What was the Capital of the Holy Roman Empire?
There was no fixed capital, only residences of the German kings and emperors like Magdeburg (under the Ottonians), Speyer (Salians), Prague (Luxemburg), Vienna (Habsburg); and some important cities like Aachen (where the king was crowned), or Regensburg (where the Reichstag was) or Nuremberg (where the imperial regalia was kept).
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Answer Almost nothing, or perhaps just the idea. His (Frankish) Empire fell apart soon after his death but maintained some kind of shadowy existence. The zest for dating the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire from 800AD is Anglo-American fantasy or nostalgia. German and Italian historians date …the foundation from the coronation of Otto I in 962. The term 'Holy Empire' dates from 1030 at the earliest, and the first reference to 'Holy Roman Empire' dates from 1254! (The basic structures had been in place since 1050, though). The HRE is surrounded by much mythology. More from a different point of view i think Charlemagne was a great leader. he led his armies and conquered big parts of italy, germany, and centural europe. More Charlemagne inherited the Kingdom of the Franks, and he conquered a number of different groups of people, including the Saxons, Lombards, Swiss, Bavarians, Frisians, and other Germanic kingdoms, and added their territory to his kingdom, thereby creating the country of which he was crowned emperor, the Carolingian Empire. According to the will of Louis the Pious, the Carolingian Empire was broken into three kingdoms with one of the kings being a nominal emperor. The emperor was king of the middle kingdom, which fell to the other two, and the title of emperor fell out of use for a few decades. The kingdom of the West Franks, which contained most of Charlemagne's original kingdom, became France. The Kingdom of the East Franks contained almost all of the eastern territories Charlemagne had added to his original kingdom, and this became the Holy Roman Empire when its king, Otto I, was crowned emperor, ostensibly resurrecting the title. The connection Charlemagne had to all this was that he united the territories of the Kingdom of the East Franks with each other, and this kingdom became the Holy Roman Empire. Neither the fact that they were mostly territories not in his original kingdom, nor the fact that they were later separated from that kingdom, should be allowed to cloud the fact that he united them with each other. The names we call the empires by is a bit problematical. Please see the related question below for more on this. ( Full Answer )
After Napoleon established the Confederation of the Rhine, which allowed French garrisons to be set up in Southern Germany, the Holy Roman Empire became completely irrelevant. Emperor Francis II of Austria dissolved it.
The term "Holy" was used by emperor Frederick Barbarossa in the 12th century as a response to the pope who technically called the emperor one of his vassals. The emperor on the other hand felt himself as highest sovereign on earth.
It was located mainly in what is today Germany and Austria (known retroactively as "The First Reich"), but also extended at various times into France, Italy, Poland, Denmark, Switzerland and much of Central Europe.
The Frankish king Charlemagne, in 800. His Empire (including what was to become France) fell apart after his death, but the title was revived for its eastern half (Germany and neighbouring regions plus northern Italy) by Otto I in 962.
