Scientists use their eyes where the layers have risen above ground and drill core samples to bring to the surface to study. Scientists use GPS tracking to study plate tectonics.
by studying how seismic waves refract as they pass through different material.
It is a right-lateral strike-slip fault
The black spots on the photosphere of the sun are called sunspots.
The lithosphere and the asthenosphere.
the suns gravitational pull is strongest because the earth is at its closest point to the sun.
The cubes of the average distances of the planets from the sun is proportional to the squares of their periods.
in the core
They cannot determine which point along a fault has the most pressure.
These will form reverse or thrust faults.
The earth's plates drifted on hot molten material...