I think..... In marginal costing method only variable cost is considered as product cost and fixed cost is not considered as product cost. But in reality product cost include fixed and variable, thus both variable and fixed costs should be considered while allocating cost. Marginal costing is used for inside reporting and absorption costing is used for outsider to clarify the real cost of product........ Am i right? Please confirm it
It informs the management that how much any unit of product is helping towards recovering the fixed cost.
GAAP does NOT preclude use of variable costing for external financial reports. The only place the literature addresses this question is in ARB (Accounting Research Bulletin #4) which states that the exclusion of all overhead from inventory is unacceptable. Variable costing does not attempt to exclude overhead associated with the production of product, i.e. variable overhead. But it does exclude the cost of providing productive capacity. It is odd that in its discussion of the current standard for segment reporting that the FASB said that external users of financial information should received data prepared on a basis consistent with that used by management for decision making. Since it is widely accepted that variable costing is useful to management, can this statement by the FASB be consider an endorsement of variable costing in the financial statements of companies which use it internally?
No. They are not.they are part of period costs.
the Utah Jazz can sodomize itself
method in which the costs to be inventoriedinclude only the variablemanufacturing costs. Fixed factory overhead is treated as a period cost-it is deducted along with the selling and administrative expenses in the period incurred. That is, Direct materials $xx Direct labor xx Variable factory overhead xx Product cost $xx Fixed factory overhead is treated as a period expense. Variable costing is used for internal management only. Its uses include: (1) inventory valuation and income determination; (2) relevant cost analysis; (3) break-even analysis and Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Analysis ; and (4) short-term decision-making. Variable costing is, however, not acceptable for external reporting or income tax reporting. Companies that use variable costing for internal reporting must convert to absorption costing for external reporting. Under absorption costing, the cost to be inventoried includes all manufacturing costs, both variable and fixed. Nonmanufacturing (operating) expenses, i.e., selling and administrative expenses, are treated as period expenses and thus are charged against the current revenue. Direct materials $xx Direct labor xx Variable factory overhead xx Fixed factory overhead xx Product cost $xx Two important facts are noted: 1. Effects of the two costing methods on net income: (a) When production exceeds sales, a larger net income will be reported under absorption costing. (b) When sales exceed production, a arger net income will be reported under direct costing. (c) When sales and production are equal, net income will be the same under both methods. 2. Reconciliation of the direct and absorption costing net income figures: (a) The difference in net income can be reconciled as follows: (b) the above formula works only if the fixed overhead rate per unit does not change between the periods.
B. Direct materials, direct labor, and variable manufacturing overhead.
Absorption costing is defined as a method for accumulating fixed and variable costs associated with a production process. Thus, a product may absorb a broad range of costs.
needs of product costing system
marginal costing is also known as contribution costing. its a costing method that's includes only a variable cost of a product no attempt is made to allocate or appropriate fixed costs to cost centers. the setting of prices is basically based on the variable costs of making a product. if the prices are set above this unit cost then each item sold will make a condition to fixed costs. on the other hand absorption costing or full costing is an approach to the costing of products that allocated all costs of production to cost centers. The aim is to ensure that all business costs are covered.
inventory (i.e. stock) is an asset, not a cost. It is considered a current asset, however may be illiquid depending on the product
Marginal costing is a technique of costing where the variable expenses are charged to a product. It ignores the fixed expenses incurred by the business in fixing the price of a product on the assumption that the fixed expenses are not incurred in producing an additional unit.They are treated as period costs& charged directly to P& L A/C.Marginal cost is the cost of producing an additional unit of product.It takes the direct expenses & the variable portion of the overhead expenditure. But Direct costing takes into account only the direct expenses like direct mterials, direct labour & direct expenditure for finding out the cost of a product.
Absorption Costing (also known as traditional costing approach or full costing) absorbs all costs incurred to produce goods, which can result in misleading product cost information for decision-making. In absorption costing, fixed overheads are considered as product cost. These are added in the cost of inventory and not shown as separate item (period cost) in the income statement. The full cost includes cost of direct materials, direct labor, variable manufacturing overheads and fixed overheads. The absorption costing focuses only on total cost viz. variable and fixed and it is not useful for managers to take decision, plan about future and exercise control. The cost volume profit relationship is ignored because it takes into account the total cost. Absorption costing is suitable only in those companies where equal number of units are produced and sold. However, a business operates in a dynamic environment and production and sales keep on fluctuating on a regular basis. Therefore, as absorption costing is used in such a scenario, the cost will keep on fluctuating...
The two terms are different names for the same costing technique. Full cost refers to the principle that all overheads, fixed and variable, should be treated as product costs and be absorbed, or allocated, to cost objects. Cost objects can be various items but typically are units of product or service. This principle is distinct from variable costing in which fixed costs are considered to be period costs rather than product costs, and as such are not allocated to products. Product costs are used to value stocks of unsold products and cost of production so the selection of basis, full cost or variable cost, will affect the profit of individual products and influence management decisions.
Job order costing is more appropriate than process costing when the product being produced is a custom product
marginal costing is recommended by IAS and absorption costing is not recommended by IAS,marginal costing is used for internal purposes and absorption costing is ysed for external purposes,in marginal costing the fixed production overheads are not calculated as a product cost and in absorption costing the fixed prodution overheads are calculated as product cost.
Standard costing is process of determining the standard price require to produce one unit of product while actual costing system uses the actual prices of manufacturing one unit of product.
Standard costing is an estimated price for a service or product under normal conditions.
Product costing is the complete cost that is used to create a specific product. It includes the cost of direct labor, direct materials, consumable production supplies, and manufacturing overhead.
Raw materials are those items that will be used in making the product. Supplies are used inside the business and they won't be sold.
Target costing refers to the design of a product and the processes used to produce it , so the ultimately the product can be manufactured at a cost that will enable the firm to make a profit when product is sold
In target costing the costs is determined by finding out how much the customers are willing to pay for the service or product. The selling price is adjusted for the profit which determines the cost at which the product or service should be produced. When the target cost is less that the actual costs then decisions needs to be made to reduce the costs. For example the remove non value adding features to the product or service. Kaizen costing involves the continuous addition of small costs to the product or service until it meets its desired level for the customer. Target costing can said to be retrospective costing whilst kaizen is prospective costing.
Which of the following is a characteristic of ABC? a. Improved financial reporting b. aid to managers in determining product cost c. used in place of job or process costing d. use restricted to manufacturing entities Answer: b. aid to managers in determining product cost Reference: Chapter 8, Activity Based Costing, Managerial Accounting by Garrison