The ruler of the Holy Roman Empire was Henry I, but he didn't last for long so it's considered that his son, Otto I to be the emperor since he lasted very long, and being the greatest of the empores. by the way the Holy Roman empire is NOT Roman nor holy nor an empire it was a saxon empire, because …Otto I was the greatest of all saxon emporers ( Full Answer )
The concept of the Holy Roman Empire was first concieved by king Charles of the Franks when he was coronoated Emperor of the West by Pope Leo III on Christmas day AD 800. The empire was put into its lasting form by king Otto I of Saxony, and he is attributed with founding the Holy Roman Empire was i…t is known to history. Emperor Frederick Barbarossa was the first emperor to coin the title "Holy Roman Empire." ( Full Answer )
The medieval Holy Roman Empire was derived from the Carolingian Empire, which seems to have been consciously intended to resurrect ancient Rome. The Roman Empire had allowed kingdoms to operate within it, even from its beginnings, and these were originally called client kingdoms. Early on, they we…re usually terminated and more direct control put on them, but later, they broke away and the West Roman Empire fell as a result. When the Carolingian Empire was created, it had different Kingdoms within it already, including the Kingdom of the Franks and the Kingdom of Lombardy. Subsequently, when the Carolingian Empire divided into the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire, it was naturally accepted that an empire could have kingdoms within it, and that is what the Holy Roman Empire did. Under the Holy Roman Empire, there were not only kingdoms, but principalities, duchies, counties, bishoprics, free cities, communes, and possibly other sorts of governmental entities within it. There were hundreds of these, each with its own government bodies and laws. The empire was a super government over all, but it had only weak control over them. We might take the existence of the Hanseatic League as an example of the weak control the empire had. Free cities within the empire, mostly republican cities controlled by guild organizations, entered into a league with other cities outside the empire. This international organization had its own separate governing body, entered into its own treaties with foreign nations, controlled trade in the Baltic Sea and other maritime areas, had its own military, and waged its own wars. All of this was outside the control of the emperor, who was the theoretical ruler of the territory within which many of the league's most important cities lay. The rulers of these smaller territories were all jealous of their power and did not want to give it up to the emperor, so they resisted allowing a strong central government. Also the emperors were elected by seven people called prince electors, who were kings, bishops, and counts palatine, and so it was not possible to maintain a strong dynasty of emperors during the Middle Ages. ( Full Answer )
The Holy Roman Empire was actually in Germany and was named so by a pope after Charlemagne or Charles the Great conquered most of Europe and became Christan. The Roman Empire, from around 750 BC, began as a kingdom, then a republic, and finally an empire by around 30 BC, encompassing the entire r…egion around the Mediterranean Sea, including as far west as Portugal and north to the British Isles, west surrounding the Black Sea to Armenia and Mesopotamia, to the south encompassed the northern coast of Africa and all of Egypt. Once Roman military conquest had been accomplished, Roman occupation establish the Latin language, legal system, and culture to these lands and was the origin of what is today referred to as "Western Culture". The Holy Roman Empire included Germany and the part of Italy ruled by Germany between 800 AD to around 1800. Charlemagne, King of the Franks (which was the territory formerly known as Gaul, approximately France and Germany of today) traveled to Rome, where Pope Leo III on Christmas day in 800, unexpectedly crowned him Emperor of the Romans. This put Charlemagne in direct competition with the Byzantine emperor in Constantinople. Charlemagne's empire included the Germanic empire and that part of Italy controlled by the Germans. From this point on, there is a constant power struggle between the Pope in Rome and the German empire which eventually leads to the decline in the power of the Catholic Church and the rise of Protestantism. ( Full Answer )
The Roman Empire began about 27BC and lasted until 476 AD as the western Roman Empire. By that time the original empire had split with the remaining portion being the Byzantine Empire in the east. The Byzantine Empire endured until 1453 when it was defeated by the Ottoman Turks. These Roman Empires …encompassed the entire Mediterranean Basin ( all the way around the Mediterranean). . The Holy Roman Empire's first emperor was Otto I crowned in 962 AD. It was an empire of central Europe not the Mediterranean Basin. It was based on the Germanic peoples not Latins It lasted until until the last Emperor Francis II who abdicated and dissolved the Empire in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. ( Full Answer )
Most of the people in the Holy Roman Empire spoke german. It's perhaps worth noting that the Holy Roman Empire (Somebody said this) is not holy, roman or an empire !
Depends on the time period that you are referring to. During the 1600-1800's the majority language of the Holy Roman Empire was German.
The Holy Roman empire fell because Napoleon overran many Germanstates and the Western German states joined his Rhine confederationmaking the Holy Roman Empire obsolete. Thus emperor Francis II. laydown his imperials crown.
