon which might have won the war, but that he had ordered it not to be used, instead sending hundreds of thousands of Americans to their deaths, to say nothing of the millions of Japanese, that the American people would have his head. After weighing it out, he came to the conclusion that the bombs had to be tried, if it was possible this might shock the Japanese into surrendering their hopeless war, rather than have the war degenerate into a complete bloodbath. As he said to an aide upon making the decision, using the bomb " was right", under the conditions then existing. Everybody wishes it had not been necessary, and today there is a tendency to blame Truman or try to read evil into the decision. This perception flows from ignorance of the type of war Japan had carried on for four years, their stubborn refusal to give in, and their inevitable fight to the very last man for every flyspeck island. The next islands were the Japanese homeland, and the Japanese were expected to fight ten times harder for those. They had just demonstrated on Iwo Jima and Okinawa that the closer the US approached to their homeland, the more fanatical their defense. (MORE)
The first atomic bomb has been dropped by a United States aircraft on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. President Harry S Truman, announcing the news from the cruiser, USS Augusta, in the mid-Atlantic, said the device was more than 2,000 times more powerful than the largest bomb used to date. An accur…ate assessment of the damage caused has so far been impossible due to a huge cloud of impenetrable dust covering the target. Hiroshima is one of the chief supply depots for the Japanese army. The bomb was dropped from an American B-29 Superfortress, known as Enola Gay, at 0815 local time. The plane's crew say they saw a column of smoke rising and intense fires springing up... (MORE)
Yes, on August 9, 1945, three days after Hiroshima was bombed. It was a different type of bomb from Hiroshima though. The bomb dropped on Hiroshima was made by splitting uranium atoms, and was nicknamed Little Boy. However, the bomb dropped on Nagasaki was plutonium. It was nicknamed Fat Man and …was the same type as the first A-bomb tested at Alamogordo, NM. (MORE)
Unfortunately it was the only credible choice for the Allies in WWII. Japan did want to surrender (to surrender in Japan was to lose face). The battles for Iwo Jima and Okinawa were bloodbaths for both sides. An island invasion of Japan would have cost probably a million casualties for both the Alli…es and Japan. Dropping the two atom bombs was difficult but the only realistic choice for the Allies and Japan. Japan soon surrendered after Nagasaki was bombed. (MORE)
Hiroshima - August 6 1945 - 8.15 am Nagasaki - August 9 1945 - 11.02 am
Leaflets were dropped over Japan warning them of a "big bomb" but not naming it as an atom bomb. They were told to get their government to surrender or the big bomb would be dropped. The Military Leaders were asked to surrender again.
"Fat Man" was dropped over the city of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945 on 10:47 A.M.
Many people opposed President Truman's decision to drop the atomic bombs because the Japanese were already on the losing end of the war. However, Truman didn't want to risk the loss of many more American soldiers with an invasion of Japan. So, to put it in layman's terms, he blow'd them up. Twice (F…irst Nagasaki, then Hiroshima). (MORE)
Because it was released from an aircraft and as the bomb was heavier than air it fell under gravity.
Because that's who they were fighting at the time. It would have been silly to drop it in, say, Germany, which had already surrendered, or Italy, which was on the same side by that point in the war, or Canada, which had ALWAYS been on the Allied side. More seriously, it was dropped to avoid a large…-scale invasion of the Japanese islands, which was at the time considered the only other means of reaching the Allied goal of unconditional surrender and would have resulted in FAR greater casualties, most of them Japanese civilians, and most likely also in Japan being divided in the same way that Germany turned into the BRD and the DDR. (MORE)
The higher command had it's views and the President had another one. Here is what was going on. General Dwight Eisenhower - I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly bec…ause I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of "face". Robert Oppenheimer (He was in charge on creating these weapons talking with Tibbets, the pilot in charge of dropping the bomb) - Your biggest problem may be after the bomb has left your aircraft. The shock waves from the detonation could crush your plane. I am afraid that I can give you no guarantee that you will survive. Deke Parsons - The bomb you are going to drop is something new in the history of warfare. It is the most destructive weapon ever produced. We think it will knock out almost everything within a three-mile radius. No one knows exactly what will happen when the bomb is dropped from the air. Even if it exploded at the planned altitude of 1850 feet it might crack the earth's crust. The explosion's flash of light would be much brighter than the sun and could cause blindness. Now, the President stated that the weapon will end the war and save lives so he went on and ordered the attack. (MORE)
Because it ended the war, and it caused a lot of destruction down in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People melted in an instant. I'm Japanese.
