When did the first life originated and what was it?
Evidence suggests that life first evolved around 3.5 billion years ago. This evidence takes the form of microfossils (fossils too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope) and ancient rock structures in South Africa and Australia called stromatolites. Stromatolites are produced by microbes (mainly photosynthesizing cyanobacteria) that form thin microbial films which trap mud; over time, layers of these mud/microbe mats can build up into a layered rock structure - the stromatolite. Stromatolites are still produced by microbes today. These modern stromatolites are remarkably similar to the ancient stromatolites which provide evidence of some of the earliest life on Earth. Modern and ancient stromatolites have similar shapes and, when seen in cross section, both show the same fine layering produced by thin bacterial sheets. Microfossils of ancient cyanobacteria can sometimes be identified within these layers.
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Creationism . God is the origin and the creator of all life. He created all that exists and all that exists.. Science . After the Earth had been formed over 4.6 billion years ago scientists believe that the energy from heat, lightning, or radioactive elements caused the formation of complex prote…ins and nucleic acids into strands of replicating genetic code. These molecules then organized and evolved to form the first simple forms of life. Those simplest forms evolved into all the life forms, all the animal and plant groups existent today. See link.. ( Full Answer )
...molecules became ever more complex, amino acids, proteins, an early form of replicating RNA ....
Life on the earth has originated from primordial membranes. This is the sequence of events. . First the hydrocarbon molecules formed and in watery medium became bi-layered membranes. . A biological big bang occurred which imparted electrical potentials across these membranes. These membrane p…otentials represent consciousness even now. . Formation of 'Phantom cells' from membranes which started metabolism inside them. This gave rise to organic molecules. . Formation of 'True cells' happened gradually. The need to execute repeated tasks resulted in DNA/RNA formation through 'molecular etching'. ( Full Answer )
Tom Cochrane The song "Life Is a Highway" was originally written and performed by Tom Cochrane. It was on his 1991 album "Mad Mad World". The song was a #1 hit in Cochrane's native Canada and peaked at #6 on the U.S. Billboard charts in 1992. But back in the 70's The J Giels band did record this …song, But i can't find it on the internet. I have in album form somewhere ( Full Answer )
No one else has been able to propose any widely accepted theory. Darwin's theory of evolution concerns the origin of SPECIES once life already came into existence. It does not incorporate the concept of abiogenesis (life from non life) yet. For the origin of life there is the RNA world hypothesis…. Panspermia is a competing theory proposed by a couple of astronomers, but it has not gained much traction among biologists OR even astrobiologists. Some folks have proposed various crystals or clays served as a scaffolding upon which organic macromolecules self assembled. The whole question (like so many others in science) remains a big mystery. Many religions believe in some sort of divine creation, or intelligent design as a theory of origin of life. ( Full Answer )
The phrase originated in the Irish/American community of the USA, in the early part of the 20th century. The first printed citation of it that I have found is from the Connecticut newspaper The Hartford Courant , December 1911 - in a piece headed ' Bullet Ends Life of Famous Wild Cow ':. The famous… wild cow of Cromwell is no more. After "living the life of Riley" for over a year, successfully evading the pitchforks and the bullets of the farmers, whose fields she ravaged in all four seasons.. The quote marks that the writer added around the phrase are often an indication that the phrase in question isn't familiar to the readership, which is an indication of it being newly coined. The phrase was much used in the military, especially amongst the Irish soldiery in WWI. The first known citation in that context is in a letter from a Private Walter J. Kennedy (who surely had parents or grandparents who hailed from the old country), stationed at Camp Dix, New Jersey, which was published in The Syracuse Herald on 29th June 1918. The piece was headed " Great Life, Writes Soldier at Camp ":. "This is surely one great life." writes Kennedy. "We call it the life of Riley. We are having fine eats, are in a great detachment and the experience one gets is fine.". Later that year, on 22nd October, The Bridgeport Telegram published a letter from Private Samuel S. Polley, 102 Regiment, stationed in France.. "They [German officers] must have led the life of Reilly as we caught them all asleep in beds...". Who Riley (or Reilly, or Reiley) was isn't clear. If he had been a known individual then it surely would have been recorded. The lack of any such records points to the name being chosen as that of a generic Irishman, much as Paddy is used now. ( Full Answer )
Life originated in the oceans over 3 billion years ago. The oceans were full of many organic molecules and this is where life assembled. According to modern evolutionary theories and the studies of cell development, many scientists have concluded that life originated as small prokaryotic life forms …and as bacteria under the water. Some of these cells later evolved into larger organisms, such as fish, and some developed legs where they traveled on land and created terrestrial life. ( Full Answer )
God created life. The Torah's description of creation simply tellsus what God did, not how He did it. Some Jews, including someOrthodox Jews, find no conflict between the story of creation andthe Big Bang Theory and theory of evolution. . Jewish answer God created life. Consider these points: … . The staggering complexity of every organ and every cell in thehuman body. . The vastness of our minds and emotions. . The fact that the universe has definite design, order, andarrangement which cannot be sufficiently explained outside atheistic worldview. (This is how Abraham, without benefit ofteachers, came to reject the chaotic world-view of idolatry and thepossibility of atheism). For example, theoretical physicist andpopular science writer Paul Davies (whose early writings were notespecially sympathetic to theism) states concerning the fundamentalstructure of the universe, "the impression of design isoverwhelming" (Davies, 1988, p. 203). . The laws of the universe seem to have been set in such a waythat stars, planets and life can exist. Many constants of natureappear to be finely tuned for this, and the odds against thishappening by chance are astronomical. More on the topic: . 1) The glaring lack of transitional fossils has been noted bythe evolutionists themselves, such as this statement from thefamous paleontologist and evolutionist George G. Simpson; quote:"The regular lack of transitional fossils is not confined toprimates alone, but is an almost universal phenomenon." "The lack of transitional series cannot be explained as being dueto the scarcity of material. The deficiencies are real; they willnever be filled" (Nilsson, N. Heribert). "To the unprejudiced, the fossil record of plants is in favor ofspecial creation" (Corner, E.J.H., Contemporary Botanical Thought). . 2) Instances of falsifying of evidence by evolutionists, suchas Haeckel's drawings, Archaeoraptor, the Cardiff "specimen," andPiltdown Man. "Haeckel exaggerated the similarities [between embryos of differentspecies] by idealizations and omissions, in a procedure that canonly be called fraudulent. His drawings never fooled embryologists,who recognized his fudgings right from the start. The drawings,despite their noted inaccuracies, entered into the standard studenttextbooks of biology. Once ensconced in textbooks, misinformationbecomes cocooned and effectively permanent, because textbooks copyfrom previous texts. We do, I think, have the right to be bothastonished and ashamed by the century of mindless recycling thathas led to the persistence of these drawings in a large number, ifnot a majority, of modern textbooks (Stephen Gould). Dr. Jonathan Wells published a book in 2002 entitled Icons ofEvolution. Dr. Wells states that the book shows that "thebest-known 'evidences' for Darwin's theory have been exaggerated,distorted or even faked." . 