Answer: After the collapse of the Western Empire under occupation of the Goths and Vandals, the Roman Empire continued on in the east based on Constantinople. In the west, the invaders consolidated their own territories, and sought wider legitimacy as western emperor. Charles the Great decided to c…rown himself as emperor, but a smart Pope grabbed the crown and placed it on his head as God's gift. Charlemagne had to be restrained from killing him on the spot, but the damage was done, the western aspirant became Holy Roman Emperor. Thereafter those who wanted to claim to be emperor in the west had to get Papal acquiescence, by consent or force. If this didn't work, aspirants set up their own Pope - at one stage there were three men who were called Pope. The Holy Roman Empire shifted around, eventually ending up in Austria where it stayed until Napoleon conquered Austria-Hungary in the early 19th Century CE, when the title disappeared. Napoleon contented himself in his own New Rome with the title of First Consul, and just plain Emperor, as he was not in the Holy business. Answer: Famously and correctly described by Voltaire as "neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire", the Holy Roman Empire started as an extension of the Frankish kingdom (the nucleus of the later France) under its ruler Charlemagne in the year 800. After successive partitions and revivals the title of "Emperor of the Romans" fell into disuse, but was revived in 962 by Otto I in the original Empire's eastern part -roughly today's Germany and neighboring lands, later including northern Italy. With a few interruptions the Empire persisted as an ever weaker federation of principalities usually dominated from 1273 by the Austrian Habsburg dynasty, until the last Emperor Francis II wound up the title in 1806 (having already assumed the throne of a new Austrian Empire corresponding roughly to the later Austria-Hungary) following the French Emperor Napoleon I's territorial reorganisation of Germany. ( Full Answer )
Frederick I considered Italy the center of a "holy empire". This was the origin of the name Holy Roman Empire.
It was initially united under Otto the Great in the year 962 and was dissolved under Francis II in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.
It wasn't Roman because it was located in Germany and France, without any connection to Rome. It wasn't Holy because God did not make it Holy. And it wasn't an Empire because it did not conquer other groups of peoples.
well, the first Holy Roman Emperor (Otto I) was crowned in 962AD, and the last (Francis II) abdicated and dissolved the Empire in 1806. That is, 844 years
The main importance of the empire was the fact that the Emperor Constantine decreed it to be a Christian empire. At this point in time the empire was so large it required two capitals.
It was never a nation, but rather a weakening collection of territories extending from today's Belgium to the Czech Republic and northern Italy. The last Emperor Francis II scrapped the title in 1806 in favour of a more unitary Austrian empire.
The Roman empire began in 27 B.C. when Octavian was given the title Augustus and Emperor. It is the traditional Roman Empire we think of and lasted until A.D. 476. After that, it was split into the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), and the Western Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire was a Ge…rman empire that existed in central europe from 962 to 1806. ( Full Answer )
The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Napoleon, and became just a large number of small countries. In the years after the Napoleonic Wars ended, these countries came together in a confederacy called the Zollverein, or German Customs Union. This might be the best organization to call the replacement… of the Holy Roman Empire. ( Full Answer )
The Holy Roman Empire was a loose confederation of small kingdoms of what today is Poland, Belgium, parts of France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Italy and lasted from 962 AD until dissolved by Napoleon I in 1806.. The Roman Empire controlled most of the what was then the known world at its m…ost highest point and lasted from 780 BC till 1453.. ( Full Answer )
Jesus christ was born during the regin of Caesar, and Christianity bcame very large during this period
Good question, because according to Voltaire it was neither Holy nor Roman nor an Empire. I'll start with the easiest. It got to be called an empire because after the partition of Charlemagnes empire, there could still be only one emperor, not three. Eligible for the title were his sons and their s…uccessors: the king of Germany, the king of France and the King of Lotharingia. Eventually the kingdom of Lotharingia was divided between the other two, and after a number of elections "won" by the king of Germany, the king of France was not even considered. I don't know if this was ever formalized, tbh. The title of emperor is therefore a continuation of Charlemagnes imperial title. In reality, particularly later on, the "empire" was more of a collection of (nearly) independent principalities, duchies, counties. The term Roman goes even further back. Both medieval European empires, Byzantium en the Holy Roman Empire, claimed to be the rightful continuation of the Roman Empire. Adding in the name Roman stresses that claim. Iirc, this was legitimized in the coronation of Charlemagne by the pope. Note that this was not just a matter of prestige. Being accepted as the successor to the Roman emperors gave a de jure claim to overlordship over all territories belonging to the Roman Empire, so from England to Armenia. Louis XIV warned his successor on his death bed against the aspirations of the Holy Roman Emperor. This is almost 1000 years later! Holy stems from the claim to be the protector of the faith (Catholicism), and might have been a rightful claim when first used. However, by the 12th century it became clear in the Investiture Controversy that the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire were at least as much rivals as they were allies. A few centuries later, a large part of the empire wasn't even catholic anymore. So far for that claim. As for Voltaire's claim: he was probably on the spot. From the point of view of a French catholic the empire most certainly was not holy (protestantism was by now the dominant religion in many German states), it was German, not Roman, and not an empire but a loose collection of states. ( Full Answer )
after many wars,poverty,and such size,the army collapsed, citizens rebbeled,and invaders barged in. in 1806 napoleon`s franceconqured the remains of the empire.:the empire was not holy or roman.
