Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

In an effort to end the pacific theatre of WWII, President Harry S. Truman ordered the dropping of two nuclear bombs on two Japanese cities: Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The death toll of the bombings was more than 200,000 people. Ask questions about anything related to this event here.

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World War 2
Japan in WW2
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings
Atomic Bombs

What are arguments for and against the atomic bombings of Japan being justified?

Here are summaries of opinions from FAQ Farmers on the moral or immoral nature of the decision to bomb Japan with nuclear weapons. Fewer Americans died * The war in the Pacific had been raging for almost four years. The two battles immediately preceeding the bomb decision were Iwo Jima and Okinawa, two battles where the Japanese fought to the death and the cost in American casualties was horrific. It was predicted that the invasion of the Japanese mainland at the Island of Kyushu -- scheduled for November of 1945 -- would be even worse. The entire Japanese military and civilian population would fight to the death. American casualties -- just for that initial invasion to get a foothold on the island of Japan would have taken up to an estimated two months and would have resulted in up to 75,000 to 100,000 casualties -- up to 20,000 dead! And that was just the beginning. Once the island of Kyushu was captured by U.S. troops, the remainder of Japan would follow. You can just imagine the cost in injuries and lives this would take. * Estimated US casualties for Operation OLYMPIC & CORONET were 250,000 along with 1,000,000 Japanese civilian casualties. In the parlance of the young, "this is a no-brainer." * It is not beyond the possibility that a million or more Americans could have been killed had we landed. The Japanese had correctly guessed where we intended to land, and were ready and waiting for us. The casualties would have been high. One American tanker walked around the area he was to have assaulted had we landed. According to him most of the "roads" marked on his map were not roads, but simply foot paths. He felt that tanks would have played a very small part in the fighting. It would have been more fighting against caves, and suicide attacks. * The bomb was dropped with a desire to SAVE LIVES. It is a matter of math. How many Americans lost their lives fighting how many Japanese at Tarawa, Iwo Jima, Okinawa. The mathematical formula showed the closer we got to Japan the more we lost. Next, one must calculate how many Japanese military people were still in Japan. Add to that figure the fact that women were being trained to fight. Before you say the women would not fight please remember that many women on Okinawa committed suicide fearing all the stories they were told about what the Americans would do to them if they surrendered. * Perhaps your grandfathers were among the 18-26 year old American GI's who had managed to survive the war in Europe. If so, on August 6, 1945, they were with approximately a million other boys on the way to the Pacific. At least 50-80% of them were expected to die in the invasion of the Japanese home islands. Since most of these young men were not yet married, your grandfathers had not yet married your grandmothers, so if they did not come back, then your parents would never be born and therefore you would not be here to second-guess historical decisions. * People can argue all they want about what the true U.S. government estimates of U.S. casualties in an invasion of Japan were. Doesn't matter. I can guarantee you that 99.9% of the soldiers, sailors and airmen involved in the actual combat, or training for the upcoming invasion were convinced that the invasion of Japan would be a bloodbath. I have never heard or read of any American military person who was involved in the late stages of fighting in the war with Japan who was not glad that the atomic bombs were dropped to end the war. Japanese civilians died * Yes, war is war, and death in war is redundant, you must realize, that death in war is only legal if it is military death and not civilian death, unless the civilians pick up arms and fight back (then in that case they would be considered combatants). * To say that the U.S. was justified in dropping the bombs, one would have to believe the maxim "the end justifies the means." * Bombs in general should seldom be used especially those of this magnitude. Fewer Japanese civilians died * The largest number of people killed in a single B-29 raid was not at Hiroshima, but at Tokyo, with conventional firebombs. Some 80,000-100,00 people killed. The problem was that even with the savage firebombing, the pathetic idiot military elite that was in charge of Japan DIDN'T CARE! They didn't care how much suffering their people had to endure. Surrender was NOT going to happen! Real men, real samurai NEVER SURRENDER! The voices of reason calling for surrender, for beginning negotiations with America were shouted down. Thus, more than anything else, the atomic bomb gave Emperor Hirohito the "face-saving" boost that he needed to tell these idiots that the time had come for Japan to surrender. It was one thing to surrender in the face of battle against an enemy with conventional bombs and weapons. It was another thing to face the seemingly supernatural force of atomic weapons. No matter that the atomic bombs actually killed fewer Japanese per city and were thus LESS EFFECTIVE than conventional firebombs. No, atomic weapons were a supernatural force that the Americans now controlled and so this was a good reason to stop fighting finally. * When you compare with simple math, the dropping of the bombs took less lives than if we had tried to invade Japan. That's true for Japanese lives as well as American lives. Japanese lives were saved as a direct result of those bombs. * The Japanese casualties (not including mass suicides as seen on Okinawa) were expected to be 5 to 10 times that of the Allies in an invasion. As many as 20 million Japanese men, women and children might have died in a bloody invasion. Saving lives in a worthy goal. Sadly some had to die that others might live. * While the atomic bombs, just as ANY bombs, were an unpleasant way to die, in the long run it saved lives and brought WW 2 to an end. Six long and costly years of world-wide death and destruction came to an end, thanks to the courageous decision made by President Truman. * How many Japanese would have died as we invaded the islands of Japan? Every city could have been leveled, every rice paddy, all utilities, sewers, etc. What bullets and bombs didn't kill the diseases that followed would finish. Certainly that figure would have exceeded those that died BY FAR all those that died from the two bombs dropped. * After having fought through Iwo Jima, Saipan, Guam, and Okinawa, there was no doubt that the Japanese people and their leaders would fight until the last man, woman, and child. If the Emperor had not instructed his subjects to stop fighting after Nagasaki they were prepared to resist tanks and artillery with sticks and stones until the last man, woman, and child perished. * An invasion of the Japanese mainland would have been a blood-bath for both sides. One could ask if cutting off the arm of a man is just. If that arm has gangrene and will kill the man slowly if not amputated, then it is indeed just. It does not matter that the arm is "innocent." Radiation is more horrible than conventional bombs * The radiation released from the bombs is still causing problems in Japan today. Many people died because of exposure to radiation. I understand that the people back then did not know the effects of an atomic explosion, they just thought that they were super bombs. And I also acknowledge the fact that invading Japan itself will cause high casualties on both sides. But, civilians are not suppose to protect the soldiers with their lives, it is the other way around! In a war, the deaths of 1 million soldiers are better than the death of 1 civilian, because civilians are innocent and soldiers are not. Surrendered soldiers are also innocent. I know that many soldiers were conscripted and do not want to fight, well too bad, blame the war. * The atomic bomb leaves behind radiation. And not just where the bomb exploded, the wind carried the particles around. The radiation is what makes the bomb so controversial. Yes, the US achieved its goals, but, after the bombings and up to 4 months afterwards, tens of thousands of people died of illness directly related to radiation poisoning. Is this justifiable by saying that more people