Can you replace a cd30 audio unit with a cd70 in your vectra?
You have TS10 on your license How long does that stay on for?
Here's all the codes : Website of the UK government Please note that this website has a UK government accesskeys system. Public services all in one place Main menu Skip main menu Home Contacts Do it online Newsroom Monday, 26 October 2009 Page menu Browse by subject Crime and justice Education and learning Employment Environment and greener living Government, citizens and rights Health and well-being Home and community Money, tax and benefits Motoring Driver licensing Endorsements and disqualifications Pensions and retirement planning Travel and transport Browse by people Young people Britons living abroad Caring for someone Disabled people Parents Motoring When endorsements and penalty points can be removed from a driving licence The following is a guide to the number of penalty points a court may impose, it does not reflect the fact that some offences may incur a disqualification. The offence code and penalty points will be shown on your driving licence and must stay there for four or eleven years depending on the offence. Check the codes on your driving licence against the list below. Accident offences Offence codes AC10 to AC30 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points AC10 Failing to stop after an accident 5-10 AC20 Failing to give particulars or to report an accident within 24 hours 5-10 AC30 Undefined accident offences 4-9 Disqualified driver Offence codes BA10 and BA30 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points BA10 Driving while disqualified by order of court 6 BA30 Attempting to drive while disqualified by order of court 6 Careless driving Offence codes CD10 to CD30 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points CD10 Driving without due care and attention 3-9 CD20 Driving without reasonable consideration for other road users 3-9 CD30 Driving without due care and attention or without reasonable consideration for other road users 3-9 Offence codes CD40 to CD70 must stay on a driving licence for eleven years from date of conviction. Code Offence Penalty points CD40 Causing death through careless driving when unfit through drink 3-11 CD50 Causing death by careless driving when unfit through drugs 3-11 CD60 Causing death by careless driving with alcohol level above the limit 3-11 CD70 Causing death by careless driving then failing to supply a specimen for 3-11 Offence codes CD80 and CD90 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of conviction. Code Offence Penalty points CD80 Causing death by careless, or inconsiderate, driving 3-11 CD90 Causing death by driving: unlicensed, disqualified or uninsured drivers 3-11 Construction and use offences Offence codes CU10 to CU80 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points CU10 Using a vehicle with defective brakes 3 CU20 Causing or likely to cause danger by reason of use of unsuitable vehicle or using a vehicle with parts or accessories (excluding brakes, steering or tyres) in a dangerous condition 3 CU30 Using a vehicle with defective tyre(s) 3 CU40 Using a vehicle with defective steering 3 CU50 Causing or likely to cause danger by reason of load or passengers 3 CU80 Using a mobile phone while driving a motor vehicle 3 Reckless/dangerous driving Offence codes DD40 to DD80 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of conviction. Code Offence Penalty points DD40 Dangerous driving 3-11 DD60 Manslaughter or culpable homicide while driving a vehicle 3-11 DD80 Causing death by dangerous driving 3-11 DD90 Furious driving 3-9 Drink or drugs Offence codes DR10 to DR30 must stay on a driving licence for eleven years from date of conviction. Code Offence Penalty points DR10 Driving or attempting to drive with alcohol level above limit 3-11 DR20 Driving or attempting to drive while unfit through drink 3-11 DR30 Driving or attempting to drive then failing to supply a specimen for analysis 3-11 Offence codes DR40 to DR70 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points DR40 In charge of a vehicle while alcohol level above limit 10 DR50 In charge of a vehicle while unfit through drink 10 DR60 Failure to provide a specimen for analysis in circumstances other than driving or attempting to drive 10 DR70 Failing to provide specimen for breath test 4 Offence code DR80 must stay on a driving licence for eleven years from date of conviction. Code Offence Penalty points DR80 Driving or attempting to drive when unfit through drugs 3-11 Offence code DR90 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points DR90 In charge of a vehicle when unfit through drugs 10 Insurance offences Offence code IN10 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points IN10 Using a vehicle uninsured against third party risks. 