How does ethidium-bromide stain DNA?
Ethidium bromide binds with DNA and slips in between its hydrophobic base pairs and stretches the DNA fragment, removing water molecules from the ethidium cation. The result of this dehydrogenation is an increase in fluorescence of the ethidium (as well as the cell).
It is specific for the phosphate groups of DNA and attaches itself to regions of DNA where there are high amounts of adenine-thymine bonding. Giemsa stain is used in Giemsa banding, commonly called G-banding, to stain chromosomes and often used to create an idiogram. It can identify chromosomal aberrations such astranslocations and rearrangements.
During DNA electrophoresis DNA and restriction enzymes are inserted into the wells of a agarose gel. The agarose gel is then placed into a electrophoresis chamber along with a buffer (the buffer keeps the DNA fragments soluble in water). The electrophoresis chamber has a electrical charge running through it that carries the DNA fragments through the gel. Because the gel is porous DNA fragments can travel through it, but the varying sizes of the fragments…
A chromosome is a structure containing DNA and various proteins in a nucleus. The proteins help organize and regulate the DNA molecule. The name literally means "colored body" referring to the fact that certain dyes bind to DNA and can be used to stain the chromosomes. Note: scientific literature oftentimes refers to other forms of DNA molecules as chromosomes (which more correctly may be called plasmids, genophores, etc.).
Bromophenol blue or commasive blue functions as a sample staining dye or DNA staining dye it is mixed with sample before loading the sample in wells. The migration of bromophenol blue is same as of DNA i.e. it carries negative charge and move in same direction of DNA with the speed equals to 200-400bp of DNA. It also prevent backflow of sample in vertical gel electrophoresis as the sample is light from the loading buffer…
The best stain remover depends on the type of stain and the type of material you use. The safest stain remover is water, but if you have a protein stain hot water will make the stain worse. Most people agree that bleach is the strongest stain remover, but unless the garment is white or color-safe bleach will cause a worse stain.