There are still two types of polio vaccines available. One of those is administered PO ("per os" ~ Latin for "by mouth") known as OPV (oral polio vaccine) and the other is the injected form IPV (inactivated polio vaccine). Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) is a live attenuated (weakened) vaccine. As the name implies, IPV is a vaccine made with inactive/"dead" virus particles.
The polio virus is still in the environment in some places and usually gets into the body by way of the intestines, so the oral vaccine is especially effective against the "wild" viruses through gastrointestinal immunity. The wild viruses are not as prevalent as in the past due to the long term use of polio vaccines, and are currently seen in only some areas of the world without that history of vaccinations.
There are no preservatives in the live attenuated oral polio vaccine, but there are some traces of some antibiotics used in the purification of contaminates that may get in the vaccine during manufacture. Those people with antibiotic allergies need to talk to their health care professionals about any allergic reaction risks, as you would for any prescriptions in allergic individuals.
The live virus also presents some extra difficulty with handling and storage, and is more difficult to preserve in hot areas or over long transport to out of the way locations. This is compounded by strong regulations about the storage and preservation of the OPV that adds costs to maintain compliance and so can make IPV more preferred.
The OPV produces immunity to three poliovirus types. Three doses can produce immunity in 95% of those who receive oral polio vaccine. One dose is effective in 50%.
There can be some "secondary immunization" provided to others by those who receive the oral vaccine and pass the virus through their feces. This gives, in a sense, a vaccination to the others exposed to their feces and the minute doses of the vaccine it contains. This is a plus in the more remote and economically deprived locations.
There is also the injected IPV (inactivated polio vaccine) that mostly prevents the virus from getting into the body through the nervous system. This is what is seen used most often in areas of the world that do not still have wild polio in the environment (like in the US). However, the live vaccine is still used in areas of the world where there is more incidence of the disease in the "wild". This is because any concerns about an increase in the virulence of the weakened live virus that could potentially cause infection are offset by the increased effectiveness, need for fewer doses, and often life long protection that a live vaccine produces.
More or less. The flu and influenza mean the same thing. Flu is just a shortened version of the word. The flu vaccine is sometimes given by injection into a muscle. The flu injection, flu shot, flu vaccination, influenza injection, influenza shot and influenza vaccination are all talking about the same thing. The only differentiating part is that when you say influenza vaccine, you may be referring to the vaccine that is given in the form of an intra-nasal mist or spray and not in the form of a shot. Both forms are available for flu vaccines. The vaccine is the medicine in the flu shot (flu vaccination, or flu injection). Flu = Influenza Vaccine = Medicine in a vaccination Vaccination = Introduction of infectious agent (vaccine) for immunity = Giving a dose of a vaccine (can be oral, injected, or nasal administration) for the purpose of immunization/prevention of infection Immunization = Vaccination = Infection preventative Immunity = Immunized = Not susceptible to Shot = Injection Vaccination methods = shots, mists, tines, scrapings, oral vaccines
An example of active immunity is the oral polio vaccine because it's a live attenuated vaccine. It means that, weakened polio virus will be given to you so that your body can form antibodies from it and can fight the virus. If your body itself made the antibody from an antigen, it's an example of an active immunity.
Polio actually can not be cured. There is, however, a vaccination that can be taken to prevent people who do not have polio, from getting polio. The polio vaccination was created by Salk and Sabin. Originally, the polio vaccination by Salk was administered in the form of a shot. The Sabin is given by mouth.
Polio, also Known as poliomyelitis is a contagious infectious disease that can be caused by one of three related viruses. A polio infection can be very serious leading to paralysis and even death. When a person is exposed to polio, it generally takes about three to five days for symptoms to appear.In approximately 95% of polio cases, the virus causes no symptoms or serious effects. and in about 5% of cases, the polio virus manifests in a mild form with flu-like symptoms, in a non paralytic form. In a severe form called paralytic polio. People who have minor or non paralytic forms recover completely.Paralytic polio is a very serious type of polio causing paralysis. The polio virus invades the central nervous system, the spinal cord as well as the the brain and may cause weakness, paralysis, serious breathing difficulty or even death. Paralytic polio begins like the milder forms of polio, however, this form of the disease usually causes severe muscle pain as well as other symptoms. Paralysis usually happens within the first week. The individual may lose the ability to use of one or both legs, arms, and may mechanical assistance to breathe. Recovery varies from person to person, however people that have had polio will alwaysPolio is caused by a virus that inhabits the throat and intestinal tract.Symptoms of Polio.The symptoms vary depending on the type of polio. mild polio, has symptoms that include : headache, nausea, vomiting, general discomfort or a slight fever for up to three days. In nonparalytic polio they are similar to mild cases, with the addition of moderate fever, stiff neck, back, fatigue and muscle pain. The symptoms for polio and paralytic polio are however different. Those that have paralytic polio experience tremor, muscle weakness, fever, stiffness, constipation, muscle pain and spasms, and difficulty swallowing.People who have not been immunized against polio or have a weakened immune system may be infected with polio from contact with individuals who are receiving the oral polio vaccine. the virus can also be spread eating food or drinking water contaminated with polio virus. The polio virus may also be contracted through direct contact with infected stool or throat secretions. People are most infectious a few days before and after the onset of symptoms.Post Polio Syndrome is a 'second' disability affecting a large number of polio survivors.Can Polio be treated?Polio can be treated. Your doctor will prescribe medicine to treat you.Can Polio be prevented?Polio can be prevented . There is a vaccine available to prevent polio.
Polio, also called poliomyelitis is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by one of three related viruses. Polio is a very serious disease, which can lead to paralysis or even death. Once a person is exposed to polio, it usually takes about three to five days for symptoms to appear. In about 95 percent of polio cases, infection from the polio virus causes no symptoms or serious effects. In about 5 percent of cases, the polio virus manifests in a mild form (abortive polio) with flu-like symptoms, in a nonparalytic form (aseptic meningitis) or in a severe form called paralytic polio. People who have minor or nonparalytic forms recover completely.
No, in the US the injection forms of the vaccines are made from inactivated "dead" virus. The nasal spray vaccine contains weakened virus that can not make you get the flu but is called a Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV). There is a new form of injected vaccine for the flu in the 2011-2012 flu season in the US that is intradermal instead of the intramuscular route, it also contains inactivated virus particles. See the related question below.
A vaccine is a special version of an antigen the gives you immunity against a disease. A vaccine is a weakened form of disease which helps your immune system create antibodies to fight it off so later if you ever get that certain disease again your body would recognize it and create antibodies to fight against it before it gets too serious.
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