2 Describe how point mutation and frameshift mutation affect the synthesis of proteins?
A point mutation is a change in a single base pair in DNA. A change in a single nitrogenous base can change the entire structure of a protein because a change in a single amino acid can affect the shape of the protein.
A frameshift mutation is a mutation in which a single base is added or deleted from DNA. A single base is lost from a DNA strand which causes this new sequence with the deleted base, to be transcribed into mRNA. Then, the mRNA is out of position by one base. As a result, every codonafter the deleted base is different. This mutation causes nearly every amino acid in the protein after the deletion to be changed.
What is the most likely effect of a frameshift mutation occurring in a sex cell of an adult otter where the mutation is on a gene that produces proteins used to build bones?
Which do you suppose would be more harmful A mutation that changed the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA molecule or a mutation that changed the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule?
A mutation in a DNA nucleotide sequence would be more harmful than a mutation in a mRNA nucleotide sequence because it could cause the synthesis of multiple nonfunctional proteins in comparison to a mutation in a mRNA nucleotide sequence that would be less harmful because it would result in a few nonfunctional proteins.
If you ask the control of the synthesis of proteins, the answer is following: protein synthesis is controlled again by proteins (which are, of course, coded by the DNA); these regulatory proteins either regulate proteosynthesis in cytoplasm by influencing ribosomes and/or mRNA (the protein synthesis itself) or in the nucleus by stimulating or inhibiting expression of particular genes (which code proteins again, as every gene does).