What is an antitrust exemption?
The antitrust laws prohibit agreements by two or more that "restrain trade in interstate commerce." Labor unions, by their nature, may engage in such activities when they present demands for better wages, hours and working conditions. When act as representatives of a group of employees and serve as agents for them. So when an agreement between the union and management is concluded, the working must abide under the conditions agreed to. To prevent unions from antitrust liability, a "labor exemption" was created under the Clayton Act of 1914. It has two components. The so-called "statutory" labor exemption allows unions to enter into agreements which may create a monopolistic practice regarding the working conditions of the employees it represents. The "Non-Statutory Labor Exemption" -- the more applicable concept in sports law -- is a judicially-derived expansion of the labor exemption that protects union activity from antitrust scrutiny. It has been the crux of nearly all antitrust actions in professional sports (with the exception of baseball, which had an blanket exemption from antitrust laws until late in 1998). The non-statutory labor exemption is based on the policy that favors collective bargaining and gives it preference over the antitrust laws. Basically, any union-management agreement that was a product of good faith negotiation will receive protection from the antitrust laws. That means that the provisions of the agreement cannot be attacked as collusive or anti-competitive. Say that a salary cap is agreed to by a union and management. In pure antitrust terms, a cap can be a violation of the antitrust law. But since the cap was part of the collective bargaining agreement negotiatedin good faith and agreed-to by the union and management, the cap cannot attacked in court as a violation of antitrust. The statutory and non-statutory exemptions were intended to help unions from the threat of antitrust suits. But in sports, the tables have been turned. In the past, the exemptions have been used by management to enforce agreements that were "forced" on a weaker union (yes, there have been weak unions in sports!). The NFL players union learned this the hard way, when, after a series of cases in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was ruled that the exemption applied throughout the negotiation process, even after a labor contract expired. This interpretation of the non-statutory exemption was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1997. During the recent NBA lockout, there was talk of decertifying the union by certain agents representing star players. Without a union, any imposition of a salary cap could likely violate antitrust laws -- and their top players could then have no constraints in negotiating even higher salaries.
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Every person that files for bankruptcy or has a judgment awarded against them in a lawsuit is entitled to certain property exemptions. Exemptions are determined by the state law where the person resides. For homeowners the most important would be the homestead exemption which can be used to protect …a home from a forced sale. Even if the home cannot be kept, the person can claim the maximum homestead amount allowable under state statutes. ( Full Answer )
\n. \n Antitrust Laws \n. \nFirst, a definition of "trust" is in order: a trust is when a group of competing businesses decide that competition isn't all it's cracked up to be, frankly, and cooperate with one another instead to set prices and availablity of their products. This is called "coll…usion," and it drives up costs and drives down quality. \n. \nIn a "free market," people who see such actions could come in, undercut the trust on price, and win major market share. Unfortunately for free marketeers, the trust members, who are colluding to control prices, remember, slash their prices wherever their new competitor tries to sell his stuff. As a result, the trust loses money on each sale, but, being much larger than the small fry trying to break in, are easily able to absorb the losses by either eating the losses outright, or, more likely, hiking prices elsewhere to cover the difference.\n. \nAntitrust legislation prevents such behavior, as long as the government is willing to enforce it. Basically, consumers benefit through:\n. \n . Lower prices\n . Higher quality\n . Greater availablity\n . More innovation\n . \nTwo great online resources for you to check out...\n. \n. \nhttp://www.usdoj.gov/atr/public/div_stats/1638.htm\n. \nThe US Department of Justice's Antitrust FAQ is one of the clearest explanations I've ever seen. (Really!)\n. \n. \nhttp://www.antitrustinstitute.org/links/misc.cfm\n. \nThe American Antitrust Institute's webpage of links to all sorts of additional information. ( Full Answer )
A homestead law (which can also be a provision of the State Constitution) protects homeowners from losing their homes to creditors. Homestead laws vary widely among different states. In Florida and Texas, the homestead laws prevent anyone (except mortgage lenders and taxing authorities) from foreclo…sing on a homeowner's primary and principal residence. The principal residence capital-gains exemption under the Internal Revenue Code can apply to a different residence, depending on which residence satisfies the statute and whether the statute is satisfied. The date homestead is entered into under State homestead laws can be probative as to when the statutory periods in I.R.C. section 121 are begin to run, and thus when they are satisfied. . In New York, the homestead law permits creditors to foreclose on a homeowner's home, but the homeowner is entitled to keep the first $50,000. In Massachusetts, the homeowner gets to keep the first $500,000 - which means, as a practical matter, no one is going to foreclose on a home worth $499,000 or less in order to collect a debt. In some states, the homestead exemption is automatic -- that is, if you live in your house, then the homestead law applies automatically. In other states, you must file a "Homestead Declaration" in order to put potential creditors on notice that the house is your primary residence. If you file the Homestead Declaration, then you are entitled to the protections of the homestead law. If you don't file the Homestead Declaration, then you're not. You can get a lot of valuable info on this subject at www.homesteadus.com ( Full Answer )