6-8 Licence offences Offence codes LC20 to LC50 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points LC20 Driving otherwise than in accordance with a licence 3-6 LC30 Driving after making a false declaration about fitness when applying for a licence 3-6 LC40 Driving a vehicle having failed to notify a disability 3-6 LC50 Driving after a licence has been revoked or refused on medical grounds 3-6 Miscellaneous offences Offence codes MS10 to MS90 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points MS10 Leaving a vehicle in a dangerous position 3 MS20 Unlawful pillion riding 3 MS30 Play street offences 2 MS50 Motor racing on the highway 3-11 MS60 Offences not covered by other codes As Appropriate MS70 Driving with uncorrected defective eyesight 3 MS80 Refusing to submit to an eyesight test 3 MS90 Failure to give information as to identity of driver etc 6 Motorway offences Offence code MW10 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points MW10 Contravention of special roads regulations (excluding speed limits) 3 Pedestrian crossings Offence codes PC10 to PC30 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points PC10 Undefined contravention of pedestrian crossing regulations 3 PC20 Contravention of pedestrian crossing regulations with moving vehicle 3 PC30 Contravention of pedestrian crossing regulations with stationary vehicle 3 Speed limits Offence codes SP10 to SP50 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points SP10 Exceeding goods vehicle speed limits 3-6 SP20 Exceeding speed limit for type of vehicle (excluding goods or passenger vehicles) 3-6 SP30 Exceeding statutory speed limit on a public road 3-6 SP40 Exceeding passenger vehicle speed limit 3-6 SP50 Exceeding speed limit on a motorway 3-6 Traffic direction and signs Offence codes TS10 to TS70 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points TS10 Failing to comply with traffic light signals 3 TS20 Failing to comply with double white lines 3 TS30 Failing to comply with 'Stop' sign 3 TS40 Failing to comply with direction of a constable/warden 3 TS50 Failing to comply with traffic sign (excluding 'stop' signs, traffic lights or double white lines) 3 TS60 Failing to comply with a school crossing patrol sign 3 TS70 Undefined failure to comply with a traffic direction sign 3 Special code Offence code TT99 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of conviction. Code Offence TT99 To signify a disqualification under 'totting-up' procedure. If the total of penalty points reaches 12 or more within three years, the driver is liable to be disqualified Theft or unauthorised taking Offence codes UT50 must stay on a driving licence for four years from date of offence. Code Offence Penalty points UT50 Aggravated taking of a vehicle 3-11 Aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring Offences as coded, but with 0 changed to 2 eg LC10 becomes LC12. Causing or permitting Offences as coded, but with 0 changed to 4 eg LC10 becomes LC14. Inciting Offences as coded, but with the end 0 changed to 6 eg DD40 becomes DD46. Non-endorsable offences Some offences are non-endorsable. A non-endorsable offence is an offence which courts do not endorse onto your paper counterpart. No penalty points are attributed to these offences but they carry a period of disqualification. At the end of the disqualification (over 56 days) you will have to apply for a renewal licence together with the appropriate fee. Any queries about offences and endorsements should be directed to the convicting court. In this section... Endorsements, penalty points and disqualification How to remove expired endorsements from your driving licence Driving disqualifications Getting your driving licence back after disqualification The extended practical driving test Additional links Know Your Limits Find out how many units of alcohol are in your favourite tipple, how to enjoy drink responsibly and more Know Your Limits Opens new window Do it online Take an official practice theory test Opens new window Book a theory or practical test online Opens new window Order a driving licence application form Opens new window Motoring services available online... 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Asked in Technology, Metal and Alloys