The Holy Roman Empire was a union of countries in the area of central Europe during the Middle Ages, ruled by a Roman emperor. The union consisted of (in terms of the territories back then) the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Italy, and the Kingdom of Burgundy, along with other smaller imperial c…ities. In terms of how Central Europe is divided now, the Holy Roman Empire consisted of Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Liechtenstein, eastern France, northern Italy, and western Poland. Ironically, Rome was never among the territories apart of The Holy Roman Empire. ( Full Answer )
First of all, despite its name, Holy Roman Empire was not holy, nor Roman, and it wasn't an empire. Rather, it was a loose collection of German states like Prussia, Bavaria, and Hesse. And these states were united into the German Empire in 1871.
Germany, Holland, Belgium, Alsace and Lorraine (in France), Switzerland, Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovenia. It also held Burgundy and Provence(southeastern France) and Italy, but lost them. Later it also lost Switzerland, Holland, and Alsace and Lorraine.
Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Monaco, Italy, San Marino, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Croatia, and Poland.
i don't think that it was holy because the event of formation of the empire can be said as the treaty between the then pope and the Frankish's king Charlemagne . according to me the pope had used Charlemagne for the formation of the holy roman empire to protect himself as he used to do many illegal …work. ( Full Answer )
The Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Prussia won, and in 1871, joined with the German Confederation (a collection of about 30 kingdoms) to form Germany, ending the HRE.
King Charlemagne united the kingdoms of Austrasia and Neustria in modern day France and Germany.
"After the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) the Holy Roman Empire was little more than a loose confederation of about 300 independent principalities and 1,500 or more semi-sovereign bodies or individuals. Threats from the Ottoman Empire or from Louis XIV of France occasionally stimulated imperial coopera…tion, but usually each state considered only its own welfare. The Austrian-Prussian wars, Hanover's acquisition of the English throne, and Saxony's holding of the Polish crown exemplify the particularism that prevailed." ( Full Answer )
The Holy Roman Empire existed from 962 A.D., and dissolved when Emperor Francis II abdicated the throne after being conquered by Emperor Napoleon I of France in 1806.
... are you serious? The Papacy is the office of the Pope (the head of the Catholic church) and the Holy Roman Empire was an empire consisting of modern Germany, Flanders, Switzerland, northern Italy and a couple of other small territories. The Holy Roman Empire lasted from 962-1806.
Germany was part of the Holy Roman Empire. But was not the Holy Roman Empire.
Yes. Contrary to popular belief, the Holy Roman Empire is not the Ancient Roman Empire after Catholicism became widespread within it. The Holy Roman Empire was in Central Europe, founded by Charlemagne in the 7-800s, obviously centuries after Catholicism surfaced.
