The term Roman Curia usually refers to the administrative apparatus of the Catholic Church. The name Curia comes from the institutions of ancient Rome. The Roman curia intended as the administrative apparatus of the Catholic Church was the product of evolution, rather than a creation by someone. Right from the early days the Bishop of Rome (the Pope) was assisted by a college of priests to run his diocese. This was expanded into a College of Cardinals which administered the Catholic Church as a whole, rather than just the diocese of Rome. The consistories (formal meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals) became more and more frequent. Innocent III (1198-1216) held consistories three times a week. Specialised committees of cardinals were also established. They started with temporary mandates and then became permanent bodies and the College of Cardinals became more of a bureaucratic body. The term Curia first appeared in a papal document in 1089, under Urban II (1088-1099).
In ancient Rome there were two types of curia. One was an administrative division and an assembly. The other was the senate house.
The curiae (plural of curia) were administrative divisions created by Romulus, the founder of Rome and its first king. He divided Rome into three administrative divisions, the tribes which were subdivided into 10 curiae, giving a total of 30. Each curia provided 100 soldiers to make up an army of 3,000. To decide on the succession of Romulus, the Assembly of the Curiae (comitia curiata) was created. It elected new kings. It is often translated into assembly of the people. Whilst this translation reflects the fact that the people elected the king through this body, assembly of the constituencies would be more accurate. Each curia was like a constituency. It met to vote separately from the other curiae and the vote of a single curia counted as one vote. The final decision was reached through a majority of the votes of all the curiae. It is not clear whether this assembly voted on other matters, besides electing the king.
The role of the comitia curiata changed when the fifth king of Rome, Servius Tullius (reigned 578 - 535 BC) created two new assemblies: the Assembly of the Soldiers and the Assembly of the Tribes. The latter was composed of 35 tribes which were administrative divisions, not ethnic ones, which included the areas which Rome had conquered around Latium (land of the Latins) and aimed at integrating their peoples into the Roman state. The functions of these two new assemblies during the monarchy (753-509 BC) are not known. It is known that the curiae lost its role of recruiting soldiers, which was taken over by the state. It is also known that in the Republic (590-27 BC) other assemblies took over the roles of the Comitia Curiata and that the latter decayed.
The curia as a senate house started with the third king, Tullius Hostilius (reigned 673 BC - 642 BC) who built the first one. Prior to this the senators met outdoors. This building was named Curia Hostilia. This building was demolished by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC to build a larger one because he doubled the number of senators. The new building was named Curia Cornelia. Julius Caesar started the construction of a new senate house because he increased the number of senators by one third. This work was completed by Augustus in 29 BC. It was named Curia Julia and it is still standing in the Roman Forum.
In the winter of 71 BC Gannicus along with Castus broke off from Spartacus taking a large number of Celts and Germans with them marking the second break off of the rebellion. Gannicus and Castus met their end in Lucania near Mount Soprano (Mount Camalatrum) where Marcus Licinius Crassus, Pomptinus and Rufus entrenched their forces in battle and defeated them.
There were too much EARS
The disadvantages are that the
Roman Soldiers have to march 32km in 5 hours with their battle and camping equipment.
They cannot marry for several years (20-24 years)
They have to serve for 25 years.
If there is a mutiny, the 10th soldier would be killed
Out in the open usually on grass-the palaestra was an exercise field. The word palaestra itself means gymnasium or more specifically a wrestling school. The Romans more than likely had a section for wrestling pits in the palaestra in addition to areas for racing and ball playing.
The Pax Romana was not responsible for the decline of Rome. In fact the wisdom of Augustus and the strength of it created an ongoing momentum that even the worst Emperors could not destroy. Augustus ushered in almost 2 centuries of cultural achievements, prosperity and relative peace. So yes the Pax Romana refers to the period from 27 BC to 180 BC where there was internal stability and peace withing the empire. The policies of Augustus regarding how the empire would operate began when he took power and decided to downsize the military and use influence and negotiation to settle dispute rather than raise an army to settle matters. Under the Pax Romana, there was further expansion of the empire by conquest however. The Pax Romana was not a factor in the decline of Rome. In fact a sound argument that the Pax Romana prolonged the Roman Empire can be made. Most historians mark the crisis of the 3rd century as the beginning of the decline, and it was a very slow decline of Rome's power.
They built it for us... :)
Because of natural disasters. It was also the victim of vandalism. It was stripped of all of its external decorations and all of its marble for use in other projects.
In general Caesar's troops respected and were loyal followers. This is because Caesar would many times personally lead them in battle, especially if the lines were faltering. His personal courage inspired them. He would also walk along with his troops rather than ride his horse or sit in a carriage. Caesar was also unique, in that he always had centurions present at his planning meetings. As the centurions were the actual battle leaders, he liked to get their opinions on his plans. Generally speaking a general leading Roman legions to successful war campaigns were popular with the army and the citizens of Rome. Caesar was assigned to go to Spain. He led brilliantly fought battles against Spanish tribes who fought hard to keep their independence from Rome. Caesar brought back to Rome enough spoils of war to enrich the Treasury of Rome and as could be expected in those days, his legions shared in the booty from the military campaigns. The Senate was so pleased that they voted him a triumph.