What percentage of each metal is used to make solder?
CompositionSnPbAgCuSbBiInZnCdAuoth.M.p. °C S/LToxicEutecticCommentsPb98Sn2298 316/322PbnoNon-critical sealing and joining. Body solder.Pb97Sn3397 314/320PbnoSn3Pb96Sn4496 299/310PbnoUsed for coating steel and copper, to provide resistance against mild acids and seawater.Pb95Sn5595 308/312 301/314PbnoSn5, UNS L54320, ASTM5A, ASTM5B, Indalloy 171. Low cost and good bonding properties. Used for coating steel and copper. Used in both SMT (Surface-mount technology) and through-hole electronics. Rapidly dissolves gold and silver, not recommended for those. useful for high-temperature service and step soldering. Remains ductile at very low temperatures, can be used for parts subject to vibration at cryogenic applications. Pb93.5Sn5Ag1.5 provides superior wetting and better strength.Pb93Sn7793 288/308PbnoUsed for coating steel to provide corrosion resistance, allows subsequent soldering.Pb90Sn101090 268/302 275/302PbnoSn10, UNS L54520, ASTM10B, Indalloy 159. Balls for CBGA components, replaced by SnAg3.9Cu0.6. Low cost and good bonding properties. Rapidly dissolves gold and silver, not recommended for those. Used for fabrication of car radiators and fuel tanks, for coating and bonding of metals for moderate service temperatures. Body solder. Has low thermal EMF, can be used as an alternative to Cd70 where parasitic thermocouple voltage has to be avoided.Pb88Sn121288 254/296PbnoUsed for fabrication of car radiators and fuel tanks, for coating and bonding of metals for moderate service temperatures. Body solder.Pb85Sn151585 227/288PbnoUsed for coating tubes and sheets and fabrication of car radiators. Body solder.Pb80Sn202080 183/280PbnoSn20, UNS L54711. Used for coating radiator tubes for joining fins.Pb75Sn252575 183/266PbnoCrude solder for construction plumbing works, flame-melted. Used for soldering car engine radiators. Used for machine, dip and hand soldering of plumbing fixtures and fittings. Superior body solder.Pb70Sn303070 185/255 183/257PbnoSn30, UNS L54280, crude solder for construction plumbing works, flame-melted, good for machine and torch soldering. Used for soldering car engine radiators. Used for machine, dip and hand soldering of plumbing fixtures and fittings. Superior body solder.Pb68Sn323268 253Pbno"Plumber solder", for construction plumbing worksPb68Sn30Sb23068 2 185/243PbnoPb68Pb67Sn333367 187-230PbnoPM 33, crude solder for construction plumbing works, flame-melted, temperature depends on additivesPb65Sn353565 183/250PbnoSn35. Used as a cheaper alternative of Sn60Pb40 for wiping and sweating joints.Pb60Sn404060 183/238 183/247PbnoSn40, UNS L54915,. For soldering of brass and car radiators. For bulk soldering, and where wider melting point range is desired. For joining cables. For wiping and joining lead pipes. For repairs of radiators and electrical systems.Pb55Sn454555 183/227PbnoFor soldering radiator cores, roof seams, and for decorative joints.Sn50Pb505050 183/216 183-212PbnoSn50, UNS L55030,. "Ordinary solder", for soldering of brass, electricity meters, gas meters, formerly also tin cans. General purpose, for standard tinning and sheetmetal work. Becomes brittle below −150 °C. Low cost and good bonding properties. Rapidly dissolves gold and silver, not recommended for those. For wiping and assembling plumbing joints for non-potable water.Sn50Pb49Cu15049 1 183/215PbnoCu1Sn50Pb48.5Cu1.55048.5 1.5 183/215PbnoSavbit, Savbit 1, Sav1. Minimizes dissolution of copper. Originally designed to reduce erosion of the soldering iron tips. About 100 times slower erosion of copper than ordinary tin/lead alloys. Suitable for soldering thin copper platings and very thin copper wires.Sn60Pb406040 183/190 183/188PbnearSn60, ASTM60A, ASTM60B. Common in electronics, most popular leaded alloy for dipping. Low cost and good bonding properties. Used in both SMT and through-hole electronics. Rapidly dissolves gold and silver, not recommended for those. Slightly cheaper than Sn63Pb37, often used instead for cost reasons as the melting point difference is insignificant in practice. On slow cooling gives slightly duller joints than Sn63Pb37.Sn60Pb38Cu26038 2 183/190Pb Cu2. Copper content increases hardness of the alloy and inhibits dissolution of soldering iron tips and part leads in molten solder.Sn60Pb39Cu16039 1 Pbno Sn62Pb386238 183Pbnear"Tin man's solder"Sn63Pb376337 182 183PbyesSn63, ASTM63A, ASTM63B. Common in electronics; exceptional