would have died if the US invaded Japan? Maybe it is, I'm not saying it isnt, but the thing is, even if more people died, dying of radiation sickness or watching as the skin melt off of you is much worse than being shot to death, or dying while fighting to protect the land you love. * Can you really compare any type of bombing to atomic bombing which does have the factor of radiation poisioning which lead to cancers such as Leukemia. Does anybody deserve this destroyer of lives to be dropped on them? Several women had the intricate designs from their Kimonos burned into their flesh! The US wanted to kill as many civilians as possible * The bombs were nothing more than senseless civilian casualties in an already bloody war. * Supposedly the U.S. used the bomb on a military target. The reality is that Hiroshima was chosen not because there was a weapons plant nearby, but because it was a highly populated urbanized city. The site was chosen to showcase the full destructive power that the U.S. had available. Hiroshima and Nagasaki were military targets * One may think that the US chose to bomb the most populated areas only to kill many innocent civilians, but this is ridiculous to anyone who has studied history. The two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were chosen because they were industrialized and military ports. All nations in WWII killed civilians * Like it or not there was little distinction between civilians and soldiers in WWII owing to the industrial nature of the war. The military could not operate without a functioning civilian economic base. All the major players targeted industry, communication and transportation of their opponents. This is in addition to directly attacking civilians in the hope of fostering terror. Of all the nations the U.S. had the luck of geography that Germany and Japan really could not hit the mainland US. They tried. * This was World War II. Bombs were dropped. People died. It happened in most participant nations and most of them dropped bombs of their own. If they didn't, it was only because they didn't have any to drop. I cannot for the life of me understand what difference it makes what type of bomb was dropped by whom. Japan wanted to bomb the US * The Japanese had a secret atomic bomb project. Is there any doubt they would have use it if they had succeeded in perfecting the bomb? The Japanese were not innocent * Just four years earlier the Japanese invaded us at Pearl Harbor without warning, bringing the US into World War II. We at least gave Japan a warning and they still wouldn't surrender. It had to be done. * Read "Rape of Nanking", a book about Japanese atrocities in China during WWII. Talk to some of the older people of China, Korea, Singapore, etc. who experienced WWII at the hands of the Japanese military. I would challenge you to find a single Asian person of that generation with personal experience of the Japanese invasions of their country who is not PROFOUNDLY GLAD that Japan got atomic bombed. My personal references in this case are my own parents and my two in-laws. Uniformly, their response to this would be: "Yes! Japan deserved getting atomic bombed!" To this day, the people of Asia have still not forgotten or forgiven Japan for its many atrocities of WWII and earlier. * The dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan has allowed the Japanese to maintain this myth that THEY were just as much victims of WWII as all the people of Asia and the Allied soldiers who died at their hands. Has anybody ever wondered why Germany does not have similar fantasies of victimhood? We have the Holocaust to "thank" for this. The death camps in Germany were kept as monuments to Nazi atrocities and the Nuremberg trials exposed the war criminals. Only the most egregious Japanese war criminals were put on trial. The bombings had nothing to do with Japan, it was about the Cold War * The real reason America used these weapons was to show Russia that the US possessed them. There would have been a Soviet occupation * The invasion was set for November 1, 1945. By that time, the USSR would have fought long enough to have a say in the partition of the Japanese island group and perhaps even Tokyo itself. The impact of Soviet occupation upon Japan and the part it could have played in Korea and the Cold War cannot be calculated. All war is unjust * I'm not sure anyone person is capable of answering this question. If you ask a Japanese or German who lost family members during the bombing of Hiroshima or firebombing of Dresden, you might get a different answer. Then ask a London resident during the bombing and rocket attacks of WW2 and see what he or she says. * Was dropped the atomic bombs a nice, humane thing to do? No, it has been a long time if ever that warfare has been a noble art. Did it save lives in the long run? Yes. * It is very hard to walk in the shoes of the people who made the decisions in 1945 especially when some of the greatest "concerns" people have today are what Paris Hilton is wearing or who just got booted off of Survivor. * I believe the notions of Just and Unjust are incompatible with war. Moral standards are created to facilitate civilian societies. Any attempt at reasoning within the same conceptual framework during a war collapses immediately. Formally, the USA had a right to drop the bomb, by international law of the time. Her territories had been violated and there was a state of war. The USA committed no crime of any national or international kind when dropping the A bombs. In fact, the USA was not even subject to international conventions in her relation to Japan, as Japan had not signed any. Even if the USA had been subject to Geneva and Hague in her relation with Japan, as she unilaterally declared herself to feel, the only applicable rule would have been proportionality. * In war, the objective is to defeat your enemy and keep your own men alive. The point of war is to win, not to make friends. I'm sorry if you see this as a cold response, but when it comes to war, the moral thoughts that govern society are not the same morals that govern the military. Japan was already losing * Japan was losing in 1945. It was only a matter of time before Japan lost the war. The bombings ended the war * Japan was not about to fold. The military attempts to prevent the emperor from capitulating are an indication of this. * As is not always realized, the U.S. asked Japan to surrender before the dropping of the first bomb, and yet we got no response after the first bomb, thus as a result, we dropped our last atomic bomb on Nagasaki, resulting in Japan's full surrender. * Justification is so often seen by various sides of the argument from their own perspective. What seems just to one side is dismissed by another. Truman's decision to drop the bombs was undoubtedly right. Even after the second bomb was detonated, the Japanese still did not surrender for another week! The US kept up round the clock bombing by B-29s until the moment of surrender. * Even after Hirohito made the tape of his speech of surrender, to be broadcast the following day, a group of diehard military officers attempted a coup and tried to snatch the tape. General Mori of the Imperial Guards was murdered in the coup (he refused to divulge the location of the tape), the plotters were unable to find the tape, and the coup failed. Japan was in the grip of fanatics. The United States in the latter days of WW2 was faced with a terrible dilemma. The Japanese are a proud, courageous and determined people. Japanese men, women and children were willing to die for the emperor. The invasion of Japan was necessary to end the war, because the Japanese would "lose face" if they considered surrender. In August of 1944 the war in Europe was over and the face off between the United States and Japan had finally arrived. The United States had to choose between sending hundreds of thousands of US soldiers, many freshly off the battlefields of Europe, to invade Japan killing and being killed by the hundreds of thousands, or dropping a newly developed weapon called the atomic bomb on two cities in Japan which would result in tens of thousands of civilian lives with little cost to US servicemen. The only hope of ending the war quickly and honorably was to drop the bombs. Calls for surrender were ignored and repugnent to the Japanese hierarchy; Okinawa and Iwo Jima had shown clearly what an invasion of Japan would be like. The decision was made, the bombs were dropped, the war was ended and both military and civilian lives were saved by both countries. !03,000 people died at the time and a further 1000 over the next 30 years, although many are living (and dying) with the effects.

