What was the climate and geography of colonial new york?
New York's climate was much the same as it is today. See the related question for that description.
The terrain was very swampy near the coast and the Hudson river. Further North were mountains covered with many forests. The ground was rocky though the soil was good for farming once it was cleared of rocks and trees.
The Middle Colonies also had many great rivers and harbors (used to develop trade with the western areas within their own colonies as well as with the other American colonies and England). The farmland was fertile which contributed to the many small, family-owned farms.