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Answered 2012-03-10 14:26:52

1) Hydrogen and some helium and a fairly small amount of lithium were formed very shortly after the start of the Universe, when matter cooled down enough for quarks to join into nucleons, and for some nucleons to join into heavier elements. There wasn't enough time to form any of the heavier elements.

2) The heavier elements - the so-called metals - were formed inside of stars, by nuclear fusion. In some cases, significant amounts of this matter went back into space, in supernova explosions.

For additional information, I suggest searching Wikipedia or Google for the following topics:

  • Nucleosynthesis
  • Supernova
  • Metallicity
  • Nuclear fusion
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