The eyes are organs. They detect light, regulate the light through a diaphragm, focuses it through adjustable lenses and converts them into electo-chemical impulses in our neurons by photoreceptor cells called rods and cones. The image is converted into a set of electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain via neural pathways that connect the eye to the optic nerve and visual cortex of the brain. In short, eyes are very complex optical systems that convert light to distinguish objects and movement around us.
Asked in Eyes, Domestic Dogs
What age do dalmatian puppies eyes change colour?
It varies from individual to individual. Some puppies will already be born with brown eyes, and some of the blue eyed bunch will never change color. Generally, if the eyes do decide they want a color change, it's a trait that happens constantly during puppy hood, albeit the changes are usually just darkening/lightening, and not actual color changes. Usually you wont see their final 'adult' color till after they are 1 year old, and even after they hit the 1 year mark, their eyes may still be changing colors. It's not unheard of for a 3 year old dog's eyes to change color with no health problems! With that all being said, if the puppy's eyes are still blue at 6 months, though there's a small change of them jumping to brown/hazle, don't get your hopes up too high, as at that stage they're likely to only change between shades of blue.
How much does LASIK eye surgery cost?
Expect to pay between $2,000 and $2,500 per eye for LASIK by a reputable surgeon. You may have seen add for the LASIK as low as $299 per eye. Don't trust them. There are a number of unscrupulous LASIK provider who use 'bait and switch' tactics by advertise prices for packages that are designed to exclude almost all cases. In fact, this is issue had gotten so bad several years ago that it warranted a congressional investigation. LASIK surgery varies in cost, and when it comes to your eyes, we would recommend considering multiple levels of pricing options. Research your surgeon options carefully and ask as many questions as it takes for you to feel comfortable with your choice. On average, a reputable LASIK procedure will cost approximately $2,000 per eye. A few points to remember about LASIK pricing: LASIK is typically quoted on a per-eye basis; each eye will typically need it's own degree of treatment. Wavefront Surgery is more expensive, but also more accurate. Beware of any promotions that claim LASIK for under $1,000 per eye; one day we may truly be there, but accuracy is obviously important to you - so pay for it! Also, ask probing questions to uncover any hidden costs. Check with your insurance company to see if any of the procedure can be covered. Some insurance companies will contribute to it, however be mindful of your deductible before filing a claim. Learn about the LASIK center; are the surgeon on-staff? If not, you will likely pay more since the surgeon is contracted. Many - but not all - of the LASIK facilities in America offer a financing option. Check with your LASIK facility to understand their policy toward financing. If you need to get financing, look at financial companies that provide short pay-back periods (3 to 4 months ideally). The average payment will range $170 - $400 per month depending upon the amount you finance. Remember, you should be putting some money down if you are electing to go this route, similar to buying a car. Beware of financial institutions that offer 0% down payments, as their interest rates (23.99% or higher) will likely keep you in debt well past what the surgery costs were. You should also check with your employer to determine if a Flexible Spending Account (FSA) is available. With some "thinking ahead" planning on your part, you can begin saving money tax-free to dedicate toward this procedure. NOTE: Not all plans offer LASIK as an option for FSA, so check with your HR administrator for details.
Asked in Eyes, Contact Lenses
How do you put your contact lenses in your eyes?
Wearers of contact lenses share their views: I use the EyePOD Contact Lens Kit to easily insert and remove my contacts. I just take the adapter, put it on the EyePOD, place a drop of water on the center of the adapter, place the adapter on the contact (my fingers never touch it anymore, no more worrying about how clean they aren't) then open my eye wide, look into the center of the adapter, and bring it to my eye, a light press, then the contact is on my eye, perfectly 1 try every time, it's pretty much the same to take them out Wash your hands very well (personally, I like to wash with lukewarm water, because it cleans better than hot) and dry them properly. After that, take the hand you feel most comfortable with and grab your contact. With you free hand, take your index finger and pull towards the sky and your thumb and pull towards the ground. Then, look down (it may seem like you're poking yourself in the eye and you could mess up) and apply the contact to your eye. Next, take the contact finger and pull your bottom lid down and make sure that the contact matches your eye or until the contact sticks to your eye. Once you have it in your eye correctly, blink (but not too hard). If it feels weird, close your eye and rub the top part, because you may have an air bubble. Your optometrist or contact lens fitter is obliged to demonstrate to you how to insert and remove lenses correctly. There are several different methods; you need to find one that will work for you. I strongly suggest that you do not follow the advice given below - if you insert or remove your lenses incorrectly, it can be very harmful to your eyes. And never take advice on solutions from anyone other than a qualified optometrist. I've seen some nasty cases of permanently damaged eyes caused by improper use of contact lenses and solutions. Your sight is precious - don't mess around with it! Add two drops of Renu solution (doctors recommend sterile saline solution) and put the lens in the eye. Since there is liquid, it will stick fast. Rotate your eyes with the eyelids completely open. That's it. It's important that you go to an optometrist and get them to show you