Akbar's last conquest was of Ahmadnagar in 1596. Ahmadnagar was led by queen Chand Bibi.
Prince Muazzam, son of Aurangzeb, was the seventh Mughal Emperor, who ascended the throne under the name Bahadur Shah (1707-1712)
The decline was gradual and although some historians blame Aurangzeb for sowing the seeds of decline, the empire continued for another 150 years after his death. There are several causes for the decline of the Mughal empire. The major reasons are:
The Mughal court was the area of the royal palace were Emperors would meet noble men, political figures, etc... to discuss political matters and other every day aspects of life in the Mughal Empire (1526-1761).
Some things that Akbar the Great did for the Mughal Empire.
Friendly alliances with hindus
Expansion of Empire
Akbar's Nine gems or Navratnas
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur, a descendant of Timur, defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat and established the Mughal Empire in India (1526).
Taj Mahal is a part of the pre-Muslim fort built by the Rajput Kings; it was not built by any Muslim but a Muslim king called Shah Jehan took it from a Rajput king Jagat Singh and remodelled it by putting two red mosques on two sides of a white temple of Siva.
The whitle marble building faces East, according to Hindu religion. There are motifs of flowers, plants which are prohibited in Islamic building. On the top dome there is lotus, cocoanut, trident, all Hindu symbol.
Like most buildings Muslims who came to India as barbarian Arab, Mongol, Turks could only convert the buildings into Mosques as they did also in Istanbul.
In 1607, Prince Khurram, also known as Shah Jahan, was betrothed to Arjumand Banu Begum who was just 14 years old at the time. She was also the niece of the famous queen of Jehangir-Nur Mahal. She would become the unquestioned love of his life. They would, however, have to wait five years before they were married in 1612, on a date selected by the court astrologers as most conducive to ensuring a happy marriage. After their wedding celebrations, Khurram "finding her in appearance and character elect among all the women of the time," gave her the title Mumtaz Mahal (Jewel of the Palace).
She is portrayed by Shah Jahan's chroniclers as the perfect wife with no aspirations to political power. This is in direct opposition to how her aunt Nur Jahan had been perceived. Mumtaz died in Burhanpur in 1631, while giving birth to their fourteenth child, a healthy baby girl.
The intervening years had seen Khurrum take other wives known as Akbarabadi Mahal (d.1677), Kandahari Mahal (b. c1594), (m.1609), Hasina Begum Sahiba (m. 1617), Muti Begum Sahiba, Qudsia Begum Sahiba, Fatehpuri Mahal Sahiba (d. after 1666), Sarhindi Begum Sahiba (d. after 1650), and Shrimati Manbhavathi Baiji Lal Sahiba (m. 1626).
According to the official court chronicler Qazwini, the relationship with his other wives "had nothing more than the status of marriage. The intimacy, deep affection, attention and favor which His Majesty had for the Cradle of Excellence [Mumtaz Mahal] exceeded by a thousand times what he felt for any other."
Hence, Emperor Shah Jahan officially had three wives.
His own son Aurangzeb imprisoned him for his empire.Shah jahan died in prison
Under Shah Jahan the Mughal architecture reached its peak. The most famous among them is the Taj Mahal which was built for his favorite wife Mumtaz Mahal. He founded a new city called the Shahjahanabad, which is now known as Old Delhi. He shifted the capital of Mughal Empire to Delhi and the Red Fort was built as the official residence of Mughal Emperors. The Jama Masjid at Delhi, Pearl Mosque at Agra and Lahore, Jahangir's Tomb at Lahore, Shalimar gardens at Lahore are some of his other well-known buildings. The famous Peacock Throne was lost followed by Nadir Shah's invasion of India.
Humayun, the second Mughal emperor, is the father of Akbar the Great or Jalal-ud-Din Muhammad Akbar.
Mumtaz Mahal died shortly after giving birth to her fourteenth child in 1631 at Burhanpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. Her fourteenth and last child Gauhar Ara Begum survived and lived up to 1706. The mausoleum of Mumtaz Mahal, popularly known as the Taj Mahal, is world famous.
Akbar made many reforms to the empire because of which he was called Akbar the Great. some of the reforms were:
Akbar was the greatest Mughal emperor because rather than ruining India he did many things for it's welfare. He opposed the discrimination between Hindus and Muslims, abolished the tax on Hindu pilgrims. So he was called great
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur laid foundation of the Mughal empire in India. The First Battle of Panipat marked the advent of Mughal rule in India. It was at Panipat on April 21, 1526 Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi.
Aurangzeb's tomb is situated at Khuldabad in Aurangabad, Maharashtra.
One of Aurangzeb's achievements was that he successfully built a large army. This enabled him to expand his military presence all along the boundaries of the empire. Another major achievement was that he was able to conquer regions to the East of the empire.
second battle of panipat
Shah Jahan is the builder of the Taj Mahal. He was put in jail by his youngest son, Aurangazeb, who was obsessed with taking over the throne and had already killed his brothers.
