Distracting the attention of the garrison commander by ordering a cavalry raid right down through the state of Mississippi, while Grant managed to get his men across to the East bank of the river, unnoticed.
The Battle of Vicksburg began at the end of March, 1863, as Union forces defeated Confederate General Pemberton in several encounters, forcing his to begin a withdrawal to the relative safety of the fortress city of Vicksburg. On May19 and May 22, Union forces began attacks on the city, with little success. The Union had 177 dead in the first attack and more than 500 in the second, while doing almost no damage to the Confederates.
On May 25, General Grant began encircling the city tightly with his 35,000 men. Troops were drawn from surrounding states when Grant felt his ring was not tight enough, eventually bringing his strength to 77,000. The Confederates made a number of attacks from outside the fortress against Grant's forces but were defeated in each attempt to break the siege.
On July 3, after 40 days of siege, with no remaining food, Pemberton sent a note to Grant offering to surrender the following day. Grant permitted parole of nearly all the 30,000 men who surrendered, and most of them broke the parole by rejoining the Confederate Army.
This concerns the Vicksburg campaign in the American Civil War. This campaign occurred later in the War Between the States and was designed to capture the city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. This town, called the Gibraltar of the South, was the one remaining obstacle to total Union domination of the Mississippi River. The actual siege and surrender of Vicksburg occurred from May 18 to July 4, 1863. Major General U.S. Grant commanded the Union forces while Confederate Lieutenant General J.C. Pemberton led the defense of Vicksburg. General Grant made several attempts to attack Vicksburg before finally laying siege to it. The Battle of Champion's Hill was fought outside of Vicksburg, which resulted in General Pemberton bringing his forces into the breastworks around Vicksburg. Vicksburg is located on an area of very rugged, clay bluffs that overlook the Mississippi River. The Confederate guns could fire on any ship that tried to come down the river. One attempt to capture Vicksburg in March of 1863, Grant blew the levee on the Mississippi River just below Memphis and sent iron-clad gunboats and troop ships down the Tallahatchie River which would connect to the Yazoo River and attack the city from the east. This expedition was stopped at Fort Pemberton(at Greenwood, MS) at the juncture of the Tallahatchie & Yazoo Rivers. Custermen
Vicksburg isolated the southern states west of the Mississippi from the states in the Deep South. It also allowed Federal forces to turn their attention to destroying the infrastructure of the South to hasten the end of the war.
No, he did not fight in the West.
The Confederate garrison at Vicksburg was commanded by John C. Pemberton, under overall command of Joseph E. Johnston, whose orders were often in conflict with those of the Confederate president Jefferson Davis.
On the day Vicksburg surrendered, Lee was engaged in the Battle of Gettysburg.
In the context of the American Civil War, the important city 40 miles east of Vicksburg, Mississippi, is Jackson. Capital of Mississippi and an important assembly-point for Confederate troops, it was in 1862 and 1863 a key position for both the Union and Confederate armies in the struggle to control Vicksburg to the west.
The North had a better Railway system, because they were the industrial part of the nation then. The South did have some railways but they only extended so far south, and they had NO branches off of them.
Pemberton led the southern Army of Mississippi. Grant led the U.S. Army of the Tennessee.
soz dunt knoww
The only significance of Vicksburg was the propaganda value the Northern press made of it. In fact the several failed attempts to capture Vicksburg showed that the Union armies of the West were inept at best for their foolish bayou campaigns to capture a city that had no logistical or military value. The western part of the Confederacy had ports in Texas and the use of Mexico and its ports to go it alone. The Union had to now garrison troops to hold Vicksburg. Union cargo was insignificant regarding the Mississippi. Military use of the river did not help win the war. lle refused to support it and western theater Confederate generals believed that Middle Tennessee was more important. The fact that Pemberton was placed in charge of Vicksburg gives one an idea of its importance. Pemberton was a least of all the South's generals.
Command of the Mississippi River; which also cuts the Confederacy in half, if the North wins it.
About 38,000 casulties; the Union had around 5,000 and the Confederacy had around 33,000. The Confederacy also had 30,000 people surrender.
The Siege of Vicksburg (May-July 1863) split the Confederacy by giving control of the Mississippi River to the Union forces. The city and as many as 30,000 soldiers surrendered on July 4, 1863.
The South suffered two disastrous defeats within days of one another. Meade forced Lee to abandon his invasion of the North, and Grant opened up the Mississippi River Valley to complete federal control.
Grant's tenacity was the biggest factor. After having a frontal assault beaten back, Grant decided to isolate the city and place it under siege. He realized that he had to prevent Confederate forces from reinforcing Vicksburg; so he attacked and drove off all the forces to the East of the city. Finally, he cut himself off from his supply lines and marched through the swamps and bayous to approach Vicksburg from the landward side while the Union navy river fleet bombarded it from the river. Once Vicksburg was surrounded, Grant bombarded the city and starved it into submission. It turned out to be a microcosm of how victory was gained over the entire South.
I don't think it was much of a major battle. I'm gonna say small amounts of cannons, many soldiers used muskets from their own homes, gatling guns (hand cranked machine guns with 6 or 8 barrels), probably a little bit of fire, I'd say the same as any other battle.
The total killed and wounded during the three days of the Battle of Gettysburg was around 52,000. It took 6 months to bury the dead that could be found. National Park Rangers were still finding skeletal remains in the Culp's Hill area as late as 2006.
