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it may be your computer however i would take it to a shop and have them look at it becasue with new parts like that the only things left are computer mass air flow and fuel regulator I would pull the injectors and see if they are clean.

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โˆ™ 2007-09-21 16:42:08
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Q: What could cause a random cylinder misfire on a 99 olds alero I have replaced the plugsthe wiresthe coil packs ignition moduel and the air idel valve Im really stuck here guys?
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What is the proper wiring sequence of the coil to ignition module on a 1988 buick park avenue?

yes you will notice the blue yellow and green wires on the ig-module .. if you are faceing the front of engine by standing on the right hand side of the car . you have a series of three blue wiresthe will connect to the right side of coil pack . the left side will be from front to back ,, blue , yellow , green.


How math is used as an electrician?

Basic algebra is must. adding, subtracting, dividing, multiply, fractions. some trig.If you plan to be highly paid then should invest a little time and effort for algebra.The more the pay the more you have to know and apply. At the end of the day, it is not much knowledge and much more pay.Some examples of math on the jobsite are:When caluclating how many wires run though a conduitHow many wire can be in an electrical boxThe load on feed wiresThe size of feederVoltage dropPending conduitNumber of lights and outlets on a circuitThe number of turns and angles of a conduitthe list goes on and on...


Doorbell Transformer: DIY Installation?

INSTALLING A DOORBELL HAS NEVER BEEN EASIERPeople want a doorbell for visitors, and as an alert to let them know that someone is there.Installing a transformer for your doorbell can seem like an intimidating task to do yourself, but it doesn't have to be. Making sure you have the right tools, locating the necessary spots that you will need to work, and connecting everything by the running wires are all necessary steps to get this done properly. Have Access To The Necessary ToolsThere is a whole list of tools that you will need in order to ensure that you can take the proper steps to get this project done. Depending on the exact transformer you have chosen, and in order to maintain safety, you will need a power drill, the transformer itself, electrical tape, a wire stripper, pliers, a voltage tester, and several insulated screwdrivers, which can keep you from getting shocked.Locate The Chime and Junction BoxThe junction box and the chime are the most specific parts that you will need to work on when you are installing the transformer. Use the voltage tester to determine that the circuit you are on is turned off. Once you get the all clear, install the transformer onto the junction box.Running The Appropriate WiresThe first wire you will need to connect is the transformer's wires. Remove the old wires first, however. Make sure that all of the wires that you connect fit properly. There will be a black wire and a white wire coming out. Fit the black wire first, then the white. From there, run the doorbell wire the same exact way. Once you have done this, finish up by connecting both the doorbell wires and the transformer wires.


How do you tell which wire is the positive and negative and which is for the high and low beam on a 2001 Montero Sport LS?

Testing Polarity on wiresThe basic way to determine polarity on a wire is to probe it with a digital voltmeter. Modern vehicles use many solid state controls for various functions and circuits so ONLY use a digital voltmeter/multimeter. Firstly, go purchase a cheap digital multimeter (from radio shack or harbor freight, starting at about $5 ). Put the meter in dc volt mode, 12 volts (or more) range. Hold the black meter probe on a metal body/engine ground-point and probe the wire in question with the red probe while the circuit is powered on.If the wire has 12v + power on it you will get a volt reading. If the wire is open or has ground on it then there will be no 12volt reading.Next, if there was no reading, repeat the test with the red probe attached onto the cars battery at the PLUS terminal (+), then probe the wire in question with the black probe (with the circuit powered up). If there is a 12volt reading then that wire has ground on it, no response means an open wire or the wire has B+ power on it.Your electical system should be safe if you use a digital volt meter for this operation.WARNING! Use the info following at your own risk! Improper use of a testlight can DESTROY your controller circuits!If the circuit under test is a high power circuit (enough amperage normally goes thru the wire in question to light up a 12 volt lightbulb or headlight for instance) then a digital voltmeter CAN give a false indication of 12 volt power as that type of meter draws virtually no power to speak of. In other words, the meter can indicate power but a high resistance connection in the circuit could still prevent enough current flow to light up a bulb.You can test this type of circuit with a load generating tester know as a 12 volt testlight. Here is where the danger lies; If in fact you are probing into a digital control circuit with a testlight (instead of the power circuit you thought you were working on) you will short it out and most likely destroy the solidstate control mechanism.You can test for ground by clipping the testlight cord to B+ befor probing the wires or you can test for power by clipping the testlight cord to ground befor probing a powered on circuit. You can also test a bulb by grounding one contact and probing another with a testlight clipped to B+, if the testlight comes on at all no matter how dimly then the bulb filament connected to the terminal you probed is good.To determine the highbeam wire unplug the connector from the headlight and probe the connections carefully for B+ with the circuit powered up. The one that has power only when the high beams are turned on (blue light on dashboard lit up) is for the highbeams. The one with no power ever is the ground and the other is for the lowbeams.without being too confusing.