tinning and wetting properties, also good for stainless steel. One of most common solders. Low cost and good bonding properties. Used in both SMT and through-hole electronics. Rapidly dissolves gold and silver, not recommended for those. Sn60Pb40 is slightly cheaper and is often used instead for cost reasons, as the melting point difference is insignificant in practice. On slow cooling gives slightly brighter joints than Sn60Pb40.Sn63Pb37P0.0015-0.046337 P183PbyesSn63PbP. A special alloy for HASL machines. Addition of phosphorus reduces oxidation. Unsuitable for wave soldering as it may form metal foam.Sn62Pb37Cu16237 1 183PbyesSimilar to Sn63Pb37. Copper content increases hardness of the alloy and inhibits dissolution of soldering iron tips and part leads in molten solder.Sn70Pb307030 183/193PbnoSn70Sn90Pb109010 183/213Pbnoformerly used for joints in food industrySn95Pb5955 238Pbnoplumbing and heatingPb92Sn5.5Ag2.55.5922.5 286/301PbnoFor higher-temperature applications.Pb80Sn12Sb81280 8 PbnoUsed for soldering iron and steelPb80Sn18Ag218802 252/260PbnoUsed for soldering iron and steelPb79Sn20Sb12079 1 184/270PbnoSb1Pb55Sn43.5Sb1.543.555 1.5 PbnoGeneral purpose solder. Antimony content improves mechanical properties but causes brittleness when soldering cadmium, zinc, or galvanized metals.Sn43Pb43Bi144343 14 144/163PbnoBi14, Indalloy 97. Good fatigue resistance combined with low melting point. Contains phases of tin and lead-bismuth. Useful for step soldering.Sn46Pb46Bi84646 8 120/167PbnoBi8Bi52Pb32Sn161632 52 96Pbyes?Bi52. Good fatigue resistance combined with low melting point. Reasonable shear strength and fatigue properties. Combination with lead-tin solder may dramatically lower melting point and lead to joint failure.Bi46Sn34Pb203420 46 100/105PbnoBi46Sn62Pb36Ag262362 179PbyesSn62. Common in electronics. The strongest tin-lead solder. Appearance identical to Sn60Pb40 or Sn63Pb37. Crystals of Ag3Sn may be seen growing from the solder. Extended heat treatment leads to formation of crystals of binary alloys. Silver content decreases solubility of silver, making the alloy suitable for soldering silver-metallized surfaces, e.g. SMD capacitors and other silver-metallized ceramics. Not recommended for gold. General-purpose.Sn62.5Pb36Ag2.562.5362.5 179Pbyes Pb88Sn10Ag210882 268/290 267/299PbnoSn10, Pb88, Indalloy 228. Silver content reduces solubility of silver coatings in the solder. Not recommended for gold. Forms a eutectic phase, not recommended for operation above 120 °C.Pb90Sn5Ag55905 292Pbyes Pb92.5Sn5Ag2.5592.52.5 287/296 299/304PbnoPb93, Indalloy 151. Similar to Indalloy 165.Pb93.5Sn5Ag1.5593.51.5 296/301 305/306PbnoPb94, HMP alloy, HMP. Service temperatures up to 255 °C. Useful for step soldering. Also can be used for extremely low temperatures as it remains ductile down to −200 °C, while solders with more than 20% tin become brittle below −70 °C. Higher strength and better wetting than Pb95Sn5.Pb95.5Sn2Ag2.5295.52.5 299/304Pbno In97Ag3 3 97 143-yesIndalloy 290. Wettability and low-temperature malleability of indium, strength improved by addition of silver. Particularly good for cryogenic applications. Used for packaging of photonic devices.In90Ag10 10 90 143/237-noIndalloy 3. Nearly as wettable and low-temperature malleable as indium. Large plastic range. Can solder silver, fired glass and ceramics.In75Pb25 25 75 156/165PbnoLess gold dissolution and more ductile than lead-tin alloys. Used for die attachment, general circuit assembly and packaging closures.In70Pb30 30 70 160/174 165/175PbnoIn70, Indalloy 204. Suitable for gold, low gold-leaching. Good thermal fatigue properties.In60Pb40 40 60 174/185 173/181PbnoIn60, Indalloy 205. Low gold-leaching. Good thermal fatigue properties.In50Pb50 50 50 180/209 178/210PbnoIn50, Indalloy 7. Only one phase. Resoldering with lead-tin solder forms indium-tin and indium-lead phases and leads to formation of cracks between the phases, joint weakening and failure. On gold surfaces gold-indium intermetallics tend to be formed, and the joint then fails in the gold-depleted zone and the gold-rich intermetallic. Less gold dissolution and more ductile than lead-tin alloys. Good thermal fatigue properties.In50Sn5050 50 118/125-noIndalloy 1, Cerroseal 35. Fairly well wets glass, quartz and many ceramics. Malleable, can compensate some thermal expansion differences. Low vapor pressure. Used in low temperature physics as a glass-wetting solder.In70Sn15Pb9.6Cd5.4159.6 70 5.4 125Pb,Cd Indalloy 13Pb75In25 75 25 250/264 