Who was the founder of the NAACP?
Mary Ovington did conceive of the NAACP (her name for it, according to the book Chronological History of the Negro, was originally called National Committee for the Advancement of the Negro Race). It was Miss Ovington (she was a lifelong spinster) who, along with Oswald Garrison Villard and William English Walling (both white males), on Feb. 12, 1909, sent out the "Call" to everyone they believed would be supportive of an organization that would provide blacks a new direction: integration.
Between Feb. 12, 1909, and May 1910, the future NAACP organizers held two conferences in New York City. Without question, the purpose of the first conference, which was attended by many blacks, was a desire on the part of the white organizers to see if blacks would be a receptive to the new integration agenda; and perhaps more importantly, would not protest against the societal anomaly they were suggesting. After all, integration was a complete contradiction to what currently did exist. And blacks never once marched in protest against the current living arrangements.
The first conference did allay the worries of the white organizers to black resistance.
Thus was borne the concept of racial integration, never before practiced or even conceived of in human history (W.E.B. DuBois' Niagara Movement consisted of a number of prominent black males numbering from 12 to 27 [true figure unknown] who did issue a statement demanding that white Americans commit to race-nullification, among other things. There were three meeting between 1906 and 1908, none of which amounted to anything).
Not surprisingly, the new and revolutionary idea of racial integration was overwhelming rejected by the group that was going to be targeted for integration: the numerically and culturally dominant white population. In fact, so ingrained was the thought from virtual all the white population that blacks should be separate, and thereby achieve a feeling of self-reliance and empowerment as a people (Booker T. Washington's desire and pursuit) that not one single philanthropist of the day would donate a dollar to help the NAACP through its formative years.
It is often stated that the NAACP was created because of the 1908 Springfield, Ill. riot, in which whites rioted because of attacks by a couple of black males on their race (the flashpoint was the murder of a white male who had found a black male intruder in his daughter's bedroom, gave chase and was killed during a struggle). It was clearly an ugly riot and surely the white population did desire to drive the blacks from the city. Two blacks were lynched. However, using this event to launch an organization advocating integration of the races as a way to improve relations between the two racial groups just doesn't ring true. Why launch an organization which desires to integrate Blacks into a racial group where there existed the possibility of such racially motivated violence?
One thing, however, was undoubtedly very clear to both the creators of the NAACP and the black race, particularly in the urban areas:: since it was the white population that created all the urban centers, which were beginning to attract more and more blacks, and white people were also the creators of all the industries, it was the white population that ws going to have to be convinced that the new integration agenda for the black race was a legitimate one.
When the NAACP's Executive Committee was created in 1910 (with this committee rested all the power and decision making), only one member of this committee was a Negro: W.E.B. DuBois. Mr. DuBois was given the title of director of publicity and research. DuBois' only duty was to be editor of the Crisis magazine (Miss Ovington's own recounting of the making of the NAACP, she implies she persuaded DuBois to join the organization after it was already established).
W.E.B. DuBois does deserve all the credit for disseminating - thru the Crisis - the new concept of integration; and creating the belief in the mind of the urban black man that he did have a right to receive - what no male group had ever received in all of human history - integration rights into another male group's established society (primarily thru the controversially created 14th and 15th Amendments -- amendments only achieved by the expulsion of the southern states). By 1917, most northern urban black newspapers were following the lead of the Crisis and also demanding that integration was a legitimate right among their people.
It's not stated in any NAACP literature what percent of the total NAACP membership was black when it first formed. The overwhelming majority of the early members (1910 to 1914) were likely white and Christian. << Not true. The founders were white, but Christian they were NOT :W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells, Archibald Grimké, Henry Moskowitz, Mary White Ovington, Oswald Garrison Villard, William English Walling " Wikipedia gives a bit of the list- Dewey had a hand in it as well. The founders were atheists, renowned Socialists and many Jewish. Christian, no- in fact, the NAACP was criticized heavily in many Christian publications as a threat to Christianity AND the negro people, as the "race issue" was being overtaken by Socialist motives to the point of race baiting by Socialist groups. For more info read "Red Intrigue and Race Turmoil" by Zygmund Dobbs. He brings up an interesting anecdote about how the word "discriminate" (Websters College 1956) used to mean "to judge based on respective merits, to determine differences, as in to show good taste: "he has discriminating tastes". The Socialist group in NAACP directly changed that very word to be a derogatory term that to even *notice* differences between races is a bad thing. The NAACP was truly a Socialist - then solely Marxist organization. Look up Lonegan Lorch- who sat accused in court questioned by the US Senate Committee for a cross burning in the front yard of a Ms Bates. The event of the cross burning incident was alerted before the incident in the "Daily Worker" September 2, 1957 "Arkansas Terror". How did the Daily Worker know there was to be an "incident" before the fact? The typeset for the article to be printed was set on Aug 30. Were the writers in the "Daily Worker" psychic? or did they have an "instigator" to cause trouble? The National Guard was sent in to hold order in the town. Read old copies of "The Daily Worker" from the 1950s, in fact read all you can of printed material from that time to gain more insight on the NAACP and it's *not* humble beginnings.
Unfortunately, very few if any websites across the internet give a true and unbiased accounting of the formation of the NAACP, as well as the operation of it during its early years.<< How true!!!