Psychostimulant medications, including methylphenidate (Ritalinï¿½) and amphetamines (Dexedrineï¿½, Dextrostatï¿½, and Adderallï¿½), are by far the most widely researched and commonly prescribed treatments for ADHD. Several short-term studies have proven the safety and effectiveness of stimulants and psychosocial treatments for helping the symptoms of ADHD. Again, NIMH research has found that the two most effective treatment methods for elementary school children with ADHD are a closely monitored medication treatment and a treatment that combines medication with intensive behavioral interventions. In the MTA study, which included nearly 600 elementary school children across multiple sites, nine out of ten children greatly improved on one of these treatments.
Strattera, a non-stimulant medication unrelated to antidepressants is a safe alternative for parents who do not want to place their children on drugs which can potentially cause addiction. Strattera is not a controlled substance, therefore, the FDA has determined there is no risk of addiction. It may be used first-line in these scenarios, but other medications should be used if no results are seen within 8-12 weeks. Allow at least 4 weeks of therapy before evaluating whether the medication is working.
Antidepressant medications also may be used as a second line of treatments for children who show poor response to stimulants, who have unacceptable side effects, or who have other conditions with ADHD (such as tics, anxiety, or mood disorders). Clinical studies have shown that these drugs are effective in 60-70% of children with ADHD. While the medications were extremely helpful to most children, MTA study results show that medications alone may not be the best way to treat many children. For example, children who had other problems (e.g., anxiety, stressful home circumstances, lack of social skills, etc.), over and above the ADHD symptoms, seemed to benefit most from the combined treatment.
Careful medication management is important in treating a child with ADHD. The doctor is likely to begin with a low dose to test the child's response. For methylphenidate (Ritalinï¿½), the usual dosage range is 5 to 20 mg given two to three times a day. The dose for amphetamines (Dexedrineï¿½ and Dextrostatï¿½ and Adderallï¿½) is one-half the methylphenidate dose. Dosage requirements do not always correlate with weight, age or severity of symptoms in an individual patient. Some doctors prescribe a combination of medications. Dosages may need to be increased during childhood with increased lean body weight and decreases may be necessary after puberty. Different doctors use these medications in slightly different ways, and different children may respond differently to each medication.
The expected duration of treatment has increased during this past decade as evidence has grown that shows benefits extend into adolescence and adulthood. However, many factors make it hard for adolescents to continue using medications: once on medication, adolescents see their most obvious symptoms controlled, and think they don't need to take it regularly. The medications' short-lasting effects make it necessary to take them several times per day, although there are newer long-term medications now being offered. Parents often get frustrated with the limited results or side effects of the medication, and discontinue its use.
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These drugs only help the person focus, after they have used self-motivation & self-discipline, and purposefully started to focus.
Adults have normally dealt with untreated ADD symptoms, lifelong. Therefore, many have been depressed for most of their life.
Adults will start with an antidepressant, such as Wellbutrin. Thereafter, treatment with Concerta may be introduced.
Nutritional supplements which may work included Pedi-active, which contains DMAE. It too temporarily aids focus, and is available in a grape-flavored, chewable tablet. Normally, it works for about one month. Then the body develops a tolerance to it, and it stops working.
Overall, ADD coaching will help with most of the symptoms. There are several good books. Amazon.com has a good selection, and often lets you read a few pages of the book, online.
Parents, friends, spouses can help with coaching... you don't need a professional, necessarily. Coaching can change some of life's behaviors.
However, the root problem soon becomes apparent: Inability to maintain focus.
Often, adults that do not get treatment tend to self-medicate, unless they find an occupation which fits their mindset.
Such jobs may include Computer Operator or Entrepreneur. The job needs to be long on quick decisions & movement, short on paperwork, sitting, and reading technical manuals.
An ADD individual is likely to get an 'A' in Chemistry Lab, but an 'F' in Chemistry Lecture.
They are often above average intelligence, which is important since many times, they perform with little or no preparation.
