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Following Reconstruction, there were three main organized groups among white southerners who did not believe in racial equality. The Redeemer political parties of 'Conservatives' or 'Democrats' sought to legally take control of state and local governments for pre-Civil War ruling social groups. They used first "Jim Crow" laws, then state Courts and Constitutional Conventions to remove the social, economic and political progress African-Americans had attained during Reconstruction. The Ku Klux Klan was dedicated to white supremacy over African-Americans. They used terror tactics including lynching to enforce a racial Caste System. They were condemned by African-American writers such as Ida B. Wells. The White Leagues were short lived associations of political assassination in the late 1800s. They targeted Republicans, white and black, who were candidates, party organizers, and poll workers in an effort to remove effective political representation and advocacy for African-Americans in state and local government.

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Q: What group did white southerners form to help them regain power over African Americans?
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