The first record of photography dates back to 1820 with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photograph (that was not destroyed later) was developed in 1826 by Nicephore Niepce. His pictures however took 8 hours to develop and so he sought a new way to take pictures.
In 1837 Daguerre developed the first picture of a person through a process called daguerretype (which he obviously named after himself). Similar processes were used all around the world until in 1884 George Eastman created a process of taking pictures using film, a process more known and used today.