Lymphatic System

This category is for questions about the various vessels by which lymph, a watery fluid of leukocytes, circulates through the body, providing transportation for some materials and removing particulate from tissues.

4,415 Questions
Lymphatic System

What is the primary glands of the lymph system?

Thymus

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Lymphatic System
Toddlers

What causes raised lymphocytes and enlarged lymph nodes in toddlers?

To add-my son is 18 months old, and has had enlarged lymph nodes in his neck since birth. They are so large you can see them from across the room. His doc ordered a CBC and initially it came back with a total WBC count of 12.47 and lymphocyte count of 8.48. He said the WBC should have been around 10 and the lymphocyte around 4. Then a month later his WBC was 16.15 and lymphocyte at 8.08. Now a week later, his WBC is back down to 12.5, but his lymphocyte count raised back to 8.78. The only other thing he said was off was his MCH (mean count hemoglobin??) at 25.3 which was a little low. All his other types of cells are normal, including his other WBC types. At first he said he was concerned with his number of lymphocytes being so high, and now he is saying it might just be an infection that is getting better. Is it normal for your WBC to go down but your lymphocyte number to increase? Everywhere I read about it your lymphocyte number should be within 20-40% of your total WBC count.

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Lymphatic System

Are lymph node clusters in the groin common?

Every body, has lymph nodes in there groin. It is not normal for them to be swollen though. If they are swollen, your body is trying to fight of an infection. thankfully It is rarely anything serious.

105106107
Science
Lymphatic System
Immune System

Why is the horses immune system important?

Their immune system is important because without it they would die of bacteria infesting it. Same thing with all living things.

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Lymphatic System

What does lymph transport depend on to function?

Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

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Chemistry
Lymphatic System

What are the advantages of glycogen as an energy storage molecule in the body?

So that it can be accessed at any given time. i.e. emergencies.

glucose is stored in our bodies as glycogen so that it doesn't affect osmosis.

909192
Conditions and Diseases
Back Neck and Spine
Lymphatic System

Is it serious if you have a 15-2cm enlarged lymph node under your jawline on the right side of your neck that hurts when you press on it and has been there for 4 months even if you've seen 5 doctors?

What did the 5 Dr.'s say. And if it is still bothering you I would continue until I found a Dr. that could tell me what to do and exactly what it is.Have you tried emergency room yet? That would be my next step. I have the same thing under my jaw for almost 2 years now. I just started getting strange pains in my neck and numbness. I went to the Dr last week and he put me on antibiotics. He said its called lymphitis. I go back to him in a week. I'm so scared that I have cancer. He didnt take a bllod test or anything yet so maybe at my next visit. I'll let you know what happens.

929394
Genetics
Blood
Lymphatic System
Immune System

Where do lymphocytes become immunocompetent t cells?

thymus Gland

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Health
Lymphatic System
Immune System

What is primary immune response?

The immune response occurring on the first exposure to a foreign material in the body.

This reaction is by both the innate and acquired immune system, the innate acting first (non specific) and the acquired developing to produce antibodies and T killer cells specific to the invading microorganism.

The innate immune system (that which is always active and is non specific) primarily involves neutrophils, a type of white blood cell specialised to release many different chemicals for signalling and is able to phagocytose (engulf and digest) foreign materials such as bacteria. On doing this is dies. At a site of infection under microscopy you will see lots of dead neutrophils, they are the main component of pus. Another of the primary responses is swelling, caused by vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels in the area/site of the tissue and cell damage.
When undergoing an innate response it is (unless caused by an autoimmune disease) a response to cell damage. When cells are damaged (such as by trauma, virus or bacterium) they release arachidonic acid, which is used by neutrophils when present to create substances to help vasodilate and increase the permeability of venule and capillary walls near the area. This is acute inflammation and initial neutrophil response. Coagulation factors and increased platelet synthesis also occurs (responsible for sealing off bleeding and creating a barrier if necessary to temporarily replace skin lost at the site of the wound).

The acquired response is a specific response based on the invading material. If a bacterium or virus is present and detected, macrophages will engulf and digest it, and present antigens/epitopes of the invader on their surface and 'alert' the B and T lymphocytes using these. The B and T cells reside in lymph nodes. The B-lymphocytes with the correct paratopes (receptors) will differentiate to memory cells and generate antibodies specific to shapes on its surface (antigens/epitopes) which will agglutinate and help destroy the invading cells or organisms.The T killer cells will destroy affected cells, T helper cells will assist B cells in multiplying and differentiating to plasma cells, that can then produce the specific antibodies.

The secondary response involves mainly memory cells, this is the response that occurs on the second entrance of a microorganism or virus that has been encountered before and dealt with by the primary response. I mentioned that B cells differentiate to plasma cells when triggered by the macrophages presenting the foreign epitopes (recognition sites). Well they also differentiate into long lived memory cells. Memory cells can differentiate straight into plasma cells in the secondary response and produce antibodies straight away without having to wait for the macrophages to present and B cells to multiply and so on. This makes the secondary response faster, more efficient, more specific and produce more antibodies in total. This is the theory of vaccinations, you will develop memory cells specific to the injected material so that if you contract the microorganism or virus in a real situation you will be able to kill it off before it accumulates to a serious level.

