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The Judiciary Act of 1789 was one of the first Acts of Congress under the Constitution. It established the Judiciary branch, which included the Supreme Court of the United States, three US Circuit Courts, and thirteen District Courts within eleven states.

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Section 1 of the Act declared "the supreme court of the United States shall consist of a chief justice and five associate justices, any four of whom shall be a quorum, and shall hold annually at the seat of government two sessions, the one commencing the first Monday of February, and the other the first Monday of August. That the associate justices shall have precedence according to the date of their commissions, or when the commissions of two or more of them bear date on the same day, according to their respective ages."

Section 13 of the Judiciary Act was a topic of controversy in Marbury v. Madison, (1803), when Chief Justice Marshall decided that portion of the legislation was unconstitutional because Congress had overstepped its authority by authorizing the Court to issue writs of mandamus to US government officials, which Marshall interpreted as being in contradiction with the Constitution.

The United States Judiciary Act of 1789 (1 Stat. 73) was a landmark statute adopted on September 24, 1789 in the first session of the First United States Congress establishing the U.S. federal judiciary. Article III of the United States Constitution created the Supreme Court and gave Congress the power to establish inferior courts. Marbury based his appeal in it in the case of Marbury v. Madison.

To read the full text of the Judiciary Act of 1789, see Related Links, below.

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The Judiciary Act of 1789 established the US Supreme Court, as mandated by the Constitution, and a rudimentary federal court system consisting of thirteen District Courtsand three Circuit Courts within eleven states.

The thirteen District Courts heard small civil suits and minor crimes. The three Circuit Courts heard cases involving serious federal crimes and had appellate jurisdiction over cases heard in the District Courts.

The six US Supreme Court justices were responsible for "riding circuit" twice a year, traveling in pairs to the three Circuit Courts and hearing cases under appeal. Congress believed this would help the Supreme Court justices stay in touch with local concerns.

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The circuit and district court systems were the two court systems created in the 1789 Judiciary Act.

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federal court system

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Q: The judiciary act of 1789 established what kind of legal system?
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Continue Learning about American Government

What act of Congress established a federal court system?

The Judiciary Act of 1789


Who established and organized the federal court system?

See the Judiciary Act of 1789. Not only did it establish the three tiered structure of the federal court system, but established the supreme court as well. It left the details of lower courts to Congress.


What is origin of the federal court system?

The Supreme Court of the United States (aka US Supreme Court), which was established by the first Act (Judiciary Act of 1789) of the First Congress on September 24, 1789.


When was the Judiciary Act of 1789 adopted?

The Judiciary Act of 1789, officially titled "An Act to Establish the Judicial Courts of the United States," was signed into law by President George Washington on September 24, 1789. Article III of the Constitution established a Supreme Court, but left to Congress the authority to create lower federal courts as needed. Principally authored by Senator Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut, the Judiciary Act of 1789 established the structure and jurisdiction of the federal court system and created the position of attorney general. Although amended throughout the years by Congress, the basic outline of the federal court system established by the First Congress remains largely intact today.


Did the Judiciary Act of 1789 create the US Supreme Court?

No. The Judiciary Act of 1789 established the US Supreme Court and a rudimentary federal court system, but did nothing with regard to state courts. Each state established its own court system.

Related questions

What act of Congress established a federal court system?

The Judiciary Act of 1789


What federal system was established when Washington was president?

First Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789


What is the Act that established the structure of the federal court system and its relationship to state courts?

Judiciary Act of 1789


What is the act that created the Federal Court system?

Congress established the federal court system with the Judiciary Act of 1789. This legislation created the US Supreme Court, and a small number of District and Circuit Courts. Although Article III of the Constitution mandated a US Supreme Court, it was actually established by the 1789 legislation.Congress has passed a number of other Judiciary Acts since 1789 that have changed the composition of the federal court system.


In 1789 what established the system of lower courts?

Congress established the federal court system in the Judiciary Act of 1789. The US Supreme Court later declared Section 13 of the Act unconstitutional in Marbury v. Madison, (1803).


Who established and organized the federal court system?

See the Judiciary Act of 1789. Not only did it establish the three tiered structure of the federal court system, but established the supreme court as well. It left the details of lower courts to Congress.


What is origin of the federal court system?

The Supreme Court of the United States (aka US Supreme Court), which was established by the first Act (Judiciary Act of 1789) of the First Congress on September 24, 1789.


Was there a Judicial Branch in 1789?

Yes. Congress established the Judicial Branch when it passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 on September 24, 1789.


When was the Judiciary Act of 1789 adopted?

The Judiciary Act of 1789, officially titled "An Act to Establish the Judicial Courts of the United States," was signed into law by President George Washington on September 24, 1789. Article III of the Constitution established a Supreme Court, but left to Congress the authority to create lower federal courts as needed. Principally authored by Senator Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut, the Judiciary Act of 1789 established the structure and jurisdiction of the federal court system and created the position of attorney general. Although amended throughout the years by Congress, the basic outline of the federal court system established by the First Congress remains largely intact today.


Who established. federal court system?

Congress created the federal court system in the Judiciary Act of 1789, under the authority of Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution.


What is an effort to preserve Federalist principles?

The Judiciary Act was an effort to preserve Federalist principles. It was enacted in 1789 and established the U.S. federal judiciary.


When did the new American Political System begin?

it was established in 1789 it was established in 1789