240/260PbnoIn25, Indalloy 10. Low gold-leaching. Good thermal fatigue properties. Used for die attachment of e.g. GaAs dies. Used also for general circuit assembly and packaging closures. Less dissolution of gold and more ductile than tin-lead alloy.Sn70Pb18In127018 12 162 154/167PbyesIndalloy 9. General purpose. Good physical properties.Sn37.5Pb37.5In2537.537.5 25 134/181PbnoGood wettability. Not recommended for gold.Pb90In5Ag5 905 5 290/310Pbno Pb92.5In5Ag2.5 92.52.5 5 300/310PbnoUNS L51510, Indalloy 164. Minimal leaching of gold, good thermal fatigue properties. Reducing atmosphere frequently used..Pb92.5In5Au2.5 92.5 5 2.5 300/310PbnoIn5Pb94.5Ag5.5 94.55.5 305/364 304/343PbnoAg5.5, UNS L50180, Indalloy 229Pb95Ag5 955 305/364PbnoIndalloy 175Pb97.5Ag2.5 97.52.5 303 304 304/579Pbyes noAg2.5, UNS L50132, Indalloy 161. Used during World War II to conserve tin. Poor corrosion resistance; joints suffered corrosion in both atmospheric and underground conditions, all had to be replaced with Sn-Pb alloy joints. Torch solder.Sn97.5Pb1Ag1.597.511.5 305PbyesImportant for hybrid circuits assembly.Pb97.5Ag1.5Sn1197.51.5 309PbyesAg1.5, ASTM1.5S, Indalloy 165. High melting point, used for commutators, armatures, and initial solder joints where remelting when working on nearby joints is undesirable. Silver content reduces solubility of silver coatings in molten solder. Not recommended for gold. Standard PbAgSn eutectic solder, wide use in semiconductor assembly. Reducing protective atmosphere (e.g. 12% hydrogen) often used. High creep resistance, for use at both elevated and cryogenic temperatures.Pb54Sn45Ag145541 177-210Pb exceptional strength, silver gives it a bright long-lasting finish; ideal for stainless steelPb96Ag4 964 305Pb high-temperature jointsPb96Sn2Ag22962 252/295Pb Pb96Sn61Pb36Ag361363 Pb Sn56Pb39Ag556395 Pb Sn98Ag298 2 - Sn65Ag25Sb1065 25 10 233-yesIndalloy 209. Very high tensile strength. For die attachment. Very brittle. Old Motorola die attach solder.Sn96.5Ag3.0Cu0.596.5 30.5 217/220 217/218-nearSAC305, Indalloy 256, SN97C. Predominantly used in Japan. It is the JEITA recommended alloy for wave and reflow soldering, with alternatives SnCu for wave and SnAg and SnZnBi for reflow soldering. Usable also for selective soldering and dip soldering. At high temperatures tends to dissolve copper; copper buildup in the bath has detrimental effect (e.g. increased bridging). Copper content must be maintained between 0.4-0.85%, e.g. by refilling the bath with Sn97Ag3 alloy (designated e.g. SN97Ce). Nitrogen atmosphere can be used to reduce losses by dross formation. Dull, surface shows formation of dendritic tin crystals.Sn95.8Ag3.5Cu0.795.8 3.50.7 217-218-nearSN96C-Ag3.5 A commonly used alloy. Used for wave soldering. Usable also for selective soldering and dip soldering. At high temperatures tends to dissolve copper; copper buildup in the bath has detrimental effect (e.g. increased bridging). Copper content must be maintained between 0.4-0.85%, e.g. by refilling the bath with Sn96.5Ag3.5 alloy (designated e.g. SN96Ce). Nitrogen atmosphere can be used to reduce losses by dross formation. Dull, surface shows formation of dendritic tin crystals.Sn95.6Ag3.5Cu0.995.6 3.50.9 217-yesDetermined by NIST to be truly eutectic.Sn95.5Ag3.8Cu0.795.5 3.80.7 217-almostSN96C. Preferred by the European IDEALS consortium for reflow soldering. Usable also for selective soldering and dip soldering. At high temperatures tends to dissolve copper; copper buildup in the bath has detrimental effect (e.g. increased bridging). Copper content must be maintained between 0.4-0.85%, e.g. by refilling the bath with Sn96.2Ag3.8 alloy (designated e.g. SN96Ce). Nitrogen atmosphere can be used to reduce losses by dross formation. Dull, surface shows formation of dendritic tin crystals.Sn95.25Ag3.8Cu0.7Sb0.2595.25 184.108.40.206 - Preferred by the European IDEALS consortium for wave soldering.Sn95.5Ag3.9Cu0.695.5 3.90.6 217-yesIndalloy 252. Recommended by the US NEMI consortium for reflow soldering. Used as balls for BGA/CSP and CBGA components, a replacement for Sn10Pb90. Solder paste for rework of BGA boards. Alloy of choice for general SMT assembly.Sn95.5Ag4Cu0.595.5 40.5 217-yesIndalloy 246. Prior-art use makes it patent-free.Sn96.5Ag3.596.5 3.5 221-yesSn96, Sn96.5, 96S, Indalloy 121. Fine lamellar structure of densely distributed Ag3Sn. Annealing at 125 °C coarsens the structure and softens the solder. Creeps via dislocation climb as a result of lattice diffusion. Used as wire for hand