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Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

Which two cities were destroyed by atomic bombs during World War 2?

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings
Atomic Bombs

What are the names of the planes that dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

The names of the planes that dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki are Enola Gay and Bockscar.

On August 6, 1945, at 9:15 AM Tokyo time, a B-29 plane, the "Enola Gay" piloted by Paul W. Tibbets, dropped a uranium atomic bomb, code named "Little Boy" on Hiroshima, Japan's seventh largest city. In minutes, half of the city vanished. According to U.S. estimates, 60,000 to 70,000 people were killed or missing, 140,000 were injured many more were made homeless as a result of the bomb. Deadly radiation reached over 100,000. In the blast, thousands died instantly. The city was unbelievably devastated. Of its 90,000 buildings, over 60,000 were demolished.

The second atomic bomb, named "Fat Man," was dropped on Nagasaki, by Bockscar.

Bockscar is the name of the U. S. Army Air Forces B-29 bomber that dropped the the atomic bomb, "Fat Man," on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. The name, which is painted on the aircraft is a pun on "boxcar," after the name of the aircraft's commander, Captain Frederick C. Bock. For this mission, however, it was Major Charles Sweeney who flew Bockscar. Some official and unofficial documents have mistakenly called the plane Bock's Car, Bocks Car and Boxcar over the years.

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Mobile Phones
US Army
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

Where ADB headquarter situated?

HUMAN RESOURCES DIVISION

ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK

P.O. BOX 789, 0980 MANILA, PHILIPPINES

Fax: (63-2) 636-2550

In the related links box below, I posted the website.

