How did the Canterbury New Zealand earthquake happen?
New Zealand lies across the intersection of two of Earth's tectonic plates - those of the Indo-Australian Plate, and the Pacific Plate. Thus the country is riven by any fault systems. (Of which the most famous is the Alpine Fault.)
The stresses produced by the differential movement between and within these plates causes New Zealand's earthquakes. (In addition, the deep earthquakes are caused by subduction processes at the plate intersection.
The Christchurch Earthquakes were caused primarily by earthquakes associated with stresses in the shallow crust.
Not much is the short answer. The Japanese earthquake was associated with their subduction zone, whereas the Canterbury one was the re-activation of an old but previously unknown shear fault on the Canterbury Plains - in other words on the upper crust well away from the shear zone of the Alpine Fault. In Lyttleton, there was a small tsunami, but essentially benign.
The Canterbury earthquake was 7.1 on the Richter scale, and unusually shallow at 10 km. It is expected that the largest aftershock could be up to 6 on the Richter scale, and they are expected to last for many months. This particular fault line, previously unknown, has been quiet for at least 16 000 years - before the current glacial and gravel outwashes created the Canterbury Plains.
Definitely. In February 2011, there was the Christchurch earthquake, which killed around 185, making it New Zealand's worst natural disaster in terms of loss of life in 80 years. This was preceded by the Canterbury earthquake in September 2010. Although this earthquake did not cause any loss of life, it was certainly the largest in 80 years to affect a major urban area.
Yes, Springfield is a town in New Zealand. It is a small town in the Selwyn District of Canterbury, in the South Island, of New Zealand. In 2001 it had a population of 219. At the foot of the Southern Alps, 65 km west of Christchurch, it is the most westerly town of the central Canterbury Plains. Springfield has a long association with the Midland railway line. PS: Korea is an awsome country.