Can the Military Court of Appeals overturn the decision of the US Supreme Court?

No.

The Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces (Military Court of Appeals) and the US Supreme Court are in separate chains of authority. The former is a military court (an Article I tribunal), while the latter is a civilian court (and an Article III tribunal). Cases may be appealed from the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces to the Supreme Court; however, this is a rare occurrence.

In any event, there is no appellate court above the Supreme Court at all.