3) Creationists see the "survival of the fittest" and thedating of rock layers by fossils as being perfect tautologies. . 4) The fact that some qualified, educated, normal scientists donot believe in evolution. Or at least question it, even if theystill preach evolution: "Nine-tenths of the talk of evolutionistsis sheer nonsense, not founded on observation and whollyunsupported by facts. This museum is full of proofs of the utterfalsity of their views. In all this great museum, there is not aparticle of evidence of the transmutation of species" (Dr.Etheridge, Paleontologist of the British Museum). "To postulate that the development and survival of the fittest isentirely a consequence of chance mutations seems to me a hypothesisbased on no evidence and irreconcilable with the facts. It amazesme that this is swallowed so uncritically and readily, and for sucha long time, by so many scientists without murmur of protest" (SirErnest Chain, Nobel Prize winner). . 5) The fact that there is a shared, worldwide tradition amongevery ancient society that the world was created. . 6) Evolving of new organs or species has not been witnessedduring known history. . 7) Mutations are harmful, not beneficial. One of the tasks ofDNA and of long-term breeding is to avoid or repair any changesbrought about by mutations. This means that our genetic apparatusis programmed to resist change. . 8) Mutations, even if beneficial, do not create new organs. . 9) The fact that a great number of fossils have been found inthe "wrong" rock-layers according to what evolutionary paleontologywould require. . 10) The fact that you need DNA to make DNA. No genetic code canbe demonstrated to have arisen by chance, together with the abilityto read that code and carry out its instructions. Information doesnot arise spontaneously; and there is an incredible amount ofinformation in even the tiniest cell. "A living cell is so awesomely complex that its interdependentcomponents stagger the imagination and defy evolutionaryexplanations" (Michael Denton, author). "The astounding structural complexity of a cell" (U.S. NationalLibrary of Medicine). Concerning a single structure within a cell: "Without the motorprotein, the microtubules don't slide and the cilium simply standsrigid. Without nexin, the tubules will slide against each otheruntil they completely move past each other and the ciliumdisintegrates. Without the tubulin, there are no microtubules andno motion. The cilium is irreducibly complex. Like a mousetrap, ithas all the properties of design and none of the properties ofnatural selection" (Michael Behe, prof. of biophysics). . 11) The problem of the impossibility of abiogenesis in general."The concept of abiogenesis is not science. It's fantasy" (J.L.Wile, Ph.D.). . 12) The fact that evolution was once used as support for thebelief that Blacks (or others) are less than highly-evolved humans."Darwin was also convinced that the Europeans were evolutionarilymore advanced than the black races" (Steven Rose, author). He also"reasoned that males are more evolutionarily advanced than females"(B. Kevics, author). . 13. The first and second laws of thermodynamics point clearlyto a Creator, since things undergo entropy rather than get moreorderly over time. 14. Age of the Earth: . a) At current rates of erosion the amount of sea-floorsediments actually found do not support a "billions of years" agefor the Earth. . b) The amount of Sodium Chloride in the sea, also, is a smallfraction of what the "old Earth" theory would postulate. . c) The Earth's magnetic field is decaying too fast toextrapolate a long age for the Earth. . d) The rate of accumulation of Moon-dust has been measured; andthe amount of dust on the Moon was found to be vastly less thanwhat scientists had predicted before the Moon-landings. . e) "Radiometric techniques may not be the absolute datingmethods that they are claimed to be. Age-estimates on a givengeological stratum by different radiometric methods are often verydifferent. There is no absolutely reliable long-term radiologicalclock. The uncertainties inherent in radiometric dating aredisturbing to geologists and evolutionists." William D. Stansfield,Ph.D., Instructor of Biology, California Polytechnic StateUniversity. . f) "Even total rock systems may be open during metamorphism andmay have their isotopic systems changed, making it impossible todetermine their geologic age." Prof. Gunter Faure (Department ofGeology, The Ohio State University, Columbus.) . g) Helium is generated by radioactive elements as they decay.The escape of this helium into the atmosphere can be measured.According to the Evolutionary age of the Earth there should be muchmore helium in the atmosphere, instead of the 0.05% that isactually there. The only way around this is to assume that heliumis escaping into space. But for this to happen, the helium atomsmust be moving at above the escape velocity, of 24,200 miles perhour. The usual speed of helium atoms is only 5,630 mph. A fewatoms travel much faster than the average, but still the amount ofhelium escaping into space is only about 1/40th the amount enteringthe atmosphere. This is an unsolved problem, concerning which the atmosphericphysicist C.G. Walker stated: "There appears to be a problem withthe helium budget of the atmosphere." Another scientist, J.W.Chamberlain, said that this helium accumulation problem "â¦ will notgo away, and it is unsolved." ( Full Answer )
1. Abiogenesis In the natural sciences, abiogenesis - also known asspontaneous generation - is the study of how life on Earth couldhave arisen from inanimate matter. This is also referred to as the"primordial soup" theory of evolution. On earth evidence is clearlife began in water, such as some w…arm shallow sea or deep oceanthermal vent, as a result of the combination of chemicals from theatmosphere and the production of amino acids. These molecules inturn formed proteins, and a gradual cascade of ever more complexself-replicating molecules until cells formed. Ultimately allspecies trace their origin back to two or three original forms.Abiogenesis should not be confused with evolution, which is thestudy of how groups of already living things change over time. Mostamino acids, often called "the building blocks of life", form vianatural chemical reactions unrelated to life, as demonstrated inthe Miller-Urey experiment and similar experiments simulatingconditions of the early Earth. In all living things, these aminoacids are organized into proteins, and the construction of theseproteins is mediated by nucleic acids. How these organic moleculesfirst arose and formed the first life is the focus of abiogenesis. We have seen fairly complex biochemicals spontaneously form insimple simulations of earthly prebiotic conditions, such as in theUrey/Miller experiments yielding amino acids. Amino acids form in awide variety of conditions. While many of the steps from inorganicmatter to self-replicating life forms remain a mystery to us, muchof the unfolding story after the development of multicellularorganisms (metazoans) is found in earth's geologic fossil recordand in comparisons of DNA genetic sequences. Abiogenesis (life fromnon life) is not actually a working theory yet, but when a workablemechanism is proposed it will be incorporated into the theory ofevolution. We know life arose very early in earth's history--within about thefirst billion years of its formation. Multicellular life, however,required another three billion years to form. The earliestmulticellular forms (metazoans) were all marineorganisms--creatures dwelling in earth's vast seas. Jawedvertebrates had evolved in these primordial oceans before the firstamphibious vertebrates made their way onto land--even before thefirst terrestrial plants and insects. 