Herbert Hoover was appointed Food Administrator by President Wilson. He was in charge of organizing food production, distribution, and consumption in the US. Hoover favored voluntary programs, not government agencies. He instituted such things as Wheatless Mondays, when consumpers would not eat or buy wheat products. The saving of this commodity would increase the wheat available to the soldiers abroad. Also, Meatless Tuesdays, Porkless Thursdays, etc. City dwellers were encouraged to grow "Victory Gardens" in their backyards. The government printed cookbooks on how to use leftovers. The city of Chicago said such programs resulted in a decrease by half of garbage put out for pick up. Americans were willing to sacrifice for the war effort.