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What was Hiroshima like before the atom bomb?

I got you the link where you could see the change posted in the related links box below.

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Japan in WW2
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

How long did it take for the radiation levels in Hiroshima to go back to normal?

Hard fact are needed to explain the situation that these nuclear devices have created. I recommend The Idealist website on this topic which I posted it in the related links box below.

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How many were killed in hiroshima and nagasaki combined?

  • 90,000-166,000 killed in Hiroshima
  • 60,000-80,000 killed in Nagasaki
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Japan
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

What island is nagasaki on in japan?

It is located on of the four big islands in Japan, called Kyushu. Which means 9 states/countries but in current days there are only 7 prefectures.

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Nuclear Weapons
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How much uranium reacted in the little boy?

The bomb contained about 64 kg of uranium. Of this amount, probably less than a kilogram actually underwent fission, and the energy release was consistent with the transformation of about a half a gram of matter being converted to energy.

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Were the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki absolutely necessary to ensure the capitulation of Japan?

Well, let's first think of Japan's demands for surrender right before the atomic bombings to get a look at Japan's view.

Imperial Japan demanded the following concessions for their surrender.

  1. They wanted to keep their emperor, and they wanted to keep the home Islands (Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku)
  2. They wanted the Imperial Headquarters to oversee the disarmament and demobilization of their military.
  3. They wanted to have the Japanese government be responsible for punishing war criminals
  4. They wanted no American occupation of Formosa (Taiwan) and Korea.

Contrary to what most people would think, in terms of standard morality and human decency, most of these demands were unreasonable. Keeping the emperor and the home islands were basic points that the American government had long since anticipated and privately accepted before the bombing, but the last 3 points were outright immoral. First off, Japan's high command was literally split between 2 factions: the Emperor and his pro-surrender faction versus the Imperial military (the no-surrender faction). Leaving the disarmament of the military in the hands of people who did NOT want to surrender even at the risk of death was obviously not something the Americans would have liked.

Furthermore, Imperial Japan had committed as many war crimes as the Nazis such as human massacres, human experimentation and torture under Unit 731, and forced conscription of people in their colonies as soldiers. The entire Imperial high command was aware of these atrocities (the emperor himself later acknowledged these), but did nothing to stop it until Japan surrendered. Thus, it can be assumed that allowing the Japanese government to try its own generals and officers for war crimes is in essence a ludicrous idea. It's like asking a unrepentant criminal to be in charge of punishing himself for his crimes: it's just not going to happen.

As for the last concession, allowing Japan to keep Formosa and Korea would not have been a good idea. Just a few months before the atomic bombings, the Imperial Military of Japan massacred over a 100,000 civilians in Manila as a last ditch payback for losing battles. Statistics vary, but given that Japan had killed several hundred thousand Koreans via forced labor during their occupation, allowing Japan to keep the two countries would not be conducive for the well being of human lives. Given the prevalent policies of forced labor, Japan wold have likely used the two colonies for forced labor to recover from its losses in the war, killing hundreds of thousands if not millions more.

Strictly speaking, if the question is to be read as "Would the Japanese have surrendered if the US did not use the Atomic Bomb?" the answer is that Japan would have surrendered, but at a cost of millions of lives all across the pacific, even when you exclude USA casualties. Given that war is inherently immoral, the only determining factor is whether the atomic bombing killed fewer people than the alternative. The atomic bombing worked in this logic: kill 200,000 people to save millions. It was cruel, but also the lesser of the two evils.

As a benchmark, we know the Japanese effectively stopped fighting by August 14th, after the use of the Atomic Bombs.

Note that the Japanese Imperial Council was currently split almost evenly into pro-surrender, and no-surrender-at-any-cost factions. However, the military was almost entirely on the no-surrender side, and it is highly unlikely that they would have obeyed the civilian faction to surrender, even if that faction was the majority. As such, the US faced a situation where the government of Japan would surrender, but the armed forces would continue to fight.

So, what forces the military faction into recognizing defeat? In real life, the use of the atomic bombs allow the Emperor to intervene in the Council, and use the "supernatural" nature of these weapons as a face-saving excuse to allow the military to surrender without suicidal effort. The problem of surrender was exacerbated by poor diplomatic communication between the US and Japan, over what conditions a surrender would be allowed.

The question would be then, what would change the military commander's minds, since the Emperor would need a significant event in order to intercede and break a decision deadlock.

Factually, August and September 1945 were to be rather sparse in terms of scheduled fighting - the IJN was dead, so the would be no naval combat. Japan was saving its forces to fight the expected invasion, scheduled for Oct 1945 by Allied planners. However, there was still plenty of combat in China and the Indochina theater (Burma, Thailand, etc.). Additionally, there are estimates that Allied POW and civilians in occupied areas were dying at a rate of 1,000 per day due to neglect and abuse by Japanese forces. So, each month causes about 30,000 additional deaths, merely by continuing the war, even with no additional combat.

As there is no reason to surrender beforehand, Operation Olympic starts (the invasion of southern Japan). Conservative estimates are for a 3-month campaign, costing 100-200,000 US dead, and 5 times that Japanese. This would be followed by Operation Coronet, the occupation of the rest of Japan, at about the same timeframe, and double the cost.