When wire towards fuse 6 petrol pump of your Volvo 240 Nov 1989 gets really warm hot the fuse does not go but sometimes melt and the fuse box where wire comes in turned black what's wrong?

Overheating of Electrical WiresThe symptoms you describe suggest a severe overload condition, or a short circuit, both of which can cause your vehicle to catch on fire. I think you are VERY LUCKY that this incident did not result in a fire and total destruction of your vehicle.From your description "really warm/hot," and "melt," and "turned black" indicates extreme heat, which melted wiring insulation, and charred [burned] the fuse box.The following discussion of fuses explains the need for fuses, and indicates that you have a very dangerous situation in which the wiring has either been improperly modified, or an over-sized fuse or fusible link has been installed by someone who did not know what they were doing.That wire that overheats, melts, and chars the fuse box apparently is between the battery and the fuse box, AND IS NOT properly protected by a fusible link or fuse. You need a "Professional" automotive electrical technician to troubleshoot the system and make proper repairs before you burn you whole car up.Fuses That "Blow" RepeatedlyWithout being able to "hands on" troubleshoot the circuit served by the repeatedly blowing fuse, no one can identify the specific cause/defect which is causing your problem.The following generic answer applies to any electrical circuit, whether in a vehicle or in a building, or whether alternating current [AC] or direct current [DC].Fuses [and Circuit Breakers] are safety devices designed and installed in electrical circuits TO PROTECT the conductors [wires] and other components from short circuit conditions and/or overload conditions which can cause extreme flow of electrical current [measured in Amperes], and overheating of the conductors that can result in damage to the insulation and the conductors. And in a worst case, the probability of a FIRE which could destroy the vehicle, house, or other structure in which the circuit is located.When a fuse [and replacement fuses, or "tripping" Circuit Breakers] "blow," especially if it happens repeatedly, is an indication of an UNSAFE CONDITION in that circuit, usually a short.The fuse or circuit breaker is doing what it was designed, intended, and installed to do, protect the components of the circuit which it serves.The proper "fix" is for a qualified technician, who knows what he or she is doing, to troubleshoot the involved circuit, find and identify the defect, and make proper repair [s], BEFORE replacing the fuse again [with the properly sized fuse or before resetting a circuit breaker].Some ignorant few will suggest installing a larger fuse or breaker to solve the problem, BUT that will only increase the hazard, not correct it. Do not follow "bad" advice and install a larger fuse in a misguided attempt to correct the problem. To install an over-sized fuse would almost guarantee damage to the wiring and an electrical system fire.


How does a force field work?

