What is the name of agriculture in mizoram?
From time immemorial, the traditional method of Paddy cultivation in the hill slopes, commonly known as 'Jhuming' have been practiced in Mizoram till date. Jhuming is the most primitive and destructive method of cultivation-where the villagers slash down the forest, leave for drying under the sun for 3-4 months and burn to clear all the dry leaves, trunk, debris etc. The cultivation of jhum paddy is for a period of one year only. After harvest in the month of November-December, the jhum is left uncultivated and shift to another virgin forest area for the next jhuming practices. Therefore, jhuming is the most destructive method of cultivation, environmentally unfriendly and causes adverse effect on soil health, climate, ecology and soil productivity. As such, the need for permanent and sustainable farming arises. Attempt should be made to develop permanent jhum where crops will be raised year after year on the same plot of land. Till 1950s the villagers in the rural areas of Mizoram were said to be self-sufficient in rice. The living standard was also simple and moderate with the daily needs not expensive. The villagers did not invest on modern Agriculture inputs like seeds of improved variety, fertilizers, plant protection chemicals, etc. Whenever and wherever there is a failure in their jhuming cultivation, they considered as their fate and did not take any protective nor curative measures as we do in modern Agriculture. Therefore, in a way, the practices of traditional jhuming where no chemical or synthesized inputs were used, can be called organic farming by default/tradition and the produces from jhum was to be called organic produces. Organic farming is a holistic system of farm design and management that seeks to create a healthy ecosystem with an agricultural system that promotes environmentally, socially, economically sound production of food, fibre, timber, etc. Organic agriculture significantly reduces external inputs by avoiding the use of fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides and pharmaceuticals. Instead, it works with nature to increase both Agricultural yields and disease and pests resistance. Organic Agriculture is currently practiced in more than 120 countries. European countries account for around 10% of farm land. Italy leads the way with over 50,000 certified organic farmers. Australia has the largest area of land with 1.7 million certified organic hectares. According to the survey report of IFOAM and WOEL in February,2003, India has about 41,000 hectares land under organic management which is only 0.03% of the total Agricultural land. At present, Mizoram is not self-sufficient in food grain production. The population of Mizoram according to 2001 census was 891,058 with population growth rate of 19.18%, literacy is 88.49% next to Kerala. The total geographical area of Mizoram is 21087 sq kms that lies between 92 0.15' to 93 0.29'E longitude is quite moderate ranging from 11.8 0 C-21.3 0C in winter and 20.30 0 C in summer. Average annual rainfall is 25000mm.