soldering rework; compatible with SnCu0.7, SnAg3Cu0.5, SnAg3.9Cu0.6, and similar alloys. Used as solder spheres for BGA/CSP components. Used for step soldering and die attachment in high power devices. Established history in the industry. Widely used. Strong lead-free joints. Silver content minimizes solubility of silver coatings. Not recommended for gold. Marginal wetting. Good for step soldering. Used for soldering stainless steel as it wets stainless steel better than other soft solders. Silver content does not suppress dissolution of silver metallizations. High tin content allows absorbing significant amount of gold without embrittlement.Sn96Ag496 4 221-229-noASTM96TS. "Silver-bearing solder". Food service equipment, refrigeration, heating, air conditioning, plumbing. Widely used. Strong lead-free joints. Silver content minimizes solubility of silver coatings. Not recommended for gold.Sn95Ag595 5 221/240-noSn95. Widely used. Strong lead-free joints. Silver content minimizes solubility of silver coatings. Not recommended for gold.Sn95Ag4Cu195 41 - Sn99.99 232-pureSn99. Good strength, non-dulling. Use in food processing equipment, wire tinning, and alloying. Susceptible to tin pest.Sn99.3Cu0.799.3 0.7 (Ni)227-yesIndalloy 244, Sn99Cu1. Also designated as Sn99Cu1. Cheap alternative for wave soldering, recommended by the US NEMI consortium. Coarse microstructure with ductile fractures. Sparsely distributed Cu6Sn5. Forms large dendritic β-tin crystals in a network of eutectic microstructure with finely dispersed Cu6Sn5. High melting point unfavorable for SMT use. Low strength, high ductility. Susceptible to tin pest. Addition of small amount of nickel increases its fluidity; the highest increase occurs at 0.06% Ni. Such alloys are known as nickel modified or nickel stabilized. An example with 0.05% Ni is designated SN100C. The properties degrade with dissolved copper; at above 0.85% the alloy tends to form bridges between part leads. At above 0.9% Cu needles of copper-tin intermetallic precipitate and settle at the bottom of the solder bath. The alloy attacks steel less than the tin-silver-copper alloys, allowing use of stainless steel solder pots. Slower wetting than Sn63Pb37.Sn99Cu0.7Ag0.399 0.30.7 217/228-noSCA, SAC, or SnAgCu. Tin-silver-copper alloy. Relatively low-cost lead-free alloy for simple applications. Can be used for wave, selective and dip soldering. At high temperatures tends to dissolve copper; copper buildup in the bath has detrimental effect (e.g. increased bridging). Copper content must be maintained between 0.4-0.85%, e.g. by refilling the bath with Sn96.2Ag3.8 alloy (designated e.g. SN96Ce). Nitrogen atmosphere can be used to reduce losses by dross formation. Dull, surface shows formation of dendritic tin crystals.Sn97Cu397 3 227/250 232/332- For high-temperature uses. Allows removing insulation from an enameled wire and applying solder coating in a single operation. For radiator repairs, stained glass windows, and potable water plumbing.Sn97Cu2.75Ag0.2597 0.252.75 228/314- High hardness, creep-resistant. For radiators, stained glass windows, and potable water plumbing. Excellent high-strength solder for radiator repairs. Wide range of patina and colors.Zn100 100 419-pureFor soldering aluminium. Good wettability of aluminium, relatively good corrosion resistance.Bi100 100 271-pureUsed as a non-superconducting solder in low-temperature physics. Does not wet metals well, forms a mechanically weak joint.Sn91Zn991 9 199-yesIndalloy 201. Cheaper alloy, prone to corrosion and oxidation. Recommended for soldering aluminium. Fair wetting of aluminium, fair corrosion rating. Room temperature tensile strength twice of SnPb37. High drossing. Solder paste has short shelf-life.Zn95Al5 95 Al5382-yesFor soldering aluminium. Good wetting.Sn91.8Bi4.8Ag3.491.8 3.4 4.8 211/213-noIndalloy 249. Do not use on lead-containing metallizations. U.S. Patent 5,439,639 (ICA Licensed Sandia Patent).Sn70Zn3070 30 199/311-noFor soldering of aluminium. Good wetting.Pb63Sn35Sb23563 2 185/243PbnoSb2Pb63Sn34Zn33463 3 170/256PbnoPoor wetting of aluminium. Poor corrosion rating.Pb92Cd8 92 8 310?Pb,Cd?For soldering aluminium. US patent 1,333,666.Sn48Bi32Pb204820 32 140/160PbnoFor low-temperature soldering of heat-sensitive parts, and for soldering in the vicinity of already soldered joints without their remelting.Sn89Zn8Bi389 3 8 191-198- Prone to corrosion and oxidation due to its zinc content. On copper surfaces forms a brittle Cu-Zn intermetallic layer, reducing the