History of the United States

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Trent Rodriguez

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βˆ™ 2021-11-10 19:35:41
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Cards in this guide (28)
What was the Trail of Tears

In 1830 President Andrew Jackson signed into law "The Indian Removal Act" which allowed or authorized the removal of the "Five Civilized Tribes" (Cherokee, Choctaw, Muscogee (Creek), Chickasaw and Seminole) to "Indian Territory" (modern day Oklahoma).
In 1831 combined army, militia, and volunteer forces began to move these tribes along one of several routes to two forts located in Indian Territory: Fort Gibson and Fort Townson. The last tribe moved were the Cherokee in 1838. It should be noted that some tribes accepted bribes of money and or lands, while others did not and were forced under the threat of death - some of these rebelled resulting in armed conflict. During the move there were several way stations along the route, but not all had proper provisioning. For various reasons (from bad planning or indifference to intentional lack of concern, to malfeasant action), many Indians were not allowed or given access to proper food, medical supplies, warm clothing, nor allowed to rest for any significant period of time, which resulted in the deaths of many tribal members. These deaths were exacerbated by the untended dead left along the trail.
The native Americans began to call this trail or series of trails, the "Trail where they Wept / Cried" and it has been changed a little to "The Trail of Tears" by modern translation. The Arkansas Gazette quoted Thomas Harkins (a Choctaw) as saying "[it was] a trail of tears and death"
There were approximately 11 of these trails, taken by different tribes based upon location. They ranged in distance from 200 to 900 miles and went through 14 states (These distances do not include oversea travel):

  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Kentucky
  • Tennessee
  • Georgia
  • Alabama
  • Louisiana
  • Florida
  • Texas
  • Oklahoma
  • Arkansas
  • Missouri
  • Mississippi
  • Illinois

The number of dead are only estimates, as there was no accurate count taken:
  • Choctaw: 2,500 to 6,000
  • Muscogee (Creek): No estimate
  • Chickasaw: No Estimate - paid $530,000 dollars
  • Cherokee: 4,000 to 15,000
The Seminole resisted movement and started a 'minor' war with the US. The first detachment of 110 US soldiers sent to move the Seminole were attacked and 107 were killed. The government marshaled 500 soldiers against the Seminole and the war lasted for 10 years, costing the US Government 20 million dollars. The US eventually gave up hunting through the swamps of Florida for stragglers. There are no other estimates of dead, on either side.

African American Slaves either as freedmen, as members of the tribes by marriage, or as slaves of the Indians, were forced to move with the Indians at this same time. The inclusion of these families led to the current conflicts of "[the] Freedmen" of the Cherokee nation.

*Please note that this is not intended to be an all-inclusive answer, it is a basic answer to the questions on the subject and could be expanded into a very large book.
When did women earn voting rights in US


What is a pull factor

a reason to go somewhere

When did the second great awakening end

The Second Great Awakening was in decline by the 1830s.

What did Stephen A Douglas think about slavery

Stephen Douglas supported popular sovereignity, also called squatter sovereignity, which stated that each territory had the right to determine if they would accept slavery or not.

How do you use pull factor in a sentence

The Pull factor pull factored the pull factor.

How did the laws of Georgia affect the Cherokee

The laws allowed the Indians to be treated badly.

Why did plantation owners support racism

Plantation owners supported and propagated racism to justify owning people as slaves.

What was one cause of the Panic of 1819

One cause of the Panic of 1819 was that fewer exports going from America to Europe.

Why was cotton called a cash crop

it brought in alot of money

What is one reason that many Americans were opposed to new immigrants

people felt that they would take away American jobs

What helped the Cherokee survive on the Trail of Tears

They hunted game to eat (Apex 2020)

What might have made the movement of the Cherokee less terrible

Moving during a different time of year

Why did slaveholders try to convince poor whites that slavery was justified

needed their political support

Which of these led to slaves becoming more valuable than before

cotton gin

What was a difficulty of cotton production

Cotton gins wore out the soil.

Which idea specifically favors native born Americans over recent immigrants


The second wave of immigration was mostly made up of immigrants from

irish and german.

Most immigrants to the united states

gathered in ethnic communities

Throughout the 1800s how did the price of Cotton change

The price decreased.

What was the rapid growth of US cotton production between 1800 and 1860

Increased ties between farming and industry (APEX)

What was a effect of the rapid growth of mills in the north

All of the above.

US cotton exports supplied fiber for clothing and in turn

encouraged worldwide industrial development

Why was one reason for the growth of the domestic slave trade

The international slave trade ended /apex

Planters moved from the Old South to the Deep South to do what

find new land

Slaves increased their personal support by:

Building extended families. (APEX)

What was the cotton gin

A machine that removed seeds from cotton (APEX)

What is racism

The belief the one race is better than another ~ apex

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