2. Special Creation According to this concept, all the different forms of life thatoccur today on planet Earth have been created by a God, gods, orextraterrestrial beings. This idea is found in the ancientscriptures of almost every culture. According to Hindu belief, LordBrahma, the God of Creation, made the living world in accordance tohis wish. According to the Christian, Jewish and Islamic belief,God created this universe, plants, animals and human beings inabout six natural days. Others interpret the "six days" of Genesisas six epochs. The Sikh tradition says that all forms of lifeincluding human beings came into being with a single word of God. Special creationists believe that the species have not undergoneany significant change since they were introduced. Creationistsgenerally accept a simplistic interpretation of the Bible'sexplanation that God created a number of basic groups of animalsand plants as described in the first part of Genesis. They believethat while God created each group with the possibility of a gooddeal of variation, they were brought forth according to their ownkind. By definition, the faith-based notion of Special Creation ispurely a religious concept, acceptable only on the basis of faith.It has no scientific basis. 3. Biogenesis The belief that living things come only from other living things(e.g. a spider lays eggs, which develop into spiders). It may alsorefer to biochemical processes of production in living organisms.The Law of Biogenesis, attributed to Louis Pasteur, states thatlife arises from pre-existing life, not from nonliving material.Pasteur's (and others') empirical results were summarized in thephrase Omne vivum ex vivo , Latin for "all life [is]from life" , also known as the "law of biogenesis". Pasteurstated: " La gÃ©nÃ©ration spontanÃ©e est une chimÃ¨re "("Spontaneous generation is a dream"). It should be noted that the"spontaneous generation" Pasteur opposed referred to any modern,fully formed organism arising, NOT the original generation of life.In Pasteur's day it was commonly believed, for example, that fliesspontaneously arose from piles of cattle dung, and necessarilybecause some fly laid its eggs there. Egyptians believed that mudof the Nile River spontaneously gave rise to many forms of life.The idea of spontaneous generation was popular almost untilseventeenth century. Many scientists like Descartes, Galileo andHelmont supported this idea. 4. Theory of Chemical Evolution This theory is also known as Materialistic Theory orPhysico-chemical Theory. According this theory, the origin of lifeon earth is the result of a slow and gradual process of chemicalevolution that probably occurred about 3.8 billion years ago. Thistheory was proposed independently by two scientists - A.I.Oparin, aRussian scientist in 1923 and J.B.S Haldane, an English scientist,in 1928. 5. Theory of Catastrophism This theory on the origin of life is simply a modification of thetheory of Special Creation. It states that there have been severalcreations of life by God, each preceded by a catastrophe resultingfrom some kind of geological disturbance. According to this theory,since each catastrophe completely destroyed the existing life, eachnew creation consisted of life form different from that of previousones. French scientists Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) and Orbigney(1802 to 1837) were the main supporters of this theory. 6. Inorganic Incubation Proposed by Professor William Martin, of DÃ¼sseldorf University, andProfessor Michael Russell, of the Scottish Environmental ResearchCentre in Glasgow, this theory states that Instead of the buildingblocks of life forming first, and then forming a cell-likestructure, the researchers say the cell came first and was laterfilled with living molecules. They say that the first cells werenot living cells but inorganic ones made of iron sulfide and wereformed not at the Earth's surface but in total darkness at thebottom of the oceans. The theory postulates that life is a chemicalconsequence of convection currents through the Earth's crust and,in principle, could happen on any wet, rocky planet. 7. Endosymbiotic Theory This theory, espoused by Lynn Margulis, suggests that multipleforms of bacteria entered into symbiotic relationship to form theeukaryotic cell. The horizontal transfer of genetic materialbetween bacteria promotes such symbiotic relationships, and thusmany separate organisms may have contributed to building what hasbeen recognized as the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) ofmodern organisms. James Lovelock's Gaia theory, proposes that suchbacterial symbiosis establishes the environment as a systemproduced by and supportive of life. His arguments strongly weakenthe case for life having evolved elsewhere in the solar system. 8. Panspermia - Cells From Outer Space Some scientists believe that the simplest life-forms, whole cells(especially microbial cells), have been transported to the Earthfrom extraterrestrial sources. In this way, a process calledpanspermia (means seeds everywhere) might have initiated life onEarth. Most mainstream scientists have not supported panspermia,but early challenges have been thwarted in recent years due todiscoveries such as terrestrial microbes that survive in extremeenvironments and incredibly aged yet viable microorganisms found inancient rocks. In addition, water (essential for life) has beendiscovered on other planets and moons, and organic chemicals havebeen found on meteorites and in interstellar debris. 9. Cosmogony Cosmogony is any theory concerning the coming into existence ororigin of the universe, or about how reality came to be. In thespecialized context of space science and astronomy, the term refersto theories of creation of the Solar System. For example, Greekmythology and some religions of the Ancient Near East refer tochaos, the formless or void state of primordial matter precedingthe creation of the universe or cosmos in creation myths. Cosmogonycan be distinguished from cosmology, which studies the universe atlarge and throughout its existence, yet does not inquire directlyinto the source of life or its origins. 10. Marine Theory The Marine Theory suggests that life may have begun at thesubmarine hydrothermal vents; their rocky nooks could then haveconcentrated these molecules together and provided mineralcatalysts for critical reactions. Even now, these vents are rich inchemical and thermal energy that sustains vibrant ecosystems. 11. Electric Spark Theory Electric sparks can generate amino acids and sugars from anatmosphere loaded with water, methane, ammonia and hydrogen, as wasshown in the famous Miller-Urey experiment reported in 1953,suggesting that lightning might have helped create the key buildingblocks of life on Earth in its early days. Over millions of years,larger and more complex molecules could form. Although subsequentresearch indicates the early atmosphere of Earth may have been poorin free hydrogen, scientists have suggested that volcanic clouds inthe early atmosphere might have held methane, ammonia and hydrogenand lightning near eruption events would likely have been as commonas it is now. Amino acids are also known to form spontaneously neardeep ocean thermal vents, and in numerous other environments richin organic material and energy. 12. Tribal and Mythological Though not strictly scientific from our modern definition, ancientlore can be considered as the 'scientific' belief of its day, as itattempted to explain what was observed. From the tribes of ancienttimes to the mythologies of more modern cultures, there arecountless stories of how life began. Some are based in pagan, orpolytheistic, beliefs, while others are based on creation resultingfrom a single deity, or monotheism. This collection of myths,legend and tribal knowledge handed down over generations is thecollective expression of how we humans attempt to explain our worldand our place in it. ( Full Answer )