Exempt employees are 'exempt' from federal overtime rules and regulations, based on specific qualifications put forth by FLSA rules. (Executives, professionals, etc.) Non-Exempt employees are paid by the hour, and are subject to federal overtime rules (time and a half, for all hours worked over 40 i…n a pay week.) All hourly employees are non-exempt, all exempt employees are salaried, but not all salaried employees are exempt. Salaried employees must pass specific FLSA criteria to be categorized as 'Exempt', and therefore exempt from overtime rules. ( Full Answer )
If markets functioned perfectly, there wouldn't be any need forregulation. There would be enough buyers and sellers in any marketthat none of them would have market power, there wouldn't be anyexternalities, and everyone would have perfect information, and asa result, everyone's incentives would cau…se their local choices toguide the market to the most efficient social outcome. In practice,lots of markets are dominated by one or a small number of firms,there are lots of negative and positive externalities, andconsumers aren't always well-informed. The idea behind regulation(in theory at least) is that in some markets, under regulation themarket will come closer to the outcome of a perfect market than ifit were left unregulated - prices will be lower, avoidingdeadweight loss, firms will invest heavily into research anddevelopment rather than building up piles of cash or payingdividends, etc. The case against regulation: Regulation is createdand enforced by the government, which often isn't actuallyincentivized to create the most efficient outcome. Governments aredriven by politics and are heavily influenced by lobbying, themedia, and irrational consumer sentiment. And especially with therate of change of technology, the government often lags behind thedevelopment of new markets and important changes in old markets.Even if the government was good at regulating, there are some morereasons why regulation might not be necessary in cases where onefirm is dominating a market: A firm that appears to be a monopolybased on a narrow definition of the market might actually competein a more general market, providing an incentive for them to pricecompetitively and invest in future developments (airlines competeagainst other forms of transportation, Facebook competes againstemail, etc). Also, the threat of entry by a new competitor canmotivate a firm to keep prices down and keep research going, evenwhen that competitor doesn't exist yet. Foreign competitors oftencan't be regulated by a government very well, and so regulatingdomestic firms can put them at a disadvantage in the globaleconomy. Even when a firm is monopolizing a market and can chargeprices far above what they'd be in a competitive environment,there's an argument that this serves as a reward and canincentivize a large amount of research and development when themarket is new. For example, if a new market starts out competitive,and founders and investors behind many of the companies know thatthe value of winning the market is very high (because they will beable to charge monopoly rents), in theory, that will cause much ofthe surplus that is expected to be generated later to get investedimmediately. This causes technological development to happen muchfaster than it otherwise would, and the monopoly profits go toward"paying back" this investment. Under this view, anti-trustregulation discourages investment and slows down progress in newmarkets. For example, Facebook stock prices are lower than theyotherwise would be because of the expectation of future regulation- this means the company has less money to invest in developmentthan it otherwise would. ( Full Answer )
The general purpose of both state and federal antitrust laws been enacted primarily for the purpose of maintaining a competitive and fair market place. The Competition Act is the Canadian law,has the same function The purpose of this Act is to maintain and encourage competition in Canada in ord…er to promote the efficiency and adaptability of the Canadian economy ( Full Answer )
The Sherman Act (1890) authorized the federal government to institute proceedings against trusts in order to dissolve them, but Supreme Court rulings prevented federal authorities from using the act for some years. The aim of the "Antitrust Act" was to prevent and to break up large groups of corp…orations (trusts) that monopolized an area of commerce, and thereby controlled the prices and operations of an industry (such as railroads, steel, or oil). Trusts eliminated the competition that would normally act to keep prices at a free market level. During his term (1901-1909) President Theodore Roosevelt became known as the "trust-buster" for using the Sherman Act to prevent monopolies and business cartels that served to inhibit free enterprise in the US. ( Full Answer )
Answer . An exemption is something that is excluded. In taxes, there are various tax exemptions and types of income that are exempt from tax. There are also certain types of organizations that are exempt from tax.