So, for every month of combat in the Japanese Home Islands, you cost 40,000+ US dead and 250,000+ Japanese dead. There are very likely probabilities that the use of chemical (i.e. poison gas) would have been authorized for use by US forces if the Japanese insisted on fighting as they had at Okinawa or Iwo Jima.

In addition to all this, the continued bombardment of Japanese cities by B-29s was systematically burning Japan to the ground. By Dec 1945, the estimate was that no city of more than 100,000 people would have been less than 50% totally destroyed. This puts over half the Japanese population homeless, and 5-10% of the whole civilian population killed by firebombing (or its aftereffects).

In a similar manner, the total destruction of the Japanese coastal marine and the Japanese railroads meant that food distribution was almost impossible. Widespread famine almost occurred in early 1946 even after the surrender and with the occupying Allied forces there to provide food distribution. With Japan continuing to fight past January 1946, the country would experience a massive famine. A good estimate is 2% of the total population dies EACH MONTH starting in Jan 1946 just from famine.

So, how likely was it that the Council would allow a surrender? It is one of the great imponderables. In my opinion, there is no possibility of a surrender before Olympic finishes. That means, in the best case, a Surrender around Jan 1946. Which means 50,000 KIA and 250,000 WIA on the Allied side, 1,000,000 KIA+WIA on the Japanese side, plus 100,000+ POWs and friendly civilians dead. I would hope that this slaughter would have been enough to stop the war. But, there is a distinct possibility that the Japanese would have effectively chosen ritual suicide for the entire nation. Which means, no surrender until Summer of 1946, at which time, the butchers' bill likely stands at 1,000,000+ Allied (including POWs and civilians in Japanese-occupied nations), and up to 20% of all Japanese dead (i.e. 10 million plus).

So, best case scenario is a balance between the 200,000 casualties of the atomic bomb (all of which are Japanese), vs 1.5 million casualties Operation Olympic would have caused (one-third Allied, two-thirds Japanese). Worst case is at least 15 million casualties after Operation Coronet (15% allied, 85% Japanese).

I would dismiss the notion that President Truman merely wanted to test the destructive power of the atomic bomb. The initial explosion tests on US soil confirmed the destructive force of the bomb. It wasn't a case of the USA having developed just one bomb that could not be wasted on a "test" in the desert. There were several bombs at the ready. The real reason for dropping the first bomb on Hiroshima was to expedite the end of the war with as few casualties as possible. If Truman truly wanted to "punish " the Japanese, he could have ordered the whole arsenal of A-bombs to be dropped on several Japanese cities. He didn't do that but allowed only one to be dropped; then since the Japanese didn't surrender, he ordered a 2nd to go down. Finally the Japanese realized there were possibly many more bombs with the same destructive power and so were brought to their knees.

This wise approach by the 33rd President achieved victory at a lower casualty cost than what might have been had conventional bombing raids/invasion landings taken place

Had the war not ended when it did, the US had production plans, the industrial infrastructure, and the bombers to make and deliver a total of 23 atomic bombs on Japan before the end of 1945. The primary thing limiting production was the Hanford plutonium production reactors, each of the 3 reactors could only produce enough plutonium in a month to make one fatman core.

  1. august: 3 (only 2 were used, third had been built before the surrender and arrived in San Fransisco on august 18, it might have been dropped on Japan around august 25 had the surrender not happened)
  2. september: 3
  3. october: 3
  4. november: 7 (increase in production due to a planned switch to composite plutonium/uranium cores)
  5. december: 7
Note: Truman's actual order was to use the atomic bombs as they became available. This is exactly what was done, Truman did not individually decide whether to use each bomb or when! He let his military field commanders do that. Truman was not a combat action micro-manager like Johnson later was.

Note: Truman could not "have ordered the whole arsenal of A-bombs to be dropped" as no such arsenal existedat the time. The atomic bombs were being dropped on Japan exactly as fast as the factories could make the materials and Los Alamos could prepare the atomic bomb kits for shipment.

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History of the United States
Oklahoma City
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

How many people died in the Oklahoma City bombing?

There were 168 victims of the bombing.

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Japan in WW2
Nuclear Weapons
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

Does rat survive nuclear radiation?

Rats, like all mammals, have a similar LD50 for ionizing radiation as humans. Therefor they would have about the same chance of survival we have. They might survive the thermal flash better, as they tend to prefer to hide in dark places, so they would not be exposed; but resulting secondary fires are as likely to kill them as us.

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What kind of bomb did u.s drop on hiroshima and nagasaki?

Nuclear bombs made from Plutonium and Uranium.

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War and Military History
Japan in WW2
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

What was the weight of the bomb dropped by the plane near John Simpson and his crew?

500-pound LDGP (Low-drag, general-purpose), Mk 82 bombs with Mk 15 retarding fin.

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Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

The name of the plane that carries bombs?

Enola Gay & Bockscar.

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How did Hiroshima rebuild?

The US gave alot of aid and helped get Japan back up on it's feet after WWII.