The study of the origin of life from non-life through natural means is called abiogenesis. Many people reject a natural origin of life due to religious beliefs. In general, abiogenesis says that, once conditions on Earth were just right, the building blocks of life were able to form. Energy from …different sources catalyzed the synthesis of organic molecules from inorganic molecules. Over billions of years, organic molecules such as amino acids, lipids, and nucleic acids formed, creating an organic "soup" in the oceans. These began to assemble to create primitive biological systems. They were the predecessors of cells and could form some simple life functions. Eventually self-replicating molecules such as RNA and DNA originated, although the details of this process are currently unknown. The earliest life forms were single prokaryotic cells that were able to replicate themselves and pass on their genetic information. Eventually, eukaryotic cells arose. They probably evolved from the mutual relationships between prokaryotic cells (look up the endosymbiotic theory). This would explain why eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA. Once the first true life forms arose, they were able to diversify relatively quickly into a variety of multicellular organisms (compared to the billions of years it took to assemble a simple living cell). The basic ideas about the origin of life have been established, but most of the details currently remain unknown and are subject to speculation, considering life originated billions of years ago and almost no fossil evidence remains from that time. It has been proven through laboratory experiments (Such as the Miller-Urey experiment) that the building blocks of life can arise naturally. While we are very far from producing true life from scratch, scientists are working hard trying to replicate what could have been the process that occurred over 3 billion years ago in the Earth's oceans. ( Full Answer )
if your not religious, comets brought ice, the ice melted and then with other compounds, elements, and heat life came to be or maybe from deep ocean vents where there isn't light but there is heat and the inards of earth\n. \nSome believe God made the whole earth, however their are many theories. I…t all depends on your religious beliefs, or lack there of. ( Full Answer )
the 2 mains theories are the creationist and the evolutionist theories. the evolutionist theories says that there was a huge bang in space that created all the planets, then there was a zap of lightning which created a puddle with a single in it, that cell then made more cells which eventually crawl…ed out of the puddle and made every living thing on this planet. then the creationist theory says that god created everything. so if you're wondering which one is true its alot easier to have faith that there is 1 god who made everything then one cell making every life thing on earth Mr. Bushido, you are talking nonsense. Evolution does not say anything about the origin of life: it is concerned how life improves ONLY AFTER it has emerged. The theory concerning the emergence of life on the planet is Abiogenesis. After the Big Bang created all the matter in the universe and a tiny portion of this matter coalesced into our planet and its atmosphere, basic chemistry started. Take into consideration that at the time, the mean planetary surface temperature was much higher than now (close to 90 degrees Celsius if I remember correctly). At such high temperatures, chemical reactions proceed much faster and first amino acids of the simplest kind, nucleotides, even simple sugars (which we still use) were formed. Miller-Urey experiment has proven that necessary building blocks of life can emerge from humble chemical reactions. These first 'living things' were nowhere near modern complexity we see today even in a single bacterium. They were merely amino acid/nucleotide chains that catalysed their own replication. These systems in time associated themselves with similar systems, leading to more and more complicated systems of life. ( Full Answer )
one theory is that we evolved from chimp-like animals that would travel in groups and the females would switch groups every so often as to not cause imbreeding
This phrase originated in a popular song of the 1880s, "Is That Mr. Reilly?" by Pat Rooney, which described what its hero would do if he suddenly came into a fortune.
All we have is a big window when it happened - and no way to prove one way or another how it happened. Let's look. The earth formed a long, long time ago. Billions of years. We have bulletproof radiometric evidence that almost no one who understands radiometric dating disputes that the earth is a…bout 4.54 billion years old. Life appeared somewhere between 4.4 billion years ago and 2.7 billion years ago. We just don't have any data to pin it down more than that. But what do we know? The earliest forms of life we know of are still with us today - blue-green algae. In a place called Shark Bay in southwest Australia, the formations these microorganisms create can be see alive and well and covered in the thin film of algae that created them of a long, long time. And inland from there and dating bact billions of years can be seen fossilized versions of these same structures - stomatolites. The earliest one we've been able to date goes back 2,724 million years. That's 2.724 billion years. What is the hot topic for debate? Glad you asked. When we study the fossils, we have indications that they were created through biological activity - which is what one might expect. But further study also suggests that abiotic (non-organic) precipitation may have had a hand in things. The debate continues. Life had to come from somewhere. But where? As the question asks "when do you believe..." as posted, there is plenty of room for the Bible thumpers to come along and put up what they like. Certainly if I ignore them and believe what science tells me (and science does not say how life on earth began, by the way), I won't have a problem. God will not condemn me for using what is arguably the finest gift one could get from any creator to discover the nature of the earth and how it evolved over the billions of years we know have elapsed since it was formed. Got links if you can handle the science and are curious. They're to articles posted by Wikipedia - where they are not afraid of truth, either. ( Full Answer )
Answer . One theory is that a creator god, perhaps God, Ahura Mazda, Brahma or some other creator god, created the first life on earth. Some believe that God created life in all the forms we now have, while others believe that the present life forms evolved from the first divine beginnings.. A s…econd theory is that in early pre-Cambrian times, the Earth was hot and volcanic, lashed by violent electrical storms, and the atmosphere was rich in carbon dioxide, sulphur compounds and ozone. Conditions were ideal for chemical reactions to occur. Complex compounds began to form. Then inorganic molecules combined into even more complex organic compounds, gradually forming amino acids and proteins, the building blocks of life. Over millions of years, some of these compounds formed into simple cells, some of which had the capability to replicate themselves under certain conditions.. A third theory is based on the ability of simple crystals to replicate themselves, even replicating any flaws or 'mutations'. Hydrocarbon molecules may have been attracted to the crystals and provided synergy in the replication process. Over millions of years, the process became more complex, while the hydrocarbon molecules began to become the primary components of these 'proto-cells'. Of course, the truth may have been a combination of this theory and the second theory above. ( Full Answer )
There are actually quite a few opinions on how exactly lifeoriginated. A very interesting and intriguing concept is the BigBand Theory concept.