Federal legislation passed in 1890 prohibiting "monopolies or attempts to monopolize" and "contracts, combinations, or conspiracies in restraint of trade" in interstate and foreign commerce. The major purpose of the Sherman Antitrust Act was to prohibit monopolies and sustain competition so as to pr…otect companies from each other and to protect consumers from unfair business practices. The act was supplemented by the clayton antitrust act in 1914. Both acts are enforced by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Attorney General's office. (source: answers.com) ( Full Answer )
Answer . In the U.S. Congress, signed by the President in 1890. It can be found in Title 15 United States Code, sections 1 through 7.
Antitrust ~ adj .. Opposing or intended to regulate business monopolies, such as trusts or cartels, especially in the interest of promoting competition: antitrust legislation , antitrust laws .
This was meant to add more specific regulations to the Sherman anti-trust law ('restraint of trade'). This law says specifically what companies cannot do. They cannot: -Lower costs to only some people -Force another business to sell only one company's goods -Buy another company if this mak…es a monopoly -Stop labor unions from trying to get more wages and better working conditions from companies. NOVANET - the act prevented unions from being treated as trusts . ( Full Answer )
Free trade and competition is allowed between businesses, it bansnasty behavior by any firm trying to dominate the market and itsupervises large corporation acquisitions and mergers.
As found on at least 100 other places here...and allowed certain modifications (albeit minor overall) in different states. . Exemptions under Federal law, which may change a little in State applications by the Federal BK Court you file in: Personal and Real Property: . (1) House…hold: Up to $425.00 per item not to exceed a total of $8,625.00 (includes animals, appliances, books, crops, furnishings, household goods, clothing, musical instruments). (2) Jewelry: Up to $1,075.00. (3) Vehicles: Up to $2,575.00. (4) Work tools (implements, books and tools of trade): Up to $1,625.00. (5) Health aides (wheelchair, etc.): Unlimited. (6) Burial plot: Up to $16,500.00 (in lieu of real estate exemption). (7) Real estate (house, co-op or mobile home): Up to $16,150.00. (8) Any property: Up to $8,075.00 of unused portion of real estate exemption. Wages, Pensions, Recoveries and Benefits: . (1) Wages: None. (2) Wrongful death funds: Amount needed for support. (3) Personal injury funds: Up to $16,500.00 (excluding that for pain and suffering or pecuniary loss). (4) Lost earnings payments: Unlimited amount. (5) Retirement benefits: Amount needed for support. (6) Alimony / child support: Amount needed for support. (7) Unemployment compensation: Unlimited amount. (8) Veterans benefits: Unlimited amount. (9) Social security benefits: Unlimited amount. (10) Public assistance: Unlimited amount. (11) Crime victims compensation: Unlimited amount. Insurance: . (1) Disability: Unlimited amount. (2) Unemployment benefits: Unlimited amount. (3) Unmatured life insurance: Unlimited amount. (4) Life insurance policy loan value, dividends or interest: Up to $8,625. (5) Life insurance proceeds: Amount needed for support. If you're doing a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, you can't discharge:. Taxes and tax liens . Student loans . Domestic support obligations (child support and alimony) . Luxury goods over $500 purchased within 90 days of filing . Fines or penalties of government agencies . Cash advances of more than $750 taken within 70 days of filing . Fraudulent debts . Willful or malicious injury to another . Death or personal injury from the operation of a motor vehicle, aircraft or vessel while intoxicated . Condominium or cooperative association fees . Debts not listed on your schedules . Debts arising from fraud or maliciousness are not automatically excepted from discharge. The creditor must make a request to the court to except these types of obligations; otherwise they will be discharged. ( Full Answer )
The Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) authorized the federal government to act against companies involved in restraint of trade or monopolistic practices. It was not used until several years later, beginning with President Theodore Roosevelt in 1901. The suits under the act were used to block conglomerat…es and corporate groups from controlling various industries (railroads, shipping, steel, tobacco, and oil). One of the largest companies broken up by the act was Standard Oil Company in 1911. ( Full Answer )
antitrust laws only apply to businesses. labor unions and most public utilities are not businesses. that's why the post office for example, isn't subject to antitrust laws because technically the post office is not a business. . actually labor unions and public utilities are exempt from antitrust l…aws. Antitrust laws do not only apply to businesses but it also applies to industries as well. The following are exempt from antitrust laws: Labor Unions, Public Utilities - electric, gas, and telephone companies, Professional Baseball, Cooperative activities among U.S. exporters, Hospitals, Public Transit and water systems, Suppliers of military equipment, and Joint publishing arrangements in a single city by two or more newspapers. ( Full Answer )
1. sherman Antitrust act 2. Clayton Antitrust Act 3. Federal trade Commision Act 4. Robinson Patman Act
Exempt means to not have to do something that others are requiredto do. It also means to free from a duty or prior obligation.