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Japan
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

How did japan react to hiroshima?

Tha Japanese milltary was baffeled by the power of the Atomic Bomb but still they were not affraid to continue to fight the U.S. But after the second detonation over Nagasaki the Japanese milltary was crippled and it's people were no longer willing to fight. The Japanese quickly agreed to an unconditional surrender.

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Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

Why did the us want to hit japan Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

Hiroshima was considered a vital military target. A threat was issued to Japan that no surrender means other cities will be bomb with this new weapon. After two blasts, Japan had enough.

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Atomic Bombs

When did America drop the atomic bombs on Japan?

The first atomic bomb was dropped on August 6, 1945 at Hiroshima. Three days later, the second atomic bomb was dropped on August 9, 1945 at Nagasaki.

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Harry Truman
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

What President dropped the bomb on Hiroshima?

While the development of the atomic bomb was initiated under FDR, Harry S Truman was president when the final decision was made to drop the bomb.

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Pearl Harbor
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How many people died in the bombing of Hiroshima?

80,000
90,000-166,000

Sources for the following: Wikipedia, World War II Pacific and Southeast Asia

Q: How many Japanese people died in the bombing of Hiroshima? 70,000.

Q: How many died in Nagasaki? 25,000.

Q: How many died from all effects of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, due to radiation effects from fallout, food and water contamination, and food shortages? 250,000 total.

Q: How many Chinese civilians did the Japanese army kill in the immediate aftermath of the Dolittle bombing raids of 1942? 250,000 civilians.

Q: How many Japanese civilians were killed in the Dolittle bombing raids? 50 (fifty).

Q: How many Chinese civilians did the Japanese kill, including the Manchurian war of the 1930's and the late consolidations of 1945? 17 million.

* Look it all up on Wikipedia and many other sources. There's no reason for WikiAnswers to spout blatant nonsense. *


I searched the web for a definitive figure for those killed at Hiroshima by the "Little Boy" uranium bomb on August 6, 1945. I found figures ranging from 65,000 to 200,000, with the larger figures generally attached to the most recent writings. Astonishingly, there just doesn't seem to be any scholarly study of this subject, but only proclamations by people with a stake in the matter. The Manhattan Engineer District survey In 1946, the Manhattan Engineer District published a study that concluded that 66,000 people were killed at Hiroshima out of a population of 255,000. Of that number, 45,000 died on the first day and 19,000 during the next four months. In addition, "several hundred" survivors were expected to die from radiation-induced cancers and lukemia over the next 30 years. (This report is also known as the Oughterson Commission study.) This is the low-ball estimate, evidently because it was based on a census of households in Hiroshima and therefore did not account for the deaths of soldiers and Korean forced laborers, who are generally numbered at 20,000--though I can't find any solid justification for that figure. If they all died, which is very unlikely, and if we add a thousand deaths instead of the several hundred estimated by Oughterson's group, then we seem to be talking 87,000 fatalities directly attributable to the explosion. The American researchers did an extensive random sampling of the surviving population, asking how large their family was and how many had been killed. From the results it was calculated that 25.5% of the civilian population had been killed. The great unknown, of course, is how large the population was at the time of the explosion. Where the Manhattan Engineer District gave a figure of 255,000--a figure based on the June 1945 rice-ration records, which survived the blast--others have posited 300,000 or even 400,000 including military and "day workers" (the eumphemism of choice for the Korean slave laborers). These populations would not have been shown on the rice-rationing records. But even if 400,000 people were present in Hiroshima on August 6, the death toll ought not to exceed 102,000, if the American methodology was sound. The Hiroshima police study Also in 1946, the Hiroshima police estimated the dead at 78,150 and the missing at 13,983, for a total of about 92,000 if all the missing are presumed dead (again, a very unlikely hypothesis). So this estimate is not radically different from the American estimate. Perhaps significantly, the police study gave a figure of 129,558 for total casualties, including those with minor as well as major injuries. (These figures are suspiciously precise, but never mind that.) Today's "consensus" figure--that is, the one you see most often where the writer is not trying to prove a point one way or another--seems to be 130,000 dead. Writing for Air & Space magazine in the 1990s, I discovered to my horror that at least one editor didn't know the difference between a casualty and a fatality. Is this simply another case of counting all the wounded as dead? The Japanese Reconstruction Survey One possible source of confusion is where to stop counting the deaths of survivors. In 1978, the Japanese Reconstruction Survey compiled the times of death for 16,007 people known to have been present in Hiroshima. This survey found that 73.4% had died by 1 November 1945, and that an additional 5.6% had died between then and the October 1950 census. Interestingly, the latter death rate is 1.1% a year--almost exactly the normal mortality rate for the Japanese population. From this I conclude that the methodology of the Manhattan Engineer District report was sound. Counting deaths as of the end of 1945 must have captured essentially all of them. Recent estimates The Radiation Effects Research Foundation website gives a range of 90,000-140,000 1945 deaths at Hiroshima out of a population of 310,000. The Hiroshima Peace Site website gives a figure of 140,000 deaths by December 1945, out of a population of 350,000. The Guinness Book of Records gives a suspiciously precise figure of 155,200 killed by Little Boy, including deaths from radiation within one year. In all three cases above, there is no information on where the figures come from. The Committee for the Compilation of Materials on Damage Caused by the Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki estimated in 1978 that 346,000-356,000 people were present in Hiroshima at the time of the bombings, with fatalities of "some 200,000". This seems to be a bit of a stretch, since the last census conducted by the Japanese government prior to the bombings, in February 1944, showed a population of 343,034, The Committee is thus claiming a net gain in population during the final year of the war, when widespread evacuations were going on during the fire bombings and other cities were rapidly losing people. In 1998, a Japanese delegation in India presented this version: "At that time, Hiroshima's population was 400,000, of which 140,000 died by the end of 1945, 90 per cent of them within a week of the explosion." So far, so good--that tracks other recent Japanese estimates. But the statement continues: "People continue to die even today, from the after-effects of radiation.... As of [1997], there were 202,118 registered deaths due to the Hiroshima bombing." So here we have 62,000 deaths added to the total, with the count continuing at least into 1998. Clearly we are in an entirely different field by now. A 21-year-old in 1945 would have been 74 in 1998, and therefore have already lived past his normal life expectancy! It's true that lives were shortened by the blast--but then, they were shortened by the war itself, and especially by the malnutrition that was general in Japan in 1945. Even if that hypothetical 21-year-old, laid to rest in 1998, would have otherwise lived into his eighties or even nineties, can we fairly attribute his death to Little Boy? After all, nobody is counting the American prisoners of war who have died in the past ten years, and calling them fatalities of the Japanese PW system. In refreshing contrast to the accelerating figures published above, the City of Hiroshima has a project called Actual Status Survey of Atomic Bomb Survivors. The survey from 1979 to 1999 accumulated the names of 88,800 individuals present in Hiroshima in August 1945 who died before the end of the year. Certainly some of these died from other causes; just as certainly, some died who will never be known. Conclusion From all that I have read, the 1946 consensus figure of 90,000 dead seems about right to me. Deaths after December 1945 evidently were not very numerous, and they seem to have been adequately accounted for in the 1946 studies. Even the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (cited above) seems to confirm this. The foundation's website concludes that the number of excess deaths among 50,000 survivors who got a severe dose of radiation comes to only a few hundred, and certainly not as many as a thousand. Three things seem to be going on here. First, there is the confusion between fatalities and casualties--that may well beto be how the original jump from 90,000 to 130,000 took place. Secondly, there is the problem that once a figure has been widely circulated, it ceases to impress, and there is a very human tendency (especially among journalists) to hype it a bit: you want the reader to say wow! Thirdly, there is a strong constituency for anything that serves to demonize the United States in world affairs--a constitutency that exists not only in Japan, as the victim of the bomb; and in Europe, resenting America's dominance in world affairs; but also in American universities and journals of opinion. Take them all together, and they seem to have exaggerated the death toll at Hiroshima by more than 100 percent.
90,000-166,000
The blast instantly killed about 75,000 people, but as time passed radiation contamination brought the death toll up to somewhere around 200,000.
There are a number of different estimates as concerns the death toll in Hiroshima. See the answers below:

66,000 people were killed at Hiroshima out of a population of 255,000 according to a study by the Manhattan Engineer District. That number is based on the survey of 1940. During the last 5 years between 1940 and 1945, Hiroshima had many worker flown in and the birth rate at that time tell us that the number has to be higher.

90,000 to 166,000 people were killed in the Hiroshima bombing from things like radiation new developed cancers that some people still carry around today.

At least 70,000 people were killed immediately, and another 90,000 died later due to injuries and burns. In addition, there are about 200,000 people on record who died of cancer and other conditions that were likely caused by being exposed to radiation.
According to the Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, the population in Japan in October 1940 was estimated to be 73,114,308; in November 1945 the population was estimated at 71,998,104. Japan was visibly a thriving country that was hit very hard by the bombing.
140,000 people in Hiroshima died and 80,000 people in Nagasaki.

Over one hundred thousand died instantly and seventy thousand died later from burns and radiation sickness or cancer.
See website: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
90,000-166,000
66,000

That depends on what you mean. For example, 166,000 total died from the bomb dropped on Hiroshima during WWII. The bomb was nicknamed "Little Boy".
at least 75 thousand
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The immediate death toll was estimated at 50,000 to 80,000 (blast and firestorm). The deaths from all causes during the following months may have been between 100,000 and 160,000 according to various estimates.
90,000-166,000
According to the Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, the population in Japan in October 1940 was estimated to be 73,114,308; in November 1945 the population was estimated at 71,998,104. Japan was visibly a thriving country that was hit very hard by the bombing.
80,000 people died directly; another 10,000-50,000 died as a result of the aftereffects.
your mom but about 130,000 people died
On August 6, 1945, at 9:15 AM Tokyo time, a B-29 plane, the "Enola Gay" piloted by Paul W. Tibbets, dropped a uranium atomic bomb, code named "Little Boy" on Hiroshima, Japan's seventh largest city. In minutes, half of the city vanished. According to U.S. estimates, 60,000 to 70,000 people were killed or missing, 140,000 were injuried many more were made homeless as a result of the bomb. Deadly radiation reached over 100,000. In the blast, thousands died instantly.