It starts the male sex cell, or sperm fuses with the female sex cell, the egg. This then becomes the first cell, or in other words, the first form of life. This single cell then divides or multiplies into a bag of cells. After that, it continues the divide and multiply, making it grow in size and sl…owly looking like a human baby. ( Full Answer )
The Earth is one of eight major planets and a host of minor planets that circle a fairly average, middle-aged, main-sequence star. It formed from the accretion of residual material from the gravitational collapse of the solar nebula that produced the Sun. Based on their specific distances from the S…un, the planets formed into groups of similar chemical compositions, sizes, and densities. The four smaller inner planets are of higher density and are composed of a mixture of rock and metal. In contrast, the next four planets are massive gas giants with lower densities and larger sizes. The final grouping consists of small, low-density, icy worlds. Unlike the other inner planets, the Earth has remained a geologically active planet and has undergone continuous change since its formation. It is a planet dominated by the presence of liquid water. Throughout its long history, the Earth has evolved from a lifeless world into one that is populated by an uncountable number of species. Based on radiometric dating analyses of moon rocks and meteorites, the Earth is believed to be about 4.5 billion years old. Many scientists believe that the Earth originated as a cold, undifferentiated body that internally heated up from the energy released through giant impacts, radioactive isotope decay, and the mass of the Earth itself. Once the appropriate melting temperatures were reached, heavy metallic elements sank to the planet's center of gravity, as lighter elements were displaced upward toward the surface. This process may have taken place in as little as 50 million years. It is fairly certain that the present core-mantle-crust structure was in place by 4 billion years ago. Earth's core consists of both solid and liquid metal, presumably of nickel-iron composition. The outer, liquid metallic core revolves around the inner, solid metallic core and, in the process, generates an electric current. This electric current is responsible for the Earth's magnetic field. Sandwiched between the core and the crust is the mantle, a region of high-density iron- and magnesium-rich silicate rock material. Depending upon specific temperatures and pressures, this material can behave either as a solid or as a liquid. Scientists closely link the history of the Earth to that of the Moon. The Earth and Moon are geologically similar in many ways, but there are significant differences in their respective elemental abundances, and lunar specimens exhibit an apparent lack of certain volatiles. One origin theory suggests that the Moon is the product of a huge collision between a Mars-sized object and the primordial Earth. The resulting debris from this impact later accreted and formed the Moon. This theory mainly draws its support from computer impact simulations and a great many assumptions, but it lacks the physical evidence necessary to support it. Finding a common theory of origin for the Earth and Moon has proven to be quite difficult. In fact, when comparing size, density, and internal structure, the Moon seems to have more in common with Mars than it does with the Earth. What is certain is that the Moon has a definite influence on the Earth's environment. The Moon's daily tidal effects on the world's oceans are obvious, but the Moon also has a gravitational influence on the Earth's axial rotation. Without the gravitational pull of the Moon, the Earth's axial tilt would fall outside of its normal range of between 21Â° and 25Â° and literally fall over. Without the Moon "holding the Earth in place," the equator of today could easily become the polar regions of tomorrow. The primitive Earth did not have the same atmosphere that it does today. Many scientists believe that the Earth's original atmosphere may have been a very dense, hot mixture of ammonia and methane. This is consistent with the conditions present during Earth's proto-planetary stage that probably dissipated during the Sun's T-Tauri phase. The first "permanent" atmosphere formed as a product of volcanic degassing. Through this process, carbon dioxide (CO2) gradually became the dominant gas, along with a significant amount of water vapor. As the Earth cooled, water vapor condensed and fell as rain. This rain later filled the lowlands and created the first primitive oceans. Chemical reactions occurring in seawater slowly began to extract CO2 from the atmosphere and form large amounts of carbonate rocks. Somehow, during the first 500 million years of Earth history, life crossed over the threshold between being a collection of complex organic molecules and living organisms. With life-forms such as blue-green algae at work, the CO2-rich atmosphere slowly transformed into a nitrogen and oxygen-rich atmosphere that could support animal life. This transition is clearly marked in the Earth's geological record when previously dark, iron-bearing sediments turned red from oxidation. It is shortly after this geological benchmark that the first marine animals appear in the fossil record. The formation of supercontinents and continental drift is essentially tied to the internal mechanisms of the Earth's upper mantle. There, convection cells provide the energy necessary to split apart the crust into both large and small sections that can move relative to one another. The direct evidence for the effects of this convective energy is the large number of volcanoes and earthquakes that occur along plate boundaries. No one is certain how long plate tectonics has been a part of Earth history, but it is certainly responsible for the continent-ocean basin relationship, which forms the present crust. In the geologic past, supercontinents have existed only to be broken apart and distributed across the face of the Earth. This movement is continuous, and the formation of supercontinents seems to be inevitable, as is their eventual breakup. The formation of the world's great mountain chains is the direct result of colliding continents transforming marine sediment into hard rock. New crustal rock is created by volcanic activity at mid-oceanic ridges that pushes plates apart from one another. Such plate movement can also carry older, crustal rock to its destruction in an oceanic trench or be welded together into a new continental mass. ( Full Answer )
Evolution obviously occurred. We have fossil stromatolites dating back more than 3 billion years old. Marine multicellular organisms date back about 700 million years. The evidence for the gradual evolution of life over the past 700 million years is clear and abundant. The really big question at …this time is, how did life originate? We know amino acids are easy to produce, and in a wide variety of environments. Amino acids have been found in deep space, where some folks claim they could not survive long due to cosmic rays and UV radiation (both claims are obviously false--the amino acids are there). But it is a huge step from amino acids to self replicating cellular organisms. At the present time we have no really good ideas how that happened. One theory is that the DNA world we inhabit now was predated by an RNA world. The evidence for that is a bit shaky, and no one still knows how the conversion might have occurred. We can debate until the cows come home, but until we have evidence like we do by the Urey & Miller experiments for amino acid production via natural means, we really don't know.. B: My thought is that the everyone at present are just trying to find the way of their origin and not the source of their origin. According to me it is God who created the life. ( Full Answer )
Answer: Evolution is not a theory regarding the origin of life. It is a theory that explains how simple organisms over time diverged into the wide variety of species we find today. Two theories are: -Intelligent Design - Religious explanation stating that a higher power made life. -Abiogenes…is (a-, not + bios, life + -genesis, creation ) - Not to be confused with evolution. Abiogenesis is a scientific hypothesis explaining the origin of life by finding a way that inanimate matter could lead to the first simple life. Abiogenesis and evolution typically go hand-in-hand but do not require each other. Unlike evolution, abiogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. Panspermia is a hypothesis suggested by a couple of astronomers. It is not widely accepted by either biologists or astronomers, or for that matter even exobiologists. But it suggests life originated somewhere out in space, perhaps on the surface of another planet, and somehow crossed the interstellar depths and just happened to fall to earth without incinerating in our atmosphere or being destroyed by the shock of impact. A fourth hypothesis, since we need four, is the RNA world. It suggests a self replicating RNA molecule coated the world before DNA evolved and dominated. There are many variations of this hypothesis. ( Full Answer )
Buddhism sees little value in pondering unanswerable and contentious questions like is there a god, or how did life or the universe start. The time we have in each life should be spent considering our path towards enlightenment and the attainment of Nirvana.