they are amount of money that taxpayers claim for themselves, spouses, and any eligible dependents that will reduce their taxable income. this is for a+ robert was here:p
In the United States, in the late 1800's, there were many monopolies. A monopoly is a business in an industry that other companies can't compete with. The problem with that is that the monopoly can charge whatever price they want for what they make, and when there is no competition there is no need …to improve. Competition is what improves the world, just think about it. At that time there was also Trusts. Trusts are a group of monopolies lead by one board of directors. This is terrible for many businesses. The Sherman Antitrust Act banned trusts and monopolies. It was a very important Act. ( Full Answer )
They speed up the flow of capital and wages, and preserve competition among business firms. preserving competition among buisness firms good luck on study island lol :-)
It means for the type of income involved that because of special cirsumstances, you are not taxable on it. Like a Charity is exempt from paying taxes on many types of income that an ordinary company would have to.
It's a satellite communications network with the theoretical ability to connect to any video-capable device - cell phones, computers, and televisions are shown, and allow people to place video calls to anyone, anywhere in the world via the satellite network. It can also be used for broadcasts that r…each the entire world. ( Full Answer )
Not initially. The 1890 act was not used effectively until the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt, from 1901 to 1909. Roosevelt had studied the actions of US industrialists and became known as the "trust-buster" for his efforts to prevent monopolies from controlling entire areas of the U…S economy. ( Full Answer )
The primary purposes of antitrust legislation are to protect smallbusinesses and protect the competitiveness of U. S. markets. Thelaws are designed to break up monopolies and combinations ofcompanies.
Because they are a Public Utility providing a vital service and operating "For the Public Good" rather than simply a profit-making venuture. They usually are not profit-making operations and their income and fees must be protected from predatory pricing and competing ventures to ensure that they are… able to remain in business and continue to supply vital services. ( Full Answer )
No because for numerous reasons: . The act didn't specify which trusts were considered illegal whether they were "good" or "bad" combinations . The writing and form of the act has numerous loopholes and vague phrasings that the lawyers from big businesses could exploit and manipulate . Labor and …craft unions were also made technically made illegal by the wording which was used by the monopolies and their lawyers would use the act against the unions ( Full Answer )
Real or personal property that under state (sometimes federal) laws are not subject to seizure by a judgment creditor(s) and/or government agency such as the IRS for repayment of debt(s).
I know the MLB is exempt, I'm not sure about any others (simply because it's America's past-time, stupid I know).
The Clayton Antitrust act banned injunctions against strikers unless the strikers threatened damage that could not be remedied. This act also prohibited corporations from acquiring the stock of another if doing so would create a monopoly; if a company violated the law, it's officers could be prosecu…ted. Samuel Gompers called it a magna carta for labor. It was signed by President Wison. ( Full Answer )
Wilson declared a strict policy of neutrality, although theU.S. had strong ties with Britain. Wilson's Peace Program was alsoa measure he came up with for foreign policies.