how to look after your lenses and also how to put them in. Pull down the lower lid of your eye with your right hand and hold the top up with your left hand. Then, using the index finger of your right hand, put the contact in your eye. Wait for a second, then slowly remove your hand. The contact should stay in place on your eye. I put the left hand over the top lid and pull it up. I hold the bottom lid down and place the wet contact on my middle finger. I hold my head straight and roll my eyes to look down. I touch the lens on my eye making sure my lashes don't touch the lens. The key is looking down with my eyeball. Put an eye drop in each eye directly before placing the lens in. This will help lubricate and seal the contact to the front of the eye. I find that looking SLIGHTLY upwards helps me, but it may vary for you. Do not move your eyes until you have blinked a few times, and the contact should pretty well seat itself. If you are still experiencing difficulty, take your contacts into any glasses store, or your eye doctor, and they will show you. Bring your own solution. First, practice touching the white of your eye, but not with your fingernails! You need to do this, or you will immediately blink when you try to put the contact in your eye for the first time. I usually look towards my other eye and then touch the eye towards the outside. You really need to get comfortable doing this before you will be able to put a contact in. When I'm ready to try putting it in my eye, I also look towards my other eye and put it in towards the outside. Don't put it in over your iris. I usually put a drop or two of saline in the lens before I put it in my eye. After a couple of blinks, it will find its way over your iris. The first time you try it, you will get EXTREMELY frustrated and want to give up. The same thing goes for trying to get them out. It felt like I'd never get them in the first time.
How rare is black hair and blue eyes?
The occurrence of crossing over those two genes is more rare because they are farther apart on the chromosome than dark hair and dark eyes or light hair and light eyes; dark hair and light eyes are about as uncommon as light hair and dark eyes. Depending on the area of the world, it can be either very common or very uncommon. In some areas, like Ireland, it can be more common because when there are more people with that combination of genes procreating, it is more likely for the child to have dark hair and light eyes.
What could cause twitching in your fingers and thumb along with a strange feeling in your forearm?
I just recently experienced twitching in my thumb while trying to write. I had carpel tunnel surgery about 14 years ago and have had no problems so far till now. Just recently I also started experience pain in the middle of my hand traveling up my arm. This could all be related to the previous carpel tunnel problem. I don't know. Old axiom: "If you hear hoofbeats, suspect horses" applies here. In other words there are a myriad of injuries or diseases that cause what you describe, so odds are it's likely this is a repetitive motion injury. If you have insurance that does not require a referral, go straight to a neurologist, because you are describing something that involves a nerve trauma or change. If you need a referral, (unfortunately, most specialists do even if your insurance does not) call your primary care doctor and ask for one rather than visit the PC doc because you will be wasting your money. Insist on it. He or she cannot help you; you need very specific tests having to do with how and why those nerves are malfunctioning. A family practice doc simply isn't equipped and you've already wasted your money. You need a neurologist to start with some simple tests to rule out the most common causes (carpal tunnel as you and many here have stated) down to a complicated condition known as Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (or regional pain dystrophy was the old name). Paula Abdul has this condition and it makes me sick when people ridicule her. The condition is so severe she requires non-narcotic medication, but it starts with tingling and numbness due to nerve injury (in her case, dancing). There is also a genetic condition that can cause your symptoms and it starts in the shoulder and/or rib area. Parkinson's Disease starts this way, too, as does some forms of epilepsy. Family history and the type of work/play you do (diabetes? stroke? heart attack? autoimmune diseases? long hours on the x-box?) is most important for the physician to know. You are describing a type of neuropathy and your answers to the doctor may lead to a clinical diagnosis. Educate yourself about the difference between a clinical diagnosis or one made by an exact fact or set of exact, indisputable facts. Have you ever used street drugs? Doc needs to know. It's imperative to be completely honest with the doctor. If he or she passes judgment, fire the idiot. That's not a part of the oath. Tests are numerous so if a clinical diagnosis is not made right away, be prepared. Some tests can be done in the office like nerve conduction tests, fasting blood sugar, specialized urine tests, basic blood work that will look for vitamin, mineral, numerous factors that are out of the norm as other writers have noted correctly. Other tests must be performed at an outpatient facility, like a spinal tap, MRI (to rule out a brain tumor, spinal cord, or disc disease or injury), sophisticated blood work that require supervision (like NPO, brain wave studies, etc). Most important, don't ignore your symptoms. There's a 99% chance they are caused by repetitive motion and will heal on their own by a change in the way you use your arm. You need to know, though, and the sooner the better. If you find yourself down the road with no answers, get to a Pain Management doctor (usually an anesthesiologist). Not so much for the pain, but these physicians simply will not treat a patient for pain without knowing what is causing it. Therefore, they tend to be the best and most gifted diagnosticians out there. An added bonus is that they truly don't care to see patients suffer and are devoted to finding solutions/answers. There are a number of conditions that could possibly cause the feelings you are describing. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is certainly one of them, however, depending on symptoms, CTS can be easily ruled out by a qualified Physician. The problem in your hand and arm could be more proximally located and could be a result of a cervical radiculopathy or other cervical pathology e.g. spondylolisthesis, or cervical stenosis. The twitching may also be a result of a systemic imbalance in electrolytes that can cause cramping and/or pain. Also, consider that muscle twitching is a normal part of human physiology as the muscles may spontaneously depolarize for any number of reasons. Overall lesson, go to a doctor and recognize that most of what's on this website is anecdotal and should not be trusted. Yes, to some extent it is true that carpal tunnel can be a major cause of twitching in the forearm. But it can be caused by the nutritional deficiencies too like hypocalcaemia (and hypomagnesemia) i.e. calcium deficiency is the most usual cause which leads to twitching. It can be caused by many things. Certainly many of the above things that been listed, but also Multiple Sclerosis, or ALS (or Motor Neuron Disease) in rare circumstances. ALS has an incidence of approximately 1 in 100,000 and generally strikes around the age of 50. Please get this checked out by a neurologist. The most pertinent advice offered so far is for you to have an evaluation by your primary care doctor. Pending your doctor's evaluation you may require a consultation with a specialist known as a neurologist. While there are a variety of conditions that can cause your symptoms, 'intention' or 'positional' tremor should be added to the list already offered (i.e. electrolyte imbalance, neck or cervical problems, and various neurological disorders including Multiple Sclerosis(MS) or Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) This is why you should begin your evaluation with your primary care doctor who, through physical exam, laboratory testing and possible radiographic imaging, can either provide you a diagnosis or an appropriately directed referral to a specialist who can provide further insight into the cause of your condition.
Asked in Eyes
How do you prevent bloodshot eyes?
Bloodshot eyes, There are several causes for bloodshot eyes including alergy- so avoid eye makeup and skin products. Avoid alchol, could you be alergic to a pet? Cats can often cause this reaction. There are several over-the-counter products you can buy today that can help clear up red, tired eyes. You can use some of these products every now and then to help clear up bloodshot eyes. But, if you use them too much, you can get a condition called, "Rebound Hyperemia." Eye drops that contain the chemicals tetrahydrozaline or naphazoline are the culprits. These chemicals work by constricting the blood vessels in your eyes. This reduction helps eliminate the redness. However, use drops that contain these chemicals too often and your eyes will be more bloodshot than they already were! Why? Because your eye muscles will weaken because of the constant constriction. To help relieve a mild case of bloodshot eyes, use this homemade treatment: close your eyes and splash cold water several times onto your eyelids. The cold water will help the blood vessels to constrict. The water will also help cool and lubricate your eyes. Hope you cure them!
Asked in Eyes, Dog Health
Is the black line around the iris band in a dogs eye bad?
Asked in Eyes
Does anyone have black eyes?
It is commonly held that black does not truly exist in nature, and that anything appearing black is merely a very dark colour (brown, for instance). The truth is that black is simply the absence of light, and if something is perceived as dark enough to appear black, then so long as the lighting conditions are unchanged, to all intents and purposes, the object (or its pigment) is indeed black. We can produce black inks, yet viewed under light of an appropriate frequency, even these pigments may appear some other colour, or even fluoresce brightly. So, in short, no - black eye colour does not technically exist... but some people have eyes so dark in colour that the iris cannot be determined from the pupil, appearing entirely black to all observers in natural or moderate light. It would not be entirely inappropriate to describe their eye colour as black. Several celebrities provide excellent examples of irises that appear almost enirely black, including Eva Longoria, Lucy Liu, Tiger Woods, and David Mitchell. Of course, Kermit the Frog's eyes are about as black as they get...
How do fish sleep without eyelids?
Sleep is a state of rest for the body wherein functions not required for merely keeping the body alive are generally reduced to some degree. It's often difficult to determine the neurological states of nonhuman animals, so the answer to that question involves a little guesswork. In the case of fish, it can be presumed that sight functionality is dealt with similarly to the way we deal with being unable to shut off our hearing while sleeping: unremarkable input is generally ignored by the brain, but something that grabs attention will cause sudden alertness. For instance, the sound of the house creaking might not wake you up, but a sudden bang will. This is helpful for survival and in an aquatic environment where a predator might come from any direction and make little or no sound as you sleep, lacking eyelids so that such visual input would alert your brain to jump to readiness could be the difference between continued life and becoming a meal.
Asked in Eyes, Contact Lenses
How do you put contacts in your eyes for the first time?
Asked in Eyes, Cat Products, Cat Behavior
What happens if honey gets in your eyes?
You just rush to the tap and wash it off or better yet if you happen to have warm water nearby the better, it makes the honey soften and easy to clean off. Honey is acidic and could give you a pink eye if you don't wash it off immediately. Make sure you use lots of water but don't rub your eyes too hard, just softly to allow it to flow without force (assuming its not a whole jar in your eye).