We have fossils, so to speak, in rocks that are about 3.5 billion years old. Some form of simple prokayote in filamentous strings. Impressions left in sedimentary rock.' Still there must have been life before this, but the evidence is implied genetics and not all that firm. Possible a form of rep…licator; simple genetic replication. ( Full Answer )
When life originated on Earth is still a hotly debated in science. The evidence available was from already fairly complex bacteria. These bacteria must have evolved from more simple life forms but little or no evidence exists to confirm this. The first conclusive evidence for life comes from the N…eoarchean Era (2,800 - 2,500Ma) about 2.74 billion years ago. However there is evidence that there was bacteria alive in the Paleoarchean Era (3,600 - 3,200Ma) about 3.45 billion years ago. ( Full Answer )
The full quote is "Life is what you make it. Always has been, always will be." It is attributed to two women: Grandma Moses and Eleanor Roosevelt.
ans2. Possibly associated with the hot waters of an undersea black smoker or other hydrothermal vent. There is energy source, climate, and food supply to support life IF it came along! But as to the biochem - someone better qualified is needed.
There was no ozone layer in the very beginning because the processof photosynthesis had to build it up over a long time. The ozone layer built up starting over 2 billion years ago, and wasdense enough (with enough ozone to protect biological organismsfrom lethal UV light) by about 600 million years… ago. Prior to thisperiod, life was restricted to the ocean. Source: albany.edu/faculty/rgk/atm101/ozone.htm ( Full Answer )
On Earth One must remember that God made all things spiritually before He made them physically and placed them upon the earth.
I am the second wife my husbands original life insurance policy names his first wife as beneficiary which was never changed can i protest the payout?
You can protest but the insurance company will pay the proceeds to the named beneficiary.
FIFA was founded in Paris on 21 May 1904; the French name and acronym remain, even outside French-speaking countries. The founding members were Belgium, Denmark, France, Holland, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. It's first president was Robert GuÃ©rin.
Scientists don't have an answer for this question yet. But there are hypotheses that a simple self replicating molecule arose in the primeaval soup of the ancient earth probably by sheer chance, in the likelihood of around 1 in a billion. Of course sheer luck isn't a very good explanation, since 1 i…n a billion is astronomically small, but consider the number of planets in the entire universe that has conditions similar to earth. An estimate puts it at about 10 billion. Since we have a sample size of 10 billion, we can almost expect for life to arise on one of the planets. Since we are here thinking about it, that planet must've been earth. ( Full Answer )
It depends on what u believe in theres the bible and theres science..... Scientist say that an asteroid hit the moon causing a big chunk to come off, all the space matter and that chunk started to form earth. on earth there was a bunch of volcanoes and it was very hot, water started to form in a ho…le then bacteria started to form, the bacteria went through Evolution creating modern day humans..... ( Full Answer )
Evolution can be a tricky subject and trust me it's even trickier for me just being 13yrs old but i picture it like this: i wonder why most of the population on this planet believe in god(s), when i ask this, my reply is either "do not question the existence of god(s)" or "because that's what people… believe". i like the second answer because No.1 it's a bit more polite and No.2 i don't have a right to change what people want to believe. Okay, what I'm getting at here is that, if YOU think it just happened that all the right minerals and temperatures were just right for life to evolve, i don't think anyone should force u to believe something different. I think life happened for much more complicated SCIENTIFIC reasons. But to see how far life has got, looking at humans and other intelligent animals, i guess you could say: Life really is a miracle. Brainycat12 ( Full Answer )
(this one is a long one) It is belived that life started due to a combination of chemicals that reacted when the lightning on earth struck the newly forming oceans repeatedly. The reaction of the electric spark, the extreme heat, and the combination of elements in the water reacted to create some o…f the first amino acids that bunched together to make small amounts of DNA that slowly formed very simple organisms. The first organisms were simple, known as prokaryotes (cells with no organelles and usually single-cellular) that were anaerobic (didn't use oxygen). Eventually they evolved into prokaryotes that used photosynthesis and created oxygen. The new oxygen allowed for aerobic cells, which are what cells today are for the most part. Later on, large cells began living symbiotically with smaller cells that preformed different functions. The large cells eventually took the smaller ones in to protect them while they preformed functions that assisted them in survival. This created the first Eukaryotes, or cells with organelles and usually more than one cell. After that, the cells just became groups of cells that created more and more complex systems and evolved into the organisms we have today! ( Full Answer )
Theories of origin of life are entirely independent of Evolution. There is much speculation except that it is known to have occurred about 3.5 billion years ago, shortly after the earth's crust solidified and cooled enough for life to exist. Some of the speculations are: . Tide pools . Clay cata…lysis . Black smoker undersea vents . etc. Electrical storms in the early methane rich (oxygen absent) atmosphere probably synthesized the building block chemicals (nucleotides, amino acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, etc.) ( Full Answer )
it all began 3 billion years ago, and people believe it started in the sea. not really. it began with the sea forming rock pool on the land and using the suns energy came a chemical reaction that formed small, small organisms (base of life) and was soon swept into the sea to evolve farther, and be…come small creators in the sea and then every thing evolved to adapted to its habitat over time. ( Full Answer )
No matter what theory you believe is correct. God created life and the Universe. Answer: There are many potential routes that could result in life being initiated on Earth. One of these is the process of abiogenesis, the creation of life by increasingly complex chemical reactions. alternate expl…anations include panspermea. This suggests life arrived on Earth from extrasolar origins. Neither requires a deity's intervention. ( Full Answer )
Scientifically speaking, the molecules of the very first single-celled organism on Earth randomly bonded together and this arrangement of molecules felt the need to eat and reproduce, most likely a form of asexual reproduction. Eventually several of these single-celled organisms were swimming around… in the first pool of life in the world. These organisms reproduced and evolved after millions of years the single species had evolved into several species and after that came fish, then amphibians, then reptiles, then mammals, then apes, and finally humans. I hope this answered your question. ( Full Answer )
Read the book of Genesis 1:1-35. Day 6. Or do your own research on how perplexing the Cambrian Explosion is to most evolutionists.
