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Progressivism was based on the idea that government could be used to better society. They wanted government control/regulation of the economy. They wanted to reform the wealthy and very poor. They wanted to educate immigrants, and fair work for the wealthy. They were trying to find middle ground. There are four main themes of progressivism. The first was democracy. They wanted people to have more say in the government and wanted more majority rule, direct primaries for presidential candidates, initiatives (progressive attempts to force legislatures to deal with controversial issues), referendums (the initiatives that get enough signatures to get on the ballot), direct election of senators and the 17th amendment said that they should be responsible for the people that elect them), and recall (the right to recall politicians that are not doing their job). Efficiency was another theme of progressivism. They wanted educated technocrats to run business because it would take emotion and politics out of big business and the most qualified people would be the ones in control. They also wanted a city management plan (a movement that wanted the city manager to be well educated. They wanted these positions to be appointed based on education, experience and ability to do the job. It was also to prevent corruption. Regulations and social justice are the last themes of progressivism. They wanted better hours and conditions, state child labor laws, wanted on average 10 hour work days and safe conditions. They wanted workmens comp. There were 3 ways that corporations got out of paying workmens comp. They said that if a worker was injured due to a fellow servant that he was responsible for what others do wrong so. There was also the assumption of risk and refused to pay because they worker was aware of the job they are doing and possible risks/injures. Contributory negligence was another reasons corporations refused to pay workmens comp. In many places women started the progressive movement. The lives of middle class women were changing (college and more time on their hands having fewer children). Maternalism was also popular during this period. Women were the nurturers and caretakers. They were getting out in the community to lobby against alcohol, etc. Some issues they focused on were helping the poor (i.e settlement houses), prohibition (i.e Women's Christian Temperance Movement), voting rights (by 1910 4 western states allowed women to vote because they are pure and won't bring corruption to the system. Birth Control was another focus of the women's issues as well as labor laws (i.e Mueller V Oregon). Under Theodore Roosevelt, the power of presidency grew. Under health regulations he created the Pure Food and Drug act (government had the ability to inspect prescriptions and contents in medications) and the Meat Inspection Act ( gave the government the right to make sure the meat was safe). Roosevelt also created the department of commerce and labor and was known as a trust buster. The Elkins Act of 1903 regulated big business and it was the first time the fed government can impose fines on the Railroad companies. The Hepburn Act gave the ICC the power to set maximum rates the Railroad companies could charge. He also expanded the navy and created the Great White Fleet. Wilson contributed to progressivism by creating the Federal Child labor law which prohibited interstate shipments of goods produced by children under 16. He created the Farm Loans Rural Credit Act which can proved low interest loans from government based on amount of crop they produced. The Adamson Act created an 8 hour workday for all railroad employees and he also created workmen's comp for all federal employees. The power of the federal government expanded dramatically. The Railroad was nationalized and Industry and Agriculture became regulated by the federal government. The government set quotas on production and the government controlled the wages. This was a progressive idea because the government regulation of the good of the population.

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Q: What was the main idea behind behind progressivism and why was it necessary?
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