Kabuli Bagh Mosque, Panipat Mosque, Jama Masjid, Babri Masjid are a few monuments built by Babur. Babur had constructed several Mosques, Tombs, Madrassas and beautiful gardens in every palace and provinces.
Kabuli Bagh Mosque,Babri Masjid
The First Battle of Panipat was fought between Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur and Sultan Ibrahim Lodi on 21st April, 1526 at Panipat in Haryana, India. Sultan Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed in the battle. With this began the era of the Mighty Mughals in India.
Huge arched gateways, bulbous domes, gigantic hall rooms, and minarets are what we think of when we hear about Mughal architecture. The Mughal reign had greatly enhanced the architecture of India and gifted Indian architecture with mosques, mausoleums, and gardens. Almost all the rulers from the Mughal dynasty were great builders and they have manufactured magnificent monuments in India, which attract tourists not only from India but from different places across the globe. Mughal emperors had built fortress gardens that enhance the beauty of the buildings. Unlike his predecessor, Akbar built a riverfront garden which influenced Mughal garden architecture by his successors. The patterns of Mughal gardens were highly influenced by the Persian style of architecture with pools, fountains, and canals inside the gardens. Agra Fort, Humayun Tomb, Fatehpur Sikri, Taj Mahal, Shalimar Gardens, Shah Jahan Mosque, Badshahi Masjid. are some of the popular monuments of the Mughal empire in the Indian subcontinent
Taj Mahal Enduring Mughal Monuments like Taj Mahal still stands in all its beauty and finesse. The white marble mausoleum, Taj Mahal, is one of the seven wonders of the world and was constructed during the zenith of the Mughal dynasty by Shah Jahan to house the tomb of his favorite wife Mumtaz Mahal. Shah Jahan built this wondrous monument to dedicate the love and beauty of his dearest wife Mumtaz Mahal and to make her name immortal. The mausoleum is considered as a symbol of love. The monument stands on the right bank of river Yamuna from where it flows eastwards and spreads across an area of 42 acres with the terrain sloping from north to south. The beauty of the Taj Mahal is amplified manifold by the Taj Mahal garden which is like the Paradise garden mentioned in the Holy Quran. The garden starts from the end of the main gate and covers an area of 300 meters and ends near the base of the mausoleum. Four is considered as the holiest number in Islam and so the entire garden is divided into four parts. Two marble canals with fountains cross the center of the garden and there are 16 flowerbeds that are divided by the stone-paved raised pathways.
Qutub Minar Qutub-ud-din Aibak started the construction of this monument in 1192 and his successors Iltutmish and Firoz Shah Tughlaq completed the construction. The Minar is world heritage site in Delhi. Though not built by the Mughals, it is a great example of Mughal architecture. The great masterpiece is 72.5 meters high and the base measures 14.32 meters and the top structure measures 2.75 meters. The iron pillar in the Qutub Minar draws interest of many tourists. It is believed that if one stands with his back on the pillar and can encircle it with his arm then his wishes will be fulfilled. This monument is an exquisite example of Indo-Islamic Mughal architecture and is famous tourist place in Delhi.
Jama Masjid The mosque stands across the road in front of the Red Fort and it is the largest mosque in India. The mosque was built by the emperor who had built the magnificent Taj Mahal, Shah Jahan. This mosque is believed to be the last architectural work during the reign of Shah Jahan. Almost 5000 artisans built the mosque with red sandstone and marble. The Jama Masjid has four towers, two minarets, and three gateways. The Mosque has detailed carvings and the holy Koran is scribbled on its wall. The Masjid also has a collection of many things such as the holy Koran written on deerskin, Mohammad’s relics, the prophet’s red beared-hair, His footprints implanted in a marble block.
Red Fort Red Fort or Lal Qila is another monument of Mughal period. It served as the capital of Mughal dynasty during the rule of Emperor Shah Jahan. The fort conceived its name from the 33 meter high gigantic walls of red sandstone. There are two gates of the Red Fort viz. Lahori Gate and Delhi Gate. The Red Fort is a treasure trove of many beautiful buildings such as Diwan-i-Aam or the Hall of Public Audiences, Diwan-i-Khas or the Hall of Private Audiences, and Rang Mahal or the Palace of Colors. Emperor Shah Jahan used to hear complains of common people in the Diwan-i-Aam, Diwan-i-Khas, as the name suggests, was for his private guests. The Rang Mahal was used to be the palace of wives and mistresses of the emperor. The chief attraction of the Rang Mahal is a lotus-shaped fountain carved out of a single marble. The other attractions of the Red Fort are Moti Masjid or the Pearl Mosque; Shahi Burji, the private working area of emperor Shah Jahan; and hammams or the royal baths. The Red Fort now stands as a reminder of the magnificence and affluence of the Mughal dynasty.
Aurangzeb had five wives. They were: Dilras Banu Begum, Nawab Bai, Hira bai or Zainabadi Mahal, Aurangabadi Mahal and Udaipuri Mahal.
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