Children can get into young adulthood, before ADD/ADHD problems adversely affect their lives, overall. If medication is perceived to be required, then it will bar that person from eligiblity for military service.
Some communities attach a negative stigma to medication, or psychological counseling. Other communities consider someone who has never had therapy to be the odd one.
Whether to medicate may be a social choice, as well.
(I played football in high school, served honorably the USMC, graduated with a BSBA, and only realized I had ADD at 43, due to "inattention to detail" complaints from my supervisor. Only after 5-months of 'self-discipline' failed did I seek other possibilities. Wellbutrin was a good start, Concerta adds focus, but motivation to study, and discipline to open the book must come from my own resolve.)
The chamber nearest the hole has medication that will exit, slowly, for several hours. Then, the medication in the middle chamber will pass through the permeable membrane, into the hole-side chamber, and out the hole. The third chamber, farthest from the hole, is slightly pressurized. It is used to squeeze the medicine out of the other two chambers. The third chamber contents remains inside the capsule, and the undissolved capsule shell is passed out of the body through the stool. This time-release technology allows Concerta to be patented. Ritalin tablets now have generic alternatives. Concerta, due to patents in its delivery, does not have a generic alternative. Without insurance, Concerta costs about $3 per capsule, regardless whether they are 18mg, 36mg, or 54mg. Ask your physician for a manufacturer voucher, if you need to try Concerta. You will get 42 of the 18mg pills. It is intended so you find out if it will work for you, over a 3-week period.
Wellbutrin should be taken before bedtime, since it causes a two-hour drowsy period, two hours after being taken. The medication works for 24-hours. 150mg is the starting dosage, but 300mg is common.
Concerta should be taken at the start of your workday, or the 12-hour period where you plan to be awake, thus need focus (attention to detail).
For behavior problems alternating with the ABFE combination Adol might be useful.
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The newest and most effective all natural supplement alternative for ADD is ADD-care. ADD-care was involved in a research study at the Amen Clinic comparing the results of ADD-care vs. Adderall in both SPECT brain scans and the Conner's ADD impulse test. ADD-care matched or beat adderall in most of these tests.
"Next Generation" psycho-stimulants The pharmaceutical industry has spent quite a lot on R&D in search of new delivery mechanisms to address convenience by improving on the extended release formulation and reduce the possibility of abuse. Two of these include:
1. Daytrana (methylphenidate trans-dermal patch) - I believe this may be discontinued or if not a "special order" not carried by most pharmacies.
This is interesting as it is a patch (similar to the nicotine patch for quitting smoking) that is applied once in the morning and worn all day.
2. Vyvanse (lisdexamfetamine - dextroamphetamine bound to an amino acid which is only released by some digestive system process and therefore cannot be taken by any other route).
Both of these were designed to give a controlled dosage throughout the entire day with a more steady delivery than the older XR (extended release) medications. Personally I found the Daytrana to be unpredictable though admittedly I only used the 2 week free trial before giving up. I had an allergic reaction to the Vyvanse and stopped after two days.
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There are medications available to treat AIDS. Retroviral medications are used to fight the virus, and other medications are used to control symptoms or treat/prevent opportunistic infections.
ADD and ADHD are the same disorder. ADD (attention-deficit disorder) is a depreciated term previously referring to ADHD without the hyperactive component. It is now known as ADHD predominately inattentive. The same medications are used to treat ADD and ADHD.
There are no medications or surgery to treat RP.
Sometimes, short-term treatment with oral steroids will be used for particularly severe DLE outbreaks. Medications used to treat the infectious disease malaria are often used to treat DLE
Medications, such as antipsychotics and neuroleptics, have been used to treat stuttering with limited success.
Systemic chemotherapy can also be used to treat liver cancer. The medications usually used are 5-fluorouracil (Adrucil, Efudex) or methotrexate (MTX, Mexate).
Fluoroquinolones are a class of antimicrobials, which are medications used to treat infections caused by microorganisms.
One medication used to treat this is Bactrim. Another medication that is used is Sulfatrim.