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What is federal court?

Updated: 8/19/2023
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10y ago

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United States Federal Court SystemArticle III of the United States Constitution set out out to create three separate and unique branches of power: the Legislative, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, the executive, including the president and its administration and the Judiciary. The Judiciary was established to protect the rights and freedoms that are ensured in the U.S. Constitution. Unlike state courts, federal courts (under the judiciary branch) have the ability to change a ruling previously established by lowers courts, therefore allowing Federal Courts to make a peremptory decisions. However, only through the Court of Appeals can a citizens bring their case to a federal level. All federal cases must reviewed by the Court of Appeals to render certain that the case pertains to federal law as enacted in the United States constitution. Once a decision is made in a federal court, all lower courts must submit to the federal courts ruling.
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13y ago
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12y ago

Firstly, State and Federal Courts are seperate. A case can only be heard by the Federal Courts for two possible reasons:

- It involves Federal Laws

- It involves more than one State

Cases which go to the Federal Courts start at a District Court. A District Court has jurisdiction (judicial power) over a "District". A District is either a State, a division over a State, or a territory which is not a State (such as Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico). There are about 90 District Courts each located in the District they have jurisdiction over. The States with the largest number of District Courts are California, Texas and New York, which have four each.

There are also some "Special Courts" which deal with specific topics. These include International Trade, Veteran's Benefits, crimes within the Armed Forces and Patents. Most of these are located in Washington D.C.

If a Case is appealed from a District or Special Court, the case goes to a Court of Appeals. A Court of Appeals has jurisdiction over a "Circuit". 11 of these Circuits consist of several States, and appeals from District Courts within these States go to the Court of Appeals for the Circuit they belong to. Each Circuit has a number, from 1 to 11.

There are two more Courts of Appeals which are both located in Washington D.C. The first covers the D.C. Circuit and hears appeals from the District Court of Washington D.C. (which frequently involves Federal Government business). The other is responsible for the "Federal Circuit", and hears appeals from Special Courts.

Finally, there's the Supreme Court in Washington D.C. The Supreme Court decides which cases it wants to hear. Out of the 10,000 appeals per year which go to the Courts of Appeals, the Supreme Court chooses to hear 100 which it considers necessary to be dealt with by the Highest Court of the Land. However, the Constitution lists a very limited number of occassions where cases are required to be heard immediately by the Supreme Court, such as if a State Government was to sue another.

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9y ago

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the federal court system. The United States Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices. Underneath the Supreme courts are the trial courts and the appellate courts.

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13y ago
JUDICIAL BRANCH (Article III Courts)US District Courts

The 94 US District Courts are the trial courts of the federal judiciary. They have jurisdiction over most types of cases, both civil and criminal, within their geographical territory. Appeals from US District Courts go to the US Court of Appeals Circuit Courts.

US Court of International Trade

The US Court of International Trade is located in New York City, and has nationwide jurisdiction over cases involving customs and other international trade disputes under federal law. Congress established this court under the Customs Courts Act of 1980 in order to extend the jurisdiction of the former US Customs Court.

US Courts of Appeals Circuit Courts

There are thirteen United States Courts of Appeals Circuit Courts comprising the intermediate appellate step between the District Courts and the Supreme Court. Twelve of these courts handle cases from District Courts within their geographical territory. The Circuits are specifically referred to by name or number; for example, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit or United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. The thirteenth Circuit court is the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which has nationwide jurisdiction over cases from the courts of International Trade and Federal Claims. They also hear patent cases.

Supreme Court of the United States

Although we often refer to the highest court in the nation as the US Supreme Court (to distinguish it from state supreme courts), the official name is the Supreme Court of the United States, often abbreviated SCOTUS.

The nine justices (one Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices) primarily hear cases on appeal from the Circuit Courts, although they may hear certain types of cases directly from the US District Courts, and also from state supreme courts, if the case involves a preserved matter of federal or constitutional law.

Most cases are submitted to the Supreme Court on a petition for a writ of certiorari, a request for the Court to review the petitioner's case. The Court receives more than 10,000 petitions a year, and accepts fewer than 100 for oral argument. The Court has sole discretion over which cases it hears, so the justices choose matters of national importance or issues where the constitution is being interpreted inconsistently or in opposition to the Court's opinion.