fatigue resistance of the joint; nickel plating of copper inhibits this.Sn83.6Zn7.6In8.883.6 8.87.6 181/187-noIndalloy 226. High dross due to zinc. Covered by U.S. Patent #5,242,658.Sn86.5Zn5.5In4.5Bi3.586.5 220.127.116.11 174/186-noIndalloy 231. Lead-free. Corrosion concerns and high drossing due to zinc content.Sn86.9In10Ag3.186.9 3.1 10 204/205- Indalloy 254. Potential use in flip-chip assembly, no issues with tin-indium eutectic phase.Sn95Ag3.5Zn1Cu0.595 3.50.5 1 221L-no Sn95Sb595 5 235/240 232/240-noSb5, ASTM95TA, Indalloy 133. The US plumbing industry standard. It displays good resistance to thermal fatigue and good shear strength. Forms coarse dendrites of tin-rich solid solution with SbSn intermetallic dispersed between. Very high room-temperature ductility. Creeps via viscous glide of dislocations by pipe diffusion. More creep-resistant than SnAg3.5. Antimony can be toxic. Used for sealing chip packagings, attaching I/O pins to ceramic substrates, and die attachment; a possible lower-temperature replacement of AuSn. High strength and bright finish. Use in air conditioning, refrigeration, some food containers, and high-temperature applications. Good wettability, good long-term shear strength at 100 °C. Suitable for potable water systems. Used for stained glass, plumbing, and radiator repairs.Sn97Sb397 3 232/238-noIndalloy 131Sn99Sb199 1 232/235-noIndalloy 129Sn99Ag0.3Cu0.799 0.30.7 - Sn96.2Ag2.5Cu0.8Sb0.596.2 18.104.22.168 217-225 217- Ag03A. Patented by AIM alliance.Sn88In8.0Ag3.5Bi0.588 3.5 0.58 197-208- Patented by Matsushita/Panasonic.Bi57Sn42Ag142 1 57 137/139 139/140- Indalloy 282. Addition of silver improves mechanical strength. Established history of use. Good thermal fatigue performance. Patented by Motorola.Bi58Sn4242 58 138-yesBi58, Indalloy 281, Indalloy 138, Cerrothru. Reasonable shear strength and fatigue properties. Combination with lead-tin solder may dramatically lower melting point and lead to joint failure. Low-temperature eutectic solder with high strength. Particularly strong, very brittle. Used extensively in through-hole technology assemblies in IBM mainframe computers where low soldering temperature was required. Can be used as a coating of copper particles to facilitate their bonding under pressure/heat and creating a conductive metallurgical joint. Sensitive to shear rate. Good for electronics. Used in thermoelectric applications. Good thermal fatigue performance. Established history of use. Expands slightly on casting, then undergoes very low further shrinkage or expansion, unlike many other low-temperature alloys which continue changing dimensions for some hours after solidification.Bi58Pb42 42 58 124/126Pb Indalloy 67In80Pb15Ag5 155 80 142/149 149/154PbnoIn80, Indalloy 2. Compatible with gold, minimum gold-leaching. Resistant to thermal fatigue. Can be used in step soldering.Pb60In40 60 40 195/225PbnoIn40, Indalloy 206. Low gold-leaching. Good thermal fatigue properties.Pb70In30 70 30 245/260PbnoIn30Sn37.5Pb37.5In2637.537.5 26 134/181PbnoIn26Sn54Pb26In205426 20 130/154 140/152PbnoIn20, Indalloy 532Pb81In19 81 19 270/280 260/275PbnoIn19, Indalloy 150. Low gold-leaching. Good thermal fatigue properties.In52Sn4848 52 118-yesIn52, Indalloy 1E. Suitable for the cases where low-temperature soldering is needed. Can be used for glass sealing. Sharp melting point. Good wettability of glass, quartz, and many ceramics. Good low-temperature malleability, can compensate for different thermal expansion coefficients of joined materials.Sn52In4852 48 118/131-novery low tensile strengthSn58In4258 42 118/145-noIndalloy 87Sn51.2Pb30.6Cd22.214.171.124 18.2 145Pb,CdyesIndalloy 181. General-purpose. Maintains creep strength well. Unsuitable for gold.Sn77.2In20Ag2.877.2 2.8 20 175/187-noIndalloy 227. Similar mechanical properties with Sn63Pb37, Sn62Pb36Ag2 and Sn60Pb40, suitable lead-free replacement. Contains eutectic Sn-In phase with melting point at 118 °C, avoid use above 100 °C.In74Cd26 74 26 123CdyesIndalloy 253.In61.7Bi30.8Cd7.5 30.861.7 7.5 62CdyesIndalloy 18Bi47.5Pb25.4Sn12.6Cd9.5In512.625.4 47.55 9.5 57/65Pb,CdnoIndalloy 140Bi48Pb25.4Sn12.8Cd9.6In412.825.4 48 9.6 61/65Pb,CdnoIndalloy 147Bi49Pb18Sn15In181518 4918 58/69PbnoIndalloy 21Bi49Pb18Sn12In211218 4921 58PbyesCerrolow 136. Slightly expands on cooling, later shows slight shrinkage in couple hours afterwards. Used as a solder in low-temperature physics.Bi50.5Pb27.8Sn12.4Cd9.312.427.8 50.5 9.3 70/73Pb,CdnoIndalloy 22Bi50Pb26.7Sn13.3Cd1013.326.7 50 10 70Pb,CdyesCerrobend. Used