The city was unbelievably devastated. Of its 90,000 buildings, over 60,000 were demolished.
Roughly 100,000
90,000-166,000
more than 60% of people of hiroshima died in this attack

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Celebrity Births Deaths and Ages
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

Who is Sadako Sasaki?

Sadako Sasaki (1943-1955) was a Japanese hibakusha, a survivor of the US atomic bombings at the end of World War 2. She and her parents survived, but Sadako died of radiation-induced illness at the age of 12.

She is known for her pursuit of folding origami cranes, a traditional ritual for those who are seeking a divine intervention. She folded over 1000 after being diagnosed with terminal leukemia in 1954. Her story is related in the book "Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes" (1977) by Eleanor Coerr.

Sadako was born in Hiroshima in 1943 and was two years old at the time of the bombing and miraculously she and her parents lived through the attack.

On August 6, 1945, an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. Sadako was at home with her family in Kusunoki-cho, about 1.7 km from the hypocenter. The blast blew her out of the house, but she escaped without a burn or injury. Very soon, flames were leaping up in the area. Sadako's mother fled, carrying her daughter. Near Misasa Bridge, they were caught in the "black rain" which is rain that condenses from the superheated air and carries irradiated dust back to the surface.

Sadako was a very healthy girl for 10 years after the bombing; she was her parents' favorite and was very athletic and had a love for running. By the 6th grade she was 135 cm tall and weighed 27 kilograms (she was a little thin). She could run 50 meters in 7.5 seconds, so she never lost a race. Chosen to be one of the relay race runners for Fall Sports Day, she turned in a fine performance. Her dream was to become a physical education teacher in junior high school.

It was noticed around September 1954 that she looked a little pale, but nobody was particularly worried, until one day she was running track and collapsed. Her parents brought her to the hospital and her parents' worst fears had been a reality. By November 1954, lumps had developed on her neck and behind her ears. Then in January 1955, purple spots had started to form on her legs. She was diagnosed with leukemia or "the atom bomb disease" as her mother had called it several times. She was hospitalized on February 21, 1955 and given one year or less to live. On August 3, 1955, Chizuko Hamamoto, her best friend came to the hospital to see her and folded a paper crane out of a little gold piece of paper that was in the hospital room. She reminded Sadako of the old Japanese Legend that anyone who folds a thousand paper cranes so pleases the gods that the folder is granted a wish.

At the end of August, 1955, less than a month after she has started folding Sadako had achieved her goal of one thousand origami Cranes and continued to fold more cranes Sadako stringed thread through lines of cranes that she folded and hung them from the ceiling of her room in the hospital. Although her condition continued to worsen she kept making more and more cranes.She made them out of anything she could find because sometimes she couldn't find paper. Chizuko brought her paper from school so she could make more cranes because it seemed to keep her spirits up. She worked all day to make one crane, then another out of anything she could find. Sadako died on the morning of October 25, 1955 at the young and unfulfilled age of 12. Her last words were "it's tasty." Referring to the tea she had just drank before her passing.

After her death her friends and school mates raised money by publishing cards to have a memorial built in her; and the other victims of the atomic bombs honor. In 1958, a statue of Sadako holding a golden crane was unveiled in the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, also called the Genbaku Dome. At the foot of the statue is a plaque that reads, This is our cry. This is our prayer. Peace in the world. There is also a statue of her in the Seattle Peace Park. Sadako has become a leading symbol of the impact of a nuclear war. Sadako is also a heroine for many girls in Japan. Her story is told in some Japanese schools on the anniversary of the Hiroshima bombing. Dedicated to her, people all over Japan celebrate August 6 as the annual peace day. This little girl had all the hope in the world. Even if she did lose her battle for life, she is inspiring people to fight for their lives.

Every day more and more people put Origami Cranes on the memorial in honor of this brave little girl. Her story warms the hearts of millions not only in Japan but in other countries around the world. Her story is told in classrooms in many countries and has given terminally ill cancer patients hope and comfort, and inspired many others to support world peace so this tragedy never has to happen again. Her story also inspired many organizations such as Cranes For Peace which spreads Sadako Sasaki's legacy and raises funds by selling CD's of her story. This money goes into helping keep the memorial up and running.

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World War 2
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings
Atomic Bombs

How did the use of atomic bombs impact the outcome of World War 2?

They impacted the war by making the Japanese surrender almost immediately after they were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

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Japan in WW2
US in WW2
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

When was the fat man bomb started to be made?

1945

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US in WW2
Nuclear Weapons
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic Bombings

Does a nuclear bomb knock out electronic systems?

Detonated at a high enough altitude (~400 km ASL), a nuclear weapon can create an electromagnetic pulse which can disable many types of electrical systems. A large nuclear device detonated at around 500 kilometers above Kansas could in theory produce an EMP pulse large enough to cover the continental US.

The EMP effects were studied and observed in various American nuclear tests. In the related links box below, I posted a link where you can see the figures.

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