See a graph for a visual explanation. It takes less time and has more antibodies generated during the secondary response that the first.

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Medical Insurance
Lymphatic System
Immune System

Which gland stimulates the immune system?

Thymus

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Blood
Lymphatic System
Immune System

A hormone that aids in the maturation of T lymphocytes?

Thymosin

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Blood
Lymphatic System
Immune System

What would having High neutrophils low lymphocytes and high monocytes mean?

lymphocytic leukemia

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Domestic Dogs
Dog Health
Lymphatic System

Do dogs have lymph nodes?

Yes, dogs have lymph nodes--as do all, mammals. I'm not absolutely sure that most animals (reptiles and fish included), don't all have lymph nodes, but your question was about dogs. Being that the lymph nodes are necessary, as part of the infection fighting system of a mammal. Blood gets filtered through the lymph node, and some of the infectious stuff gets destroyed. Check out this page: http://www.peteducation.com/dict_alpha_listing.cfm?cls=0#L Scroll down to Lymph Node, and see the definition. Also, just as in humans, dogs can get cancer of the lymph node. I have no idea how common the disease is in dogs, you would need further research. For a site which discusses lymph nodes problems and dogs, see this site: http://www.vetinfo4dogs.com/dlymph.html

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Biology
Blood
Lymphatic System
Immune System

Its name means neutral-loving a phagocyte?

neutrophil

858687
Conditions and Diseases
Blood
Lymphatic System
Immune System

What causes both atypical lymphocytes and ovalocytes?

Atypical lymphocytes - are caused by viral infections, may be noted in lymphocytic leukemia, and may be seen in allergies.

Ovalocytes are typically seen in cases of low hemoglobin or red blood cells counts, ie anemia. Sometimes even a slight decrease in rbc counts may cause a few ovalocytes to be seen.

Sometimes the lab tech reads the smear too closely noteing any ovalocyte or atypical lymph seen but the numbers are not actually a high enough percentage to be considered abnormal.

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Lymphatic System

Can you have swollen lymph nodes in groin area from shingles?

Yes, definitely, if the skin infection is affecting the inguinal area.

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Lymphatic System

What is lymph?

When capillaries flow through tissues everyone knows they give off nutrients and oxygen into the Interstitium (the space between cells) from which the cells pick them up. In the interstitium is a fluid called Interstitial Fluid which is very similar to blood plasma. As the blood flows though the capillaries much of the plasma travels through the vessel wall and into the interstitium (due to complicated laws of physics). Only a fraction of this fluid returns to the blood and the rest remains in the interstitium, increasing the pressure in the tissues and drastically decreasing the blood pressure. This is where the lymph vessels come in. They pick up this eccess fluid and transport it back, eternally, to the Vena Cava so it rejoins the blood supply. Therefore lymph, the fluid in lymph vessels, is basically a fluid of roughly the same composition as blood plasma.

Lymph nodes are famous for their role in the Immune System. Structures called Lymph Nodes which produce cells called Lyphocytes. These have many and various function in the immune system. They get into the blood by following the flow of lymph into the vena cava and join the blood supply here.

or for a very simple answer lymph=tissue fluid

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Conditions and Diseases
Pathology
Lymphatic System

What is the purpose of a lymph node biopsy?

The purpose of a lymph node biopsy is to determine the cause of the swelling and/or to see if cancer has begun to spread through the lymph system.

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Lymphatic System
Immune System

Which condition occurs when on or more parts of the immune system are missing or not functioning properly?

AIDS

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Human Resources
Lymphatic System
Immune System

What is the purpose of the human leukocyte antigen test?

The HLA test is used to provide evidence of tissue compatibility typing of tissue recipients and donors. It is also an aid in genetic counseling and in paternity testing.

757677
Conditions and Diseases
Laboratory Testing
Blood
Lymphatic System

What does a high lymph count mean?

I have a lymph count of 63.9 and neutrophil 24.8 Is there any danger in this?

Also my white blood count is low also - 3.3

676869
Conditions and Diseases
Asthma
Back Neck and Spine
Lymphatic System

What could be the cause of an enlarged lymph node?

something as simple as an infection and something as serious as cancer

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Lymphatic System

What is the icd 9 code for breast cancer metastatic to the axillary lymph nodes?

174.9

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Lymphatic System
Immune System

What is an excessive immune response to antigens?

Allergies

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Lymphatic System

How many women develop lymphedema after axillary lymph node removal during a mastectomy?

Approximately 10% to 20% of patients develop lymphedema after axillary lymph node removal. however if you get radiation your rate goes up to 50% and good chance of developing lymphedema

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