Article I Courts and TribunalsArticle I courts and tribunals are those the Constitution authorizes Congress to create under Article I and are part of the Legislative Branch as well as the federal court system, but not part of the Judicial Branch, as listed above.

US Bankruptcy Courts

Each of the 94 Districts has a special jurisdiction US Bankruptcy Court that hears cases from individuals and businesses that can no longer pay their creditors. All bankruptcy cases are handled in federal court, not state court. Bankruptcy cases may first be appealed to either District Court or to the Bankruptcy Appellate Panel. Certain cases may next qualify for review by the Circuit Courts, but only with the permission of the US Solicitor General. Cases that involve constitutional issues may appeal from the Circuit Court to the US Supreme Court; however, if the Supreme Court grants cert, it will only consider the constitutional or legal aspect of the case.

Other Article I Courts

Article I courts and tribunals have limited jurisdiction over special subject matter, and are designed to adjudicate issues between US citizens and residents and specific departments within government. Some examples are Social Security Disability Appeals, US Court of Veterans Claims, US Bankruptcy Court, US Tax Court, US Tax Court, US Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, etc.

Although these courts are part of a different branch of government, some may have their decisions appealed to the Supreme Court.

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10y ago

A Federal Court in the United States is charged with hearing cases that involve Federal laws. As an example, a person charged with sedition, a Federal crime will be tried in a Federal court.

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Navees ali

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11mo ago
This is a ammazing.this is a very helpful.
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charlie

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9mo ago
A federal court is a court that is established by the United States federal government to hear cases involving federal law.

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9y ago

The federal court system comprises the Supreme Court, circuit courts of appeal, and district courts. There are also specialized federal courts.

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Continue Learning about American Government

When a plaintiff sues the federal government for monetary damages which court hears the case?

US Court of Federal Claims would hear those cases.


What is the highest court in the state or federal court system of which it is part?

The highest court in the federal system is the United States Supreme Court, with nine Supreme Court Justices. The states do not share jurisdiction with the federal court, so the states courts are not a part of the federal court system. Each state decides what it calls its highest court. In Texas, there is a separate court for civil versus criminal cases.


What is the court between district and Supreme Court?

The hierarchy of federal courts is District Court, Court of Appeals, US Supreme Court. So, the Court of Appeals is the answer. At least if your quest is only specifying the federal judiciary.


What are differences between constitutional federal courts legislative federal courts and the supreme court?

Constitutional federal courts are either created or allowed to be created under Article III of the Constitution. For instance, federal district courts and circuit court of appeals are Constitutional federal courts. The Supreme Court also falls under the category of Constitutional Federal Courts and it is the highest court in America. Legislative federal courts, on the other hand, are established by Congress using implied power. For instance, the Court of Military Appeals is a legislative federal court.


Which court was formerly known as the US court of claims?

Court of Federal Claims

Related questions

What courts are in the federal court system?

federal district court, federal court of appeals court,and the U.S. supreme court.


Which federal court has original jurisdiction over most cases that are heard in federal court?

Federal trial courts almost always have original jurisdiction in the federal system.


What is the federal juvenile court is called?

There is no federal juvenile court


Lawsuits involving the constitution or federal law are typically started in what federal court?

federal court


Federal government's legal cases are heard in what court?

the Federal Court.


What is federal court released on PTA?

federal court released on pta


What is an example sentence using the words federal court?

you use federal court as a noun. For example, The federal court kicked him out. Federal court is a subject and a subject is always a noun or pronoun.


Are patent rights cases heard in federal court?

Yes, it is a federal court.


When was Federal Court - Canada - created?

Federal Court - Canada - was created in 2003.


Which court hears cases that claim damages against the US?

The US Court of Federal Claims. It is located in Wasshington DC.


Which court allows citizens to sue the government for financial compensation?

Court of federal claims A+


Is the US Court of Federal Claims considered a lower court in the federal court system?

Yes, the US Court of Federal Claims has original jurisdiction over monetary claims against the federal government. While it is, technically, a "lower federal court," it is not part of the Judicial Branch, but part of the Legislative Branch.