The Roman armies were aware of the administrative accomplishments of Caesar in Rome. His proposal as example to distribute land to 20,000 poor Roman citizens was to the legions a sign of good policy. What ever the strength of the legions, knowing that their general was a generous leader helped them to see Caesar in a good light. In 56 BC Cicero convinced the Senate to reward Caesar's armies in Gaul a substantial amount of wealth. Once again, if the legions were enriched because they were loyal troops to Caesar, this Senate award only increased the army's loyalty to Caesar. Caesar's successful campaigns in Gaul drew vast resources to Rome and more spoils of war to Caesar's legions.
However this is not to say that he had no trouble. He had a couple of mutinies to put down, but overall, the army viewed him as a leader who would bring them victory and the spoils that went along with the victories.
Roman hygiene was excellent for the ancient world. Not only were the baths famous, but waste was flushed and removed, and the physicians had some sense of sterilization, as they would often use wine or wine mixtures in bandaging open wounds. The alcohol in the wine would help in preventing infections.
The outlying areas that Rome controlled were called provinces.
Because we are still taught the Roman numeral system under rules introduced during the Middle Ages which converts 99 into Roman numerals as XCIX (90+9 = 99) but these rules were made in a haphazard manner centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire.
In all probability the Romans themselves would have calculated 99 as LXXXXVIIII and by placing I to both sides of these numerals simplified them to IC (-1+100 = 99)
In fact the Latin word for 99 is "undecentum" which literally means one from a hundred.
A group of ten soldiers was called a "contubernium". However this was in the late empire. Originally it was a group of eight men. They were tent mates and remained together for all the years of their service.
A triumvirate was a rule by three men. This form of government took place twice during the last phase of the Roman republic.
No, at least not that history mentions. But the Romans knew of the vikings. The ancient writer Tacitus mentions them and their ships. Recently, there have been excavations in Denmark and I believe, Norway, that point to Roman goods and Roman weapons being buried with warriors. This makes some historians think that perhaps the Viking warriors fought in the Roman army as auxiliaries.
The average male of ancient Rome would be considered short by our standards. They were only about five feet eight. Now this is average, there were some taller and some shorter. The emperor Augustus was a very short person and would have several extra soles attached to his shoes to make himself appear taller.
The ancient Romans had practically the same services that we have today. If a house needed its roof repaired, the owner called in a roofer, same for water problems, they had laundry services, artists who did frescoes and murals, people who installed fountains, they could rent a litter or a carrying chair, they could hire musicians, they could use a brothel. In other words, if a job was beyond the capabilities of any of their slaves, they could hire it out.
Some of Upper and lower ranking Jewish Rabbis were envies of Jesus. So they decided to get Jesus killed. They tried to get the romans to do so. Yet this did not totally work. The Romans were for Jesus. Jesus death was in their hands, the Rabbis accepted. The Roman leader washed his hands of them.
Read the Bible. The TLB is made at the 6th grade level. The NIV Bible is very good also!
Alexander was raised to hero status and the surviving records gloss over most of his discreditable actions. We do know that he murdered one of his close associates and had another of his generals executed, and that he wantonly destroyed Persepolis.
Then it is a matter of whether you consider waging massive war for a decade with enormous military and civilian casualties is good or bad, necessary or not, heroic or worthy of censure.
I think it might be prime numbers written in Roman Numerals...so the next number would be 19 (xix is I think the Roman translation?)
Augustus was a title, bestowed on Octavian by the Roman senate. It has no direct translation to our language, but connoted "The Great One", "The Esteemed One", "The Honored One". It is usually given as "The Venerable One". Octavian, after Julius Caesar was assassinated for making himself dictator for life, knew to stay away from anything to do with kingship or permanent rule, and took the innocuous title of princeps (First Citizen) . The senate bestowed the honorary title of Augustus on him, which had religious, rather than political connotations.
Octavian was the adoptive son and main heir of Gaius (first name) Julius (family name) Caesar, agnomen. Thus, he was a member of the Julian family (gens Julia). Caesar was the agnomen (nickname) of this branch of the Julian family. It was common to give nicknames to men. Caesar meant 'hairy' or fine head of hair. In fact, it was a joke nickname - the Romans did have a sense of humour. This the first man of this family branch was noted for his baldness , so his agnomen was the opposite of what he actually was, rather like today calling someone who is fat 'Slim', or someone with red hair Bluey. This then became the name of this branch of the Julian family.
Roman history and myths are throughout western culture. The calender that we use is a product of Rome and so are the names of months. The months are Roman Gods. Our names we use for the planets and stars also come from Rome. Some of the ideas in government stem from the Roman ideas of how people should have a say in the government. Many the items we have started in Rome. Rome had apartment houses, paved roads, city water systems, invented cement, had the first arena, malls, and many other things come to us from Roman culture.
Roman Law above all else they have contributed has been the greatest contribution from the Romans. The Romans built roads, bridges and aqueducts that stand even today, 2000 years later. They also like the Greeks gave importance to education and human civil rights. As we know they were the world's first superpower, even though Greece built the foundations for Philosophy, Rome developed that into the Philosophy that we have today. Such as the Roman Catholic Church, or the USA's government structure was based off the Roman Republic.
The Pax Romana was important because it was a time of relative peace and prosperity. Under these conditions, Roman civilization, in all its aspects, was able to flourish all over the empire, setting the foundations for western culture.
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