Force Feild (magnet feild)There is a strong connection between electricity and magnetism. With electricity, there are positive and negative charges. With magnetism, there are north and south poles. Similar to charges, like magnetic poles repel each other, while unlike poles attract.An important difference between electricity and magnetism is that in electricity it is possible to have individual positive and negative charges. In magnetism, north and south poles are always found in pairs. Single magnetic poles, known as magnetic monopoles, have been proposed theoretically, but a magnetic monopole has never been observed.In the same way that electric charges create electric fields around them, north and south poles will set up magnetic fields around them. Again, there is a difference. While electric field lines begin on positive charges and end on negative charges, magnetic field lines are closed loops, extending from the south pole to the north pole and back again (or, equivalently, from the north pole to the south pole and back again). With a typical bar magnet, for example, the field goes from the north pole to the south pole outside the magnet, and back from south to north inside the magnet.Electric fields come from charges. So do magnetic fields, but from moving charges, or currents, which are simply a whole bunch of moving charges. In a permanent magnet, the magnetic field comes from the motion of the electrons inside the material, or, more precisely, from something called the electron spin. The electron spin is a bit like the Earth spinning on its axis.The magnetic field is a vector, the same way the electric field is. The electric field at a particular point is in the direction of the force a positive charge would experience if it were placed at that point. The magnetic field at a point is in the direction of the force a north pole of a magnet would experience if it were placed there. In other words, the north pole of a compass points in the direction of the magnetic field.One implication of this is that the magnetic south pole of the Earth is located near to the geographic north pole. This hasn't always been the case: every once in a while (a long while) something changes inside the Earth's core, and the earth's field flips direction. Even at the present time, while the Earth's magnetic field is relatively stable, the location of the magnetic poles is slowly shifting.The symbol for magnetic field is the letter B. The unit is the tesla (T).The magnetic field produced by currents in wiresThe simplest current we can come up with is a current flowing in a straight line, such as along a long straight wire. The magnetic field from a such current-carrying wire actually wraps around the wire in circular loops, decreasing in magnitude with increasing distance from the wire. To find the direction of the field, you can use your right hand. If you curl your fingers, and point your thumb in the direction of the current, your fingers will point in the direction of the field. The magnitude of the field at a distance r from a wire carrying a current I is given by: Currents running through wires of different shapes produce different magnetic fields. Consider a circular loop with a current traveling in a counter-clockwise direction around it (as viewed from the top). By pointing your thumb in the direction of the current, you should be able to tell that the magnetic field comes up through the loop, and then wraps around on the outside, going back down. The field at the center of a circular loop of radius r carrying a current I is given by:For N loops put together to form a flat coil, the field is just multiplied by N:If a number of current-carrying loops are stacked on top of each other to form a cylinder, or, equivalently, a single wire is wound into a tight spiral, the result is known as a solenoid. The field along the axis of the solenoid has a magnitude of:where n = N/L is the number of turns per unit length (or, in other words, the total number of turns over the total length).The force on a charged particle in a magnetic fieldAn electric field E exerts a force on a charge q. A magnetic field B will also exert a force on a charge q, but only if the charge is moving (and not moving in a direction parallel to the field). The direction of the force exerted by a magnetic field on a moving charge is perpendicular to the field, and perpendicular to the velocity (i.e., perpendicular to the direction the charge is moving). The equation that gives the force on a charge moving at a velocity v in a magnetic field B is:This is a vector equation : F is a vector, v is a vector, and B is a vector. The only thing that is not a vector is q.Note that when v and B are parallel (or at 180°) to each other, the force is zero. The maximum force, F = qvB, occurs when v and B are perpendicular to each other.The direction of the force, which is perpendicular to both v and B, can be found using your right hand, applying something known as the right-hand rule. One way to do the right-hand rule is to do this: point all four fingers on your right hand in the direction of v. Then curl your fingers so the tips point in the direction of B. If you hold out your thumb as if you're hitch-hiking, your thumb will point in the direction of the force.At least, your thumb points in the direction of the force as long as the charge is positive. A negative charge introduces a negative sign, which flips the direction of the force. So, for a negative charge your right hand lies to you, and the force on the negative charge will be opposite to the direction indicated by your right hand.In a uniform field, a charge initially moving parallel to the field would experience no force, so it would keep traveling in straight-line motion, parallel to the field. Consider, however, a charged particle that is initially moving perpendicular to the field. This particle would experience a force perpendicular to its velocity. A force perpendicular to the velocity can only change the direction of the particle, and it can't affect the speed. In this case, the force will send the particle into uniform circular motion. The particle will travel in a circular path, with the plane of the circle being perpendicular to the direction of the field.In this case, the force applied by the magnetic field ( F = qvB ) is the only force acting on the charged particle. Using Newton's second law gives:The particle is undergoing uniform circular motion, so the acceleration is the centripetal acceleration:a = v2 / rso, q v B = m v2 / rA factor of v cancels out on both sides, leavingq B = m v / r The radius of the circular path is then: r = m v / (q B)A particle that is initially moving at some angle between parallel and perpendicular to the field would follow a motion which is a combination of circular motion and straight-line motion...it would follow a spiral path. The axis of the spiral would be parallel to the field.To understand this, simply split the velocity of the particle into two components:The field does not affect v-parallel in any way; this is where the straight line motion comes from. On the other hand, the field and v-perpendicular combine to produce circular motion. Superimpose the two motions and you get a spiral path.Working in three dimensionsWith the force, velocity, and field all perpendicular to each other, we have to work in three dimensions. It can be hard to draw in 3-D on a 2-D surface such as a piece of paper or a chalk board, so to represent something pointing in the third dimension, perpendicular to the page or board, we usually draw the direction as either a circle with a dot in the middle or a circle with an X in the middle. Think of an arrow with a tip at one end and feathers at the other. If you look at an arrow coming toward you, you see the tip; if you look at an arrow going away from you, you see the X of the feathers. A circle with a dot, then, represents something coming out of the page or board at you; a circle with an X represents something going into the page or board.