in low-temperature physics as a solder.Bi44.7Pb22.6In19.1Cd5.3Sn8.38.322.6 44.719.1 5.3 47Cd,PbyesIndalloy 117, Cerrolow 117. Used as a solder in low-temperature physics.In60Sn4040 60 113/122-no In51.0Bi32.5Sn16.516.5 32.551 60.5-yesField's metalBi49.5Pb27.3Sn13.1Cd10.113.127.3 49.5 10.1 70.9Pb,CdyesLipowitz MetalBi50.0Pb25.0Sn12.5Cd12.512.525 50 12.5 71Pb,CdyesWood's metal, mostly used for casting.Bi50.0Pb31.2Sn18.818.831.2 50 97PbnoNewton's metalBi50Pb28Sn222228 50 109PbnoRose's metal. It was used to secure cast iron railings and balusters in pockets in stone bases and steps. Does not contract on cooling.Cd95Ag5 5 95 338/393 340/395Cd Indalloy 185. melts at 338 °C, flows at 393 °C; for high-temperature applications, for soldering aluminium to itself or to other metals. Braze 053. For medium-strength joints. For low-temperature brazing.Cd82.5Zn17.5 17.582.5 265Cd For soldering aluminium and die-cast zinc alloys. Used in cryogenic physics for ataching electrical potential leads to specimens of metals, as this alloy does not become superconductive at liquid helium temperatures.Zn90Cd10 9010 265/399Cd For soldering aluminium. Good wetting.Zn60Cd40 6040 265/335Cd For soldering aluminium. Very good wetting.Cd70Sn3029.56 70.44 140/160CdnoCd70, thermal-free solder. Produces low thermal EMF joints in copper, does not form parasitic thermocouples. Used in low-temperature physics.Sn50Pb32Cd185032 18 145Cd,Pb Cd18Sn40Pb42Cd184042 18 145Cd,Pb LT145. Low melting temperature allows repairing pewter and zinc objects, including die-cast toys.Zn70Sn3030 70 199/376-noFor soldering aluminium. Excellent wetting. Good strength.Zn60Sn4040 60 199/341-noFor soldering aluminium. Good wetting.Zn95Sn55 95 382-yes?For soldering aluminium. Excellent wetting.Sn90Au1090 10 217-yesIndalloy 238.Au80Sn2020 80 280-yesAu80, Indalloy 182, Premabraze 800. Good wetting, high strength, low creep, high corrosion resistance, high thermal conductivity, high surface tension, zero wetting angle. Suitable for step soldering. The original flux-less alloy, does not need flux. Used for die attachment and attachment of metal lids to semiconductor packages, e.g. kovar lids to ceramic chip carriers. Coefficient of expansion matching many common materials. Due to zero wetting angle requires pressure to form a void-free joint. Alloy of choice for joining gold-plated and gold-alloy plated surfaces. As some gold dissolves from the surfaces during soldering and moves the composition to non-eutectic state (1% increase of Au content can increase melting point by 30 °C), subsequent desoldering requires higher temperature. Forms a mixture of two brittle intermetallic phases, AuSn and Au5Sn. Brittle. Proper wetting achieved usually by using nickel surfaces with gold layer on top on both sides of the joint. Comprehensively tested through military standard environmental conditioning. Good long-term electrical performance, history of reliability. Low vapor pressure, suitable for vacuum work. Generally used in applications that require a melting temperature over 150°C. Good ductility. Also classified as a braze.Au98Si2 98Si2370/800- Au98, Indalloy 194. A non-eutectic alloy used for die attachment of silicon dies. Ultrasonic assistance is needed to scrub the chip surface so a eutectic (3.1% Si) is reached at reflow.Au96.8Si3.2 96.8Si3.2370 363-yesAu97, Indalloy 184.  AuSi3.2 is a eutectic with melting point of 363 °C. AuSi forms a meniscus at the edge of the chip, unlike AuSn, as AuSi reacts with the chip surface. Forms a composite material structure of submicron silicon plates in soft gold matrix. Tough, slow crack propagation.Au87.5Ge12.5 87.5Ge12.5361 356-yesAu88, Indalloy 183. Used for die attachment of some chips. The high temperature may be detrimental to the chips and limits reworkability.Au82In18 18 82 451/485-noAu82, Indalloy 178. High-temperature, extremely hard, very stiff.In100 99.99 157-pureIn99. Used for die attachment of some chips. More suitable for soldering gold, dissolution rate of gold is 17 times slower than in tin-based solders and up to 20% of gold can be tolerated without significant embrittlement. Good performance at cryogenic temperatures. Wets many surfaces incl. quartz, glass, and many ceramics. Deforms indefinitely under load. Does not become brittle even at low temperatures. Used as a solder in low-temperature physics, will bond to aluminium. Can be used for soldering to thin metal films or glass with an ultrasonic soldering iron.
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