1. USA needed to demonstrate its power and to examine the power ofnuclear weapon. 2. It was the fastest and easiest way to end war with Japan. From Source: Weber, Mark "Was Hiroshima Necessary? Why the AtomicBombings could have been avoided" The Journal of Historical Review , May-June 1997 (Vol. 1…6, No.3), pages 4-11. In April and May 1945, Japan made three attempts through neutralSweden and Portugal to bring the war to a peaceful end. On April 7,acting Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu met with Swedishambassador Widon Bagge in Tokyo, asking him "to ascertain whatpeace terms the United States and Britain had in mind." But heemphasized that unconditional surrender was unacceptable, and that"the Emperor must not be touched." Bagge relayed the message to theUnited States, but Secretary of State Stettinius told the USAmbassador in Sweden to "show no interest or take any initiative inpursuit of the matter." Similar Japanese peace signals throughPortugal, on May 7, and again through Sweden, on the 10th, provedsimilarly fruitless. By mid-June, six members of Japan's Supreme War Council hadsecretly charged Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo with the task ofapproaching Soviet Russia's leaders "with a view to terminating thewar if possible by September." On June 22 the Emperor called ameeting of the Supreme War Council, which included the PrimeMinister, the Foreign Minister, and the leading military figures."We have heard enough of this determination of yours to fight tothe last soldiers," said Emperor Hirohito. "We wish that you,leaders of Japan, will strive now to study the ways and the meansto conclude the war. In doing so, try not to be bound by thedecisions you have made in the past." By early July the US had intercepted messages from Togo to theJapanese ambassador in Moscow, Naotake Sato, showing that theEmperor himself was taking a personal hand in the peace effort, andhad directed that the Soviet Union be asked to help end the war. USofficials also knew that the key obstacle to ending the war wasAmerican insistence on "unconditional surrender," a demand thatprecluded any negotiations. The Japanese were willing to acceptnearly everything, except turning over their semi-divine Emperor.Heir of a 2,600-year-old dynasty, Hirohito was regarded by hispeople as a "living god" who personified the nation. (Until theAugust 15 radio broadcast of his surrender announcement, theJapanese people had never heard his voice.) Japanese particularlyfeared that the Americans would humiliate the Emperor, and evenexecute him as a war criminal. On July 12, Hirohito summoned Fumimaro Konoye, who had served asprime minister in 1940-41. Explaining that "it will be necessary toterminate the war without delay," the Emperor said that he wishedKonoye to secure peace with the Americans and British through theSoviets. As Prince Konoye later recalled, the Emperor instructedhim "to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity." The next day, July 13, Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo wiredambassador Naotake Sato in Moscow: "See [Soviet foreign minister]Molotov before his departure for Potsdam ... Convey His Majesty'sstrong desire to secure a termination of the war ... Unconditionalsurrender is the only obstacle to peace ..." On July 17, another intercepted Japanese message revealed thatalthough Japan's leaders felt that the unconditional surrenderformula involved an unacceptable dishonor, they were convinced that"the demands of the times" made Soviet mediation to terminate thewar absolutely essential. Further diplomatic messages indicatedthat the only condition asked by the Japanese was preservation of"our form of government." The only "difficult point," a July 25message disclosed, "is the ... formality of unconditionalsurrender." Summarizing the messages between Togo and Sato, US navalintelligence said that Japan's leaders, "though still balking atthe term unconditional surrender," recognized that the war waslost, and had reached the point where they have "no objection tothe restoration of peace on the basis of the  AtlanticCharter." These messages, said Assistant Secretary of the NavyLewis Strauss, "indeed stipulated only that the integrity of theJapanese Royal Family be preserved." Navy Secretary James Forrestal termed the intercepted messages"real evidence of a Japanese desire to get out of the war." "Withthe interception of these messages," notes historian Alperovitz (p.177), "there could no longer be any real doubt as to the Japaneseintentions; the maneuvers were overt and explicit and, most of all,official acts. Koichi Kido, Japan's Lord Privy Seal and a closeadvisor to the Emperor, later affirmed: "Our decision to seek a wayout of this war, was made in early June before any atomic bomb hadbeen dropped and Russia had not entered the war. It was already ourdecision." In spite of this, on July 26 the leaders of the United States andBritain issued the Potsdam declaration, which included this grimultimatum: "We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim nowthe unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces and toprovide proper and adequate assurance of good faith in such action.The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction." Commenting on this draconian either-or proclamation, Britishhistorian J.F.C. Fuller wrote: "Not a word was said about theEmperor, because it would be unacceptable to the propaganda-fedAmerican masses." ( AMilitary History of the Western World , p. 675.) America's leaders understood Japan's desperate position: theJapanese were willing to end the war on any terms, as long as theEmperor was not molested. If the US leadership had not insisted onunconditional surrender -- that is, if they had made clear awillingness to permit the Emperor to remain in place -- theJapanese very likely would have surrendered immediately, thussaving many thousands of lives. The sad irony is that, as it actually turned out, the Americanleaders decided anyway to retain the Emperor as a symbol ofauthority and continuity. They realized, correctly, that Hirohitowas useful as a figurehead prop for their own occupation authorityin postwar Japan. On August 6, 1945, the world dramatically entered the atomic age:without either warning or precedent, an American plane dropped asingle nuclear bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Theexplosion utterly destroyed more than four square miles of the citycenter. About 90,000 people were killed immediately; another 40,000were injured, many of whom died in protracted agony from radiationsickness. Three days later, a second atomic strike on the city ofNagasaki killed some 37,000 people and injured another 43,000.Together the two bombs eventually killed an estimated 200,000Japanese civilians. (MORE)
President Truman wanted to end the war and to collapse Japan's means to make war. He ordered the bombs with no regrets.