Roman Empire (Roman)(Emperors)(27 BC - 476 AD) = The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean in Europe, Africa, and Asia ~ In-between were… the dark ages and plague! :( ~ Holy Roman Empire(Frankish/barbarian)(Kings)(962AD- 1806AD) = union of territories in Central Europe existing from 962 to 1806. The empire grew out of East Francia, a primary division of the Frankish Empire, and explicitly proclaimed itself the continuation of the Western Roman Empire under the doctrine of translatio imperii ("transfer of rule" via a succession of singular rulers vested with supreme power).Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned as emperor by Pope Leo III in 800, restoring the title in the West after more than three centuries. ( Full Answer )
The Holy Roman Empire was finally dissolved when Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, or renounced his throne. It can also be credited to NapolÃ©on, who defeated the HRE in battle which led to Francis abdicating.
Although by the time the Holy Roman Empire was officially dissolved it had already been facing centuries of decay and could hardly be called an empire, its final destruction is usually attributed to Napoleon Bonaparte who dissolved it during his invasions and replaced it with his own German Confeder…ation. ( Full Answer )
The empire's territory was centred on the Kingdom of Germany, and included neighbouring territories, which at its peak included the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Burgundy. For much of its history, the Empire consisted of hundreds of smaller sub-units, principalities, duchies,counties, Free Imp…erial Cities and other domains. ( Full Answer )
The so-called Holy Roman Empire was a medieval kingdom of central Europe. The Pope crowned the first "emperor" Charlemagne. It went from a Frankish kingdom to a Germanic one.
The Roman empire was the empire of the ancient Romans. The Holy Roman Empire existed from 962 to 1806. It was centred on the kingdom of Germany (which comprised Germany, Austria, Holland, Belgium, Alsace and Lorraine) and included the kingdoms of Italy, Bohemia and Burgundy. The king of Germany beca…me the emperor until the Hapsburg of Austria became the last and longest lasting dynasty. The notion of a restored Roman empire started when the pope gave Italy to Charlemagne of the Franks and crowned him emperor of the Romans in 800 as a reward for destroying Lombard rule in Italy. Charlemagne had already been ruling the Frankish kingdom which comprised France, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, Austria and southern Germany and after the imperial coronation he conquered northern Germany. Historian call this the Carolingian empire. Subsequently this empire collapsed and broke up. Otto reunited the former empire except for most of France, called himself emperor of the Romans and added holy to it. ( Full Answer )
The Holy Roman Emperors who also were the kings of Germany until the establishment of the Hapsburg dynasty, which was Austrian.
The Holy Roman Empire covered modern day Germany, Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Alsace and Lorraine in France, Switzerland, Austria, Bohemia, Slovenia and Italy. The empire lost jurisdiction over Italy in 1183, and lost Switzerland in 1499 and the Netherlands in 1581.
The Holy Roman Empire was very large. The size of the Holy Roman Empire was roughly 386,102 square miles or 1,000,000 square kilometers spanning the areas of Europe.
The precedent of the Holy Roman Empire was the Carolingian empire established by Charlemagne in 800. This empire covered France, Italy and Germany, which at the time included Holland, Luxembourg, eastern France, Switzerland, Austria, and Bohemia (the Czech Republic). This empire ended in 888 when th…e Carolingian dynasty died out. In Germany there was lack of unity and a lot of fighting between the princes. France broke away and Italy came under the control of other rulers. Henry I the Fowler managed to restore royal control over Germany. His son Otto I strengthened central control in Germany. In 961 he conquered Italy and restored the old empire minus France. He was crowned emperor by the pope and named himself Holy Roman Emperor, modelling himself on Charlemagne who had been given the title of Roman Emperor. His empire was called Holy Roman Empire. ( Full Answer )
It did not have any particular philosophy. The main thing about this empire was the battle to maintain power. It was a collection of some 300 states, some were big (such a as Bavaria, and Saxony) some small, such as bishoprics and city-states. For much of the time, the emperors had to struggle to ma…intain centralised power and control over the states, which could be unruly. The emperors were elected by the electors, the most powerful states and the most powerful bishops. In the early days of this empire the emperors claimed divine right to rule. But this claim was eroded quite soon ( Full Answer )
At its greatest extent, the Holy Roman Empire included Germany,Austria, Italy, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, part of Poland,Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, north-eastern France Savoy and partof Province.