Assuming you mean "who is exempt from liability in a cause of action for defamation", that answer is 'those who are telling the truth in the purportedly-defamatory statement or assertion'. Truth or factuality of the purportedly-defamatory statement or assertion is an affirmative defense to the clai…m. It's more difficult, but certainly not impossible, to defame "public figures", because an additional element of "actual malice" or " New York Times malice", from the SCOTUS case of New York Times v. Sullivan , is added in cases involving plaintiffs who are deemed to be public figures. ( Full Answer )
The Clayton Antitrust Act was passed in 1914 during Wilson's administration. This act was enacted in the US to add further substance to the US antitrust law regime by seeking to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency. The Clayton act specified particular prohibited conduct, the three …level enforcement scheme, the exemptions, and the remedial measures. The Clayton Act was enforced by the Federal Trade Commission, which was also created and empowered during the Wilson presidency. The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 reformed and emphasized certain concepts of the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) which are still active today in a growing interconnected market and merging of the industries. ( Full Answer )
Section 1: "Every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, is declared to be illegal." . Section 2: "Every person who shall monopolize, or attempt to monopolize, or combine or conspi…re with any other person or persons, to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, shall be deemed guilty of a felony." . ( Full Answer )
One exemption on the 1040 tax form for the tax year 2009 and 2010 is 3650. Each additional qualifying exemption on the 1040 tax form you would have an additional 3650. If this is about your exemptions on the W-4 form Employee's Withholding Allowance Certificate Go to the IRS.gov web site and o…n the left side of the page under ONLINE SERVICES choose IRS Withholding Calculator . If you are an employee, the Withholding Calculator can help you determine whether you need to give your employer a new Form W-4 , Employee's Withholding Allowance Certificate to avoid having too much or too little Federal income tax withheld from your pay. You can use your results from the calculator to help fill out the form. Who Can Benefit From The Withholding Calculator? . ( Full Answer )
The federal government broke up certain businesses and trusts because they were setting up monopolies that prevented fair competition that hurt consumers. For example, Standard Oil was broken up by the federal government because it had too much market share. What standard oil would do is they would… buy all the oil companies and gas stations in a town and then raise the prices. Because people couldn't buy gas anywhere else, they would be hurt financially. Many people think that Wal-Mart should be broken up. Wal-Mart will set up a store in a community. Because Wal-Mart is so big, it has much lower prices than smaller stores. Everybody in the community will go shop at Wal-Mart, and then all the other stores in the area will close. Then, there are no other options for consumers. ( Full Answer )
(FTC) and the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice enforce antitrust laws. The FTC has the power to temporarily stop companies from employing suspected anti-competitive practices
It made certain practices illegal when their effect was to lessen competition to create a monopoly.
Major legislation in this realm includes the Sherman Act of the 1890s, the Clayton Act of 1914, and the Cellar-Kefauver Act of 1950. The Robinson-Patman Act prohibits manufacturers from discriminating against small retailers in favor of large chains.
USUALLY the phrase means job descriptions which are not exempt from the overtime rules of federal wage law, and must be paid according to those laws. In government employment, exempt may mean exempt from civil service protections.
The Clayton Antitrust Act was enacted by the US Congress October 15, 1914. The final version of the law passed the US Senate on October 5, 1914 and later by the House of Representatives October 8.
Based on performances from other tournaments or the performance of last years tournament you get in the tournament for that year for free or for a discount.
In 1923 seven large companies owned and controlled an estimated 75 to 80 percent of the mining, transportation, and hauling of anthracite, each of which was controlled by the railroads
I don't believe you meant to phrase your question quite like that but i can tell you that in the mid to late 1800's there were quite a few monopolies (which are companies that own the market of there product). An example of one would be the Vanderbilt's monopoly on railroads. The Sherman Antitrust A…ct was passed in 1890 basically to limit monopolies an create competition in various markets. Hope this helped! ( Full Answer )
To make it illegal for firms to combine if the sole purpose of the merger is to eliminate competition.
trusts were another name for monopolies so antitrust policy was were the government intervene to prevent monopolies from forming
Antitrust laws are intended to prevent companies from cooperating to prevent competition. The typical way companies do this is by making agreements to fix prices -- that is, they will all charge the same price avoiding price competition between them. They may also agree to collectively lower prices …in unison to drive competitors, who are not in the group, out of business. ( Full Answer )
Broadly speaking it limited the formation of agreements, monopolies and other business practices that reduced competition and raised consumer prices. There is a very good wiki article about this, you should read it.
The website Lawyers contains a search function for locating lawyers with given criteria, such as location and specialty. These results are accompanied by client and peer ratings. This website can be used to quickly find and compare local antitrust attorneys.
Antitrust - 2001 is rated/received certificates of: Argentina:13 Australia:MA (DVD rating) Canada:PG (Alberta/British Columbia/Manitoba/Ontario) Canada:14 (Nova Scotia) Canada:G (Quebec) Finland:K-11 France:U Germany:12 Hong Kong:IIA Iceland:L Malaysia:U Netherlands:16 New …Zealand:M Norway:11 Portugal:M/12 Singapore:PG South Korea:12 Spain:13 Sweden:11 Switzerland:14 (canton of Geneva) Switzerland:14 (canton of Vaud) UK:12 USA:PG-13 (certificate #37330) ( Full Answer )