It killed tens of thousands of incident people . Its radiation effects people to this day . Gave a lot of people cancer . Increased anti-Americanism . would just breed resentment .
Hiroshima, August 6, 1945: MK-i Little Boy Uranium gun mechanism . Nagasaki, August 9, 1945: MK-III Fat Man Plutonium implosion mechanism
no only blacks did . no the US dropped 2 on Japan. Japan has never had nuclear weapons.
An instant war victory, or letting the world see the strength of the U.S. would be the most obvious.
It saved millions of Russian, Japanese, American, Canadian, British and Australian lives by preventing the invasion of mainland Japan. . The amount of lives lost in the bombing was not even close to the amount of Japanese who would have died during the invasion of Japan. . The war ended AT LAST.
They were dropped from airplanes-- B-29 bombers. The bombers flewalone so they would not attract attention and have Japanesefighters zooming up to try to shoot them down. The bombers were uphigh. I think the atomic bombs had small parachutes attached tothem to slow their fall and give the airplanes …extra time to getaway. I think the bombs were triggered to detonate when theyreached a certain height a few thousand feet above the ground--this would cause more damage then to have the bombs actually hitthe ground first and then blow up. Neither of the bombs dropped on Japan hadparachutes , they were freefall gravity bombs withRADAR fuses set for about 1500 feet altitude. The B-29s flew to thetarget as a group of 3: bomber, instrumentation, and photographyplanes. Some of the instruments deployed by the instrumentationplane used parachutes. The photography plane stayed at a safedistance. The bomber plane dropped the bomb then performed a sharpdiving turn maneuver (that actually exceeded the designstress limits of the B-29) to gain enough speed to run away toa safe distance (estimated to be at least 9 miles) beforedetonation. These shots were as much tests of experimental devicesas they were uses of powerful weapons. About a dozen "pumpkin" bombs, conventional bombs having the sameweight, size, and drop characteristics as the Fatman atomic bombbut impact fuses instead of RADAR fuses were dropped in identical 3plane practice missions, starting in late July. Besides giving thecrews practice, this gave the Japanese air defence forcesexperience with these insignificant attacks causing themto reduce their tendency to scramble fighters against the realattack when it came. (MORE)
That's a great question and difficult to answer. With most historical events, it depends on perspective. While most Americans support the decision, I would guess that a significant number of Japanese might feel differently. Given the factors of a costly war, an implacable enemy and a new technology,… I think history will show the decision to bomb Hiroshima was justified. But I spoke with a Japanese gentleman who had lived through it and he felt the second bomb was unnecessary. The people of Japan had barely enough time to register what had happened before the second device was detonated three days later over Nagasaki. (MORE)
Japan refused to surrender in WW2 and as a response the United States decided to test their latest most devastating weapon which was used to destroy Hiroshima and Nagasaki therefore making japan forfeit and declare the United States the winner.
President Truman wanted to end the war and collapse Japan's means to make war ever again.
There were two, one on august 6 1945 and the other on the 9 th .
This is a massively complicated moral question. You will have to develop your own opinion.
Atomic bombs were not dropped in Europe because the United States (along with help from England, Canada, and Austrailia) did not complete the first atomic bombs until after Germany surrendered.
No- he ORDERED the use of the Atomic bombs. The bombs were actually dropped by the bombadier of each of the two aircraft.
The nuclear bombs were dropped in World War 2 thus ending the war. It was on august 6 and 9 1945, when Hiroshima and Nagasaki, both on Japan lost one third of the population as the cause from the blasts.
In this way he hoped to achieve the immediate surrender of Japanand avoid the necessity of invading mainland Japan, which accordingto most estimates at the time would have cost a lot oflives, Japanese as well as American.