Wow! Great Question! Short Answer is Yes. Longer Answer is Yes - They have produced in the lab solutions of Rnas that have self-assembled into self-replicating systems.
This is a question that has not been answered and may never be answered. Even when life can be synthesized in the laboratory we won't know if the method used is the same method nature used.
DNA's ability to "self"-replicate allowed life to continue from the first cell through each organism's every cellular-division (mitosis/meiosis) up until present day life. It can be though of as a torch like at the Olympics (except for real) where the flame never goes out, just allowed to ignite mor…e and more flames. But it's still the original flame, never had to be lit a second time! ( Full Answer )
Shakespeare's sources are a bit obscure for this somewhat mysterious play. A dialogue by Lucian called Timon the Misanthrope and the life of Timon of Phlius, a real philosopher, have been suggested, not very convincingly. It could be a story that Shakespeare made up.
10. Tribal and Mythological Though not strictly scientific from our modern definition, ancient lore was believed to be a scientific belief in their day, as it attempted to explain what was observed. From the tribes of ancient times to the mythologies of more modern cultures, there are countless st…ories of how life began. Some are based in pagan beliefs, while others are based on creation resulting from a holy deity. This collection of myths, legend and tribal knowledge handed down over generations is the collective expression of how man attempts to explain his world and his place in it. 9. Cosmogony Cosmogony is any theory concerning the coming into existence or origin of the universe, or about how reality came to be. In the specialized context of space science and astronomy, the term refers to theories of creation of the Solar System. For example, Greek mythology and some religions of the Ancient Near East refer to chaos, the formless or void state of primordial matter preceding the creation of the universe or cosmos in creation myths. Cosmogony can be distinguished from cosmology , which studies the universe at large and throughout its existence, yet does not inquire directly into the source of life or its origins. 8. Panspermia - Cells From Outer Space Some scientists believe that the simplest life-forms, whole cells (especially microbial cells), have been transported to the Earth from extraterrestrial sources. In this way, a process called panspermia (means seeds everywhere) might have initiated life on Earth. Most mainstream scientists have not supported panspermia, but early challenges have been thwarted in recent years due to discoveries such as terrestrial microbes that survive in extreme environments and incredibly aged yet viable microorganisms found in ancient rocks. In addition, water (essential for life) has been discovered on other planets and moons, and organic chemicals have been found on meteorites and in interstellar debris. 7. Abiogenesis In the natural sciences, abiogenesis - also known as spontaneous generation - is the study of how life on Earth could have arisen from inanimate matter. This is also referred to as the "primordial soup" theory of evolution (life began in water as a result of the combination of chemicals from the atmosphere and some form of energy to make amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, which would then evolve into all the species). It should not be confused with evolution, which is the study of how groups of already living things change over time. Most amino acids, often called "the building blocks of life", can form via natural chemical reactions unrelated to life, as demonstrated in the Miller-Urey experiment and similar experiments, which involved simulating the conditions of the early Earth. In all living things, these amino acids are organized into proteins, and the construction of these proteins is mediated by nucleic acids. Which of these organic molecules first arose and how they formed the first life is the focus of abiogenesis . [wikipedia] Egyptians believed that mud of the Nile river could spontaneously give rise to many forms of life. The idea of spontaneous generation was popular almost till seventeenth century. Many scientists like Descartes , Galileo and Helmont supported this idea. 6. Endosymbiotic Theory This theory, espoused by Lynn Margulis, suggests that multiple forms of bacteria entered into symbiotic relationship to form the eukaryotic cell. The horizontal transfer of genetic material between bacteria promotes such symbiotic relationships, and thus many separate organisms may have contributed to building what has been recognised as the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) of modern organisms. James Lovelock's Gaia theory, proposes that such bacterial symbiosis establishes the environment as a system produced by and supportive of life. His arguments strongly weaken the case for life having evolved elsewhere in the solar system. -- 5. Inorganic Incubation Proposed by Professor William Martin, of DÃ¼sseldorf University, and Professor Michael Russell, of the Scottish Environmental Research Centre in Glasgow, this theory states that Instead of the building blocks of life forming first, and then forming a cell-like structure, the researchers say the cell came first and was later filled with living molecules. They say that the first cells were not living cells but inorganic ones made of iron sulphide and were formed not at the Earth's surface but in total darkness at the bottom of the oceans. The theory postulates that life is a chemical consequence of convection currents through the Earth's crust and, in principle, could happen on any wet, rocky planet. 4. Theory of Catastrophism This theory on the origin of life is simply a modification of the theory of Special Creation. It states that there have been several creations of life by God, each preceded by a catastrophe resulting from some kind of geological disturbance. According to this theory, since each catastrophe completely destroyed the existing life, each new creation consisted of life form different from that of previous ones. French scientists Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) and Orbigney (1802 to 1837) were the main supporters of this theory. 3. Theory of Chemical Evolution This theory is also known as Materialistic Theory or Physico-chemical Theory. According this theory, the origin of life on earth is the result of a slow and gradual process of chemical evolution that probably occurred about 3.8 billion years ago. This theory was proposed independently by two scientists - A.I.Oparin, a Russian scientist in 1923 and J.B.S Haldane, an English scientist, in 1928. 