While both Athens & Sparta were ancient Greek city-states inhabited by people who shared a similar language, religion and a pride in being "Greek," there were distinct differences. The Athenians placed a premium upon having a "sound mind & body," emphasizing a well rounded education to develop a population of analytical thinkers. Economically, the Athenians were a merchant people who had the largest fleet in all of Greece and their city was a cosmopolitan metropolis & center of culture in the ancient world. Athens was a complete democracy, where the entire citizen body voted on all governmental decisions (even though those who qualified as "citizens" actually were a minority of the entire population). As far as military strength goes, Athens was a naval power.
The Spartans established a totalitarian oligarchy, creating a society which taught obedience & discipline. Sparta was an agricultural society which deterred outside contact & influence as much as possible, making outsiders feel unwelcome in an effort to preserve their rigid, structured society from cultural diffusion. Sparta had the most formidable army in all of Greece, despite its limited population.
These two were the strongest city states in all of Greece, until their inevitable conflict during the Peloponnesian War of the 400's BC which saw Sparta overrun Athens. Unfortunately, the victory was short lived, as both city states were weakened by the bloody & destructive conflict, plunging the entire Greek world into chaos and a compromised state. A condition that was soon exploited by Philip of Macedonia, the father of one Alexander the great.
The Spartans were a military society and the Athenians were a merchant and artistic society.
Unlike Spartans, Athenians were more interested in building a democracy than building a military force.
Sparta based all of its culture on warfare, which is why they were one of the best warriors of the known world; while Athens based itself on trade, and a strong naval force, and a democratic government.
The Spartans won the Peloponnesian war, the only war between the Athenians and the Spartans.
The Spartans led a harder life; they focused more on military than the Athenians. Athenians were known to be thinkers, philosophizers, and a generally softer people. Spartans were known to be warriors, who were raised from early childhood to be such, and the weak wouldn't be as likely to survive in their society, though Athenians were known to throw unwanted babies to the wolves in the same way that Spartans would. Greek drama, the Olympics and the great mind Socrates all came from Athens; war, the stand of the 300 and Leonidas are well known Spartan things.
The conflict between Sparta and Athens is known as the Peloponnesian War .
They were different Greek city-states. The Athenians had a democracy as their form of government; Sparta had a mix between an oligarchy and a monarchy. The Athenians encouraged trade and were influenced by other city states; the Spartans avoided new ideas whenever possible, and only conquered other city states. The Athenians valued art, science, and music; the Spartans cared about hardly anything but war. The Athenians treated their women fairly poorly; Spartan woman had more rights than almost any other women in the ancient world. Athenians had few slaves; the Spartan society relied entirely on slaves/helots to support the infrastructure. The Athenians weren't very war oriented; the Spartans were extremely bellicose and amazing soldiers.
Sparta was a Greek city-state that was known for it's army they went into battles and won, Athens was also a Greek city-state but it was known for being a good place for trade kids even went to school. Ancient Roman empire and Ancient Greece were in different time periods.
Spartans were ruled by only a few men, and Athens were ruled by all of the male citizens. Also Athenians were a democracy and Spartan's were were an Oligarchy.
Notably , the war was between Athens and Sparta with the Athenians losing the struggle to the Spartans .
Spartans and Athenians both worshiped the same gods as the rest of Greece, Poseidon, Zeus, etc. Although the patron god of Sparta was Artemis, and the Patron god of Athens was Athenia. Although not much is mentioned about Spartan religion they were most likely just as religious as the rest of Greece.
Sparta and Athens were allies against Persia in the Persian War.
What is some differences between ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia.
The Peloponnesian war between Spart and its allies and Athens and its empire was won by the Spartan alliance supported by Persia.
Spartans did not fight at the Battle of Marathon. The fight was solely between the Persians, and the Athenians and Plataeans.
Athenians were very civilised, while Spartans were vicious and harsh.
The main difference between the Spartan and Athenian is that Athenians wore a breastplate and did not have the Red cape that Spartans wore. Spartans did not wear the breastplate but instead fought only armed with Shield and Weapon.
The differences between Athens and Sparta were caused by the geographical location, they were quite far apart so it should be expected that they had different societies. Another reason was that they were both founded at different times, by different people.They were both independent city-states in southern Greece. The Spartans were rural, living off the produce of a serf population and devoting themselves to training for war. The Ahenians had to do their own production and their war training in their spare time. The Spartans were stolid and cautious, the Athenians were adventurous.
As in almost every aspect of comparison, the difference between the education of the warlike Spartans compared to the education of the philosophical Athenians is like comparing black to white.
Developing democracy and accelerating and expanding wars between the Greek city-states.
They're different countries
The Athens are smart and don't fight much and the spartans are fighters and mean
The Athenian boys are more free than the Spartan boys. The Athenians are not mandated to join the army nor the navy. They can go to school to pursue education in arts and sciences. The Spartans are only focused on the war and that they are to be trained in military service only.