How does a force work?

Force Feild (magnet feild)There is a strong connection between electricity and magnetism. With electricity, there are positive and negative charges. With magnetism, there are north and south poles. Similar to charges, like magnetic poles repel each other, while unlike poles attract.An important difference between electricity and magnetism is that in electricity it is possible to have individual positive and negative charges. In magnetism, north and south poles are always found in pairs. Single magnetic poles, known as magnetic monopoles, have been proposed theoretically, but a magnetic monopole has never been observed.In the same way that electric charges create electric fields around them, north and south poles will set up magnetic fields around them. Again, there is a difference. While electric field lines begin on positive charges and end on negative charges, magnetic field lines are closed loops, extending from the south pole to the north pole and back again (or, equivalently, from the north pole to the south pole and back again). With a typical bar magnet, for example, the field goes from the north pole to the south pole outside the magnet, and back from south to north inside the magnet.Electric fields come from charges. So do magnetic fields, but from moving charges, or currents, which are simply a whole bunch of moving charges. In a permanent magnet, the magnetic field comes from the motion of the electrons inside the material, or, more precisely, from something called the electron spin. The electron spin is a bit like the Earth spinning on its axis.The magnetic field is a vector, the same way the electric field is. The electric field at a particular point is in the direction of the force a positive charge would experience if it were placed at that point. The magnetic field at a point is in the direction of the force a north pole of a magnet would experience if it were placed there. In other words, the north pole of a compass points in the direction of the magnetic field.One implication of this is that the magnetic south pole of the Earth is located near to the geographic north pole. This hasn't always been the case: every once in a while (a long while) something changes inside the Earth's core, and the earth's field flips direction. Even at the present time, while the Earth's magnetic field is relatively stable, the location of the magnetic poles is slowly shifting.The symbol for magnetic field is the letter B. The unit is the tesla (T).The magnetic field produced by currents in wiresThe simplest current we can come up with is a current flowing in a straight line, such as along a long straight wire. The magnetic field from a such current-carrying wire actually wraps around the wire in circular loops, decreasing in magnitude with increasing distance from the wire. To find the direction of the field, you can use your right hand. If you curl your fingers, and point your thumb in the direction of the current, your fingers will point in the direction of the field. The magnitude of the field at a distance r from a wire carrying a current I is given by: Currents running through wires of different shapes produce different magnetic fields. Consider a circular loop with a current traveling in a counter-clockwise direction around it (as viewed from the top). By pointing your thumb in the direction of the current, you should be able to tell that the magnetic field comes up through the loop, and then wraps around on the outside, going back down. The field at the center of a circular loop of radius r carrying a current I is given by:For N loops put together to form a flat coil, the field is just multiplied by N:If a number of current-carrying loops are stacked on top of each other to form a cylinder, or, equivalently, a single wire is wound into a tight spiral, the result is known as a solenoid. The field along the axis of the solenoid has a magnitude of:where n = N/L is the number of turns per unit length (or, in other words, the total number of turns over the total length).The