They were both sieges.
Vicksburg campaign in the American Civil War, the fighting (Nov., 1862-July, 1863) for control of the Mississippi River. The Union wanted such control in order to split the Confederacy and to restore free commerce to the politically important Northwest. New Orleans and Memphis fell to Union forces in the spring of 1862, but an attempt to take Vicksburg, Miss., by water failed (May-June). As a result the South still held 200 mi (320 km) of the river between Port Hudson, La., and Vicksburg. Early in Nov., 1862, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant , commanding the Dept. of the Tennessee, planned a converging assault on Vicksburg; Gen. William T. Sherman led an expedition down the river from Memphis to attack the city from the north, while Grant himself advanced overland from the east. However, Confederate cavalry under Earl Van Dorn and Nathan B. Forrest cut Grant's line of communications, forcing him to retreat, and Sherman was repulsed in the battle of Chickasaw Bluffs (Dec. 29, 1862). In Jan., 1863, Grant concentrated his army across the river from Vicksburg. He took over the command of John A. McClernand , who had succeeded Sherman. After several unsuccessful experiments to gain an approach to the seemingly impregnable city (Feb.-Mar., 1863), Grant in April began a brilliant movement to take it from the south. To divert the attention of the Confederate commander, John C. Pemberton , Grant left Sherman before the city and ordered a cavalry raid through central Mississippi. On the night of Apr. 16-17, David Dixon Porter ran gunboats and transports down the river past Vicksburg, and in the following days Grant marched his army south to meet the fleet and be transported across the river at Bruinsburg (c.30 mi/48 km S of Vicksburg). On May 1, McClernand and James B. McPherson defeated the Confederates at Port Gibson, forcing them to abandon their batteries at Grand Gulf, which Grant seized as a base. When Sherman joined him on May 7, 1863, Grant left Grand Gulf, marched northeast, and on May 12 defeated the Confederates at Raymond. At Jackson (May 14), he met Gen. Joseph E. Johnston , Confederate commander in the West, who retreated. Turning west toward Vicksburg, Grant defeated Pemberton in successive battles (May 16, 17) at Champion's Hill and at the bridge over the Big Black River, forcing him back into Vicksburg. After two unsuccessful attempts at storming the city's fortifications, Grant opened siege. With the Union forces between them, Pemberton and Johnston were unable to unite, and after about six weeks of gallant resistance Vicksburg's defenders surrendered on July 4, 1863. The fall of Port Hudson a few days later placed the Mississippi River entirely in Union hands.
In the American Civil War's Battle of Gettysburg, the key leaders at the top level for each side were the following: On the Union side, Major General George Meade was the top commander, with a variety of capable lower-ranking officers in positions of influence during the battle. On the Confederate side, General Robert E. Lee was the top commander. Several of his corps commanders should also be mentioned, as they had important (and generally negative, as the results would show) influence on the battle: Lt. General James Longstreet and Lt. General Richard S. Ewell.
Even though he was undermanned and poorly supplied, Pemberton had superior position. The main reason for the surrender was that he could not feed and protect the civilian population. Had he been able to ignore or expel them, and only worry about his forces, he may have been able to hold out until a relieving force could have rescued him.
In setting up his armies towards the goal of capturing Vicksburg, it was inevitable that Grant's forces would first come into contact with civilians living outside of the city. With good honor he forbid his troops from entering into anyone's home. He also wanted his troops to live off the land and not to take supplies from the people with them. He also forbade the robbery of peoples personal effects such as jewelery and clothing. While this was good policy, it was not all good in that there were conditions not favorable to all Southern civilians. This of course was a war, however, and Grant's troops were ordered to destroy all crops of wheat and corn and farming implements. Horses and mules could be confiscated to support Union troops. Generally speaking, Grant was aware that his superior officer, General Halleck, would not approve of these measures, however, as per his memoirs, he wrote that by the time Halleck found out about this it would be all but too late. Still hoping to force the surrender of Vicksburg by attacking it, Grant mounted one more assault on it.
This was on May 22. He believed that this would force Vicksburg's defenders to surrender rather than allowing it to be laid to siege. The Union assault failed and Grant was forced into a siege situation. This would delay matters of course, and militarily speaking, such a delay would tie up Grant's troops. The Southern civilians in the area would of course be forced to contend with a sitting foreign army which had all but destroyed everything outside of their homes.
Back in Washington DC, even at this point President Lincoln was not certain of success as he wrote in a letter.
As the fortress-city was running out of supplies, of course both soldiers and Vicksburg civilians were quite short on rations. Grant had now surrounded the city with 70,000 troops and was digging approach trenches to the city. Confederate military rations were cut to one quarter, diseases were crippling them. As for Vicksburg's civilians, there was rampant illness mostly scurvy. They were down to having the meat of rats, cats, dogs and mules in order to survive.
Grant's troops had dug beneath the city and set offexplosives, however, the defenders had kept them out of Vicksburg.
While confident of ultimate victory, Grant realized he would have a post Vicksburg problem. Mainly what to do with some 30,000 military prisoners. This would tie up his troops in their keeping or of setting up their parole.
On July 4th, Independence Day, Vicksburg surrendered. For her civilians, this was a humiliating siege. To understand how they felt, and how this siege would be remembered for future citizens of Vicksburg, the city would not celebrate the 4th of July again until 1945.