2. Faith-based Creation According to this theory, all the different forms of life that occur today on planet earth, have been created by God, the almighty. This idea is found in the ancient scriptures of almost every religion. According to Hindu mythology, Lord Brahma, the God of Creation, created the living world in accordance to his wish. According to the Christian belief, God created this universe, plants, animals and human beings in about six natural days. The Sikh mythology says that all forms of life including human beings came into being with a single word of God. Special creation theory believes that the things have not undergone any significant change since their creation. Creationists generally believe the Bible's explanation that God created a number of basic groups of animals and plants as described in the first part of Genesis. They believe that while God created each group with the possibility of a good deal of variation, they brought forth according to their own kind. (Cats bring forth cats, not dogs). By definition, the faith-based Theory of Special Creation is purely a religious concept, acceptable only on the basis of faith. It has no scientific basis. 1. Scientific Evolution This theory relies strongly on the Big Bang theory of the Creation of the Universe, which was the beginning of the formation of matter. This eventually led to the creation of planets, Pangaea and life on earth as it evolved over millions of years in a natural environment of chemicals and enabling elements. Evolution of life can mean many things. Some use the word to refer to any change at all. Obviously the creation/evolution debate is not about that kind of a definition. Creationists agree that many changes take place, but disagree with the theory of evolution when it is used to mean that a gradual progression from molecules to man produced all living things by natural means, that is, without the involvement of an intelligent Creator. Yes, there are. ( Full Answer )
Usually people think very short-sighted about this thing we call'LIFE'. Regarding the ORIGIN of LIFE: Jehovah's Witnesses as Christiansbelieve that LIFE 'has always been', because Jehovah God has alwaysbeen. Jehovah God is ETERNAL in both directions, He has nobeginning of life. Then at some point i…n time, God decided to 'create'. The firstthing He created was 'something like himself'. God is a spirit; andhe created another spirit, just like himself, in his image, in hislikeness. That would be the very first ANGEL. Perhaps this is theorigin of life the questioner is thinking about. This happened longbefore there was anything 'physical'. Before the Universe wascreated, Angel-LIFE existed. Of course, God creates HISTORY MARKERS; often by 'beginning' acreation. Thus the Bible briefly records another HISTORY MARKER.Genesis 1:1 says: "In the beginning, God created the heavens andthe earth." Of course this was really not the first things God evercreated. The heavens and earth are not even considered -- 'LIFE'.Life existed before this 'beginning'. The word 'beginning', doesnot even apply to Jehovah God due to his Eternal nature. Genesis 1:1 refers to the creation of NON-LIFE things. God invented'physical' things. He created the stars, galaxies, planets; and Godthen also invented the 'FORCES' that keeps the Universe insynchronized motion (like gravity, magnetism, E=MC2, the speed oflight, etc etc many other forces we don't even know about yet.) God did not give 'LIFE' to these physical things; But he did givethem LAWS. The 'forces' are its LAWS. They have no free choice;they orbit as they've been programmed. Then, at another time in HISTORY, God decided to invent acompletely different KIND of LIFE. He decided to create Physical'beings' and infused them with 'LIFE. This had never been donebefore. No doubt, the angels were absorbed with interest, watching,and marveling. The very first physical form of LIFE God created was 'PLANT-LIFE'.So this was the very first ORIGIN of PHYSICAL LIFE. But Plant-LIFEwas limited. It could not see; could not walk, fly, or swim. It wasa form of life without a heart, without a brain. But they couldgrow; and they could re-produce. Absolutely amazing when you thinkabout this unique form-of-LIFE. But they were not given 'free-choice'. They could not develop'personality'. They were created like LIVING robots; bound byvarious laws. Next, Jehovah decided to create another COMPLETELY Different KINDof LIFE. He created 'ANIMAL-LIFE'. Animal life was given eyes. Theycould move about, with either legs, wings, or feet. But they couldnot move as fast as Angel-LIFE. Animal LIFE was given a heart; a brain; even personality. While they had some sort of basic 'choice' ability; they reallywere programmed by laws, to perform as they do. God also now invented 'sex'. Animals were created male and female,and could reproduce little baby animals. Absolutely incredible. What a WISE and POWERFUL Creator Jehovah God is. Next, Jehovah decided to create another COMPLETELY different KINDof LIFE. He said: "Let us make (this thing called) MAN(-KIND)."Perhaps this is the 'origin' of life the questioner is thinkingabout. Jehovah created mankind as male and female. He have us the abilityto move about. He gave us a heart; a brain; and the ability todevelop our own personality. He gave us what's called 'freechoice'. But God still gave us LAWS which must be followed. We arebound, for example, by the need to breathe. If we use our freechoice to stop breathing, there will be consequences - - - ourexistence will end. God also gave us the ability to re-produce, thru the use of 'sex'.But God also created Laws regarding the use of sex. All God's Laws regarding LIFE and NON-LIFE, are GOOD. They areperfect laws. ( Full Answer )
Scientific hypotheses Most experts today agree that the most likely origin for life on Earth is a series of biochemical processes taking place on pre-biotic Earth, possibly but not necessarily involving complex organic molecules formed in space. There is not yet a single definitive model for how …life might have emerged; abiogenesis is a field of research that is testing various competing hypotheses along these lines. Religious beliefs Many people disagree with the experts, and have religious beliefs that say something like the following: . In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. He created light. He created the fish of the sea, the birds of the air, and every thing that walks on land. He created plants. The last thing He created was man.. ( Full Answer )
In order to have DNA, you have to have 20 critical protiens for DNAto form. These proteins can only be derived from present DNA. Thisevidence points towards Creation rather than evolution.
Without metals, there wouldn't be any advancement in technology as well as advancement in the overall health of human beings.
In 2005 justin beiber wrote the life of the party and sings it originally. Shawn mended recently wrote a cover to it and now the song is popular.
Lord Brahma the creator of this world gave birth to thousand of hissons and life began from there. But all of these sons were divertedtowards meditation & yoga. Thus some alos beleive that lifestarted from Manu also son of brahma.