force on a charged particle in a magnetic fieldAn electric field E exerts a force on a charge q. A magnetic field B will also exert a force on a charge q, but only if the charge is moving (and not moving in a direction parallel to the field). The direction of the force exerted by a magnetic field on a moving charge is perpendicular to the field, and perpendicular to the velocity (i.e., perpendicular to the direction the charge is moving). The equation that gives the force on a charge moving at a velocity v in a magnetic field B is:This is a vector equation : F is a vector, v is a vector, and B is a vector. The only thing that is not a vector is q.Note that when v and B are parallel (or at 180°) to each other, the force is zero. The maximum force, F = qvB, occurs when v and B are perpendicular to each other.The direction of the force, which is perpendicular to both v and B, can be found using your right hand, applying something known as the right-hand rule. One way to do the right-hand rule is to do this: point all four fingers on your right hand in the direction of v. Then curl your fingers so the tips point in the direction of B. If you hold out your thumb as if you're hitch-hiking, your thumb will point in the direction of the force.At least, your thumb points in the direction of the force as long as the charge is positive. A negative charge introduces a negative sign, which flips the direction of the force. So, for a negative charge your right hand lies to you, and the force on the negative charge will be opposite to the direction indicated by your right hand.In a uniform field, a charge initially moving parallel to the field would experience no force, so it would keep traveling in straight-line motion, parallel to the field. Consider, however, a charged particle that is initially moving perpendicular to the field. This particle would experience a force perpendicular to its velocity. A force perpendicular to the velocity can only change the direction of the particle, and it can't affect the speed. In this case, the force will send the particle into uniform circular motion. The particle will travel in a circular path, with the plane of the circle being perpendicular to the direction of the field.In this case, the force applied by the magnetic field ( F = qvB ) is the only force acting on the charged particle. Using Newton's second law gives:The particle is undergoing uniform circular motion, so the acceleration is the centripetal acceleration:a = v2 / rso, q v B = m v2 / rA factor of v cancels out on both sides, leavingq B = m v / r The radius of the circular path is then: r = m v / (q B)A particle that is initially moving at some angle between parallel and perpendicular to the field would follow a motion which is a combination of circular motion and straight-line motion...it would follow a spiral path. The axis of the spiral would be parallel to the field.To understand this, simply split the velocity of the particle into two components:The field does not affect v-parallel in any way; this is where the straight line motion comes from. On the other hand, the field and v-perpendicular combine to produce circular motion. Superimpose the two motions and you get a spiral path.Working in three dimensionsWith the force, velocity, and field all perpendicular to each other, we have to work in three dimensions. It can be hard to draw in 3-D on a 2-D surface such as a piece of paper or a chalk board, so to represent something pointing in the third dimension, perpendicular to the page or board, we usually draw the direction as either a circle with a dot in the middle or a circle with an X in the middle. Think of an arrow with a tip at one end and feathers at the other. If you look at an arrow coming toward you, you see the tip; if you look at an arrow going away from you, you see the X of the feathers. A circle with a dot, then, represents something coming out of the page or board at you; a circle with an X represents something going into the page or board.


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