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Quantum Mechanics

Parent Category: Physics
Quantum Mechanics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of the structure and behavior of atoms and molecules. It is primarily based on Max Planck's Quantum theory, which incorporates Heisenberg's uncertainly principle and the de Broglie wavelength to establish the wave-particle duality on which Schrodinger's equation is based.
De Broglie's wavelength is expressed as h/mv where h= Planck's  constant (6.63x10-34) and mv=momentum (or mass x velocity )
The wavelength of light times the frequency of light is its speed, which is close to 2.9979*108 m/s in most mediums.
One of the quantities used to describe a system in classical  mechanics, such as the coordinates of a particle, thecomponents of  its velocity, the momentum, or functions of these quantities.
Fundamental particles such as the electron or the photon have an  intrinsic spin, and this spin can't change - for example, an  electron always has a spin of 1/2.   I don't think the Pauli equation would change that.
A Newton*Meter (N·m) is a Joule (J) and a Joule is the derived unit of energy in SI units. N=(kg*m/s^2) so a N·m=(kg*m^2/s^2)=J. An electron volt is also a quantity of energy equal to approximately 1.602×10−19 J. Correspondingly, one joule equals 6.24150974×1018 eV. By definition, it is equal...
 Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum  physics or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is  a fundamental branch of physics concerned with  processes involving, for example, atoms andphotons. Systems such as  these which obey quantum mechanics can be in a quantum...
In general, the Laplace operator in n dimensions is ∇2 = (∂/∂x1)2 + (∂/∂x2)2 + ... + (∂/∂xn)2, and the eigenfunctions are the solutions f(x1, x2, ..., xn) of the partial differential equation: ∇2f = -λf, where the eigenvalues -λ are to be determined. Often, the set of solutions...
Solids gasses and liquids should also include frequency as anelement
First, you got to understand something. A black hole is just as a  block of ice. The smaller it is the faster it melts. So speaking  scientifically the black hole releases radiation relatively faster  when its smaller than when it's bigger, which heats up the dead  star. For that reason the...
Reproduction sound attitude made by cellular reproduction
The basic idea is that elementary particles are not point like, like the Standard Model assumes, but are instead tiny strands of energy. If you want to know more about String Theory there is a very good documentary which you can look for free on the internet. It should be understandable to the...
The Higgs boson was first theorized in the 60's, and now, at CERN, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) has just reopened after some technical difficulties. This machine will collide particles up to 3.5 Tev. The hope is that in the debris, a Higgs boson will materialize, probably for a very, very short...
Niels Bohr, one of the main developers of quantum mechanics in the 1920s & 1930s.
The beat frequency is the difference of the overlapped frequencies. Thus the other frequency is either 445 or 435 Hz. For detail, read the wikipedia page on Beat(acoustics)
Please note that the "color charge" (red, green, blue, anti-red,  anti-green, anti-blue, white = neutral) of quarks is completely  unrelated to the colors we see. It's just a fancy name given to  them.   As far as I know, quantum chronodynamics doesn't analyze where  these color charges come...
QM isn't suitable for large systems as they have properties which can be seen where at the subatomic level you can say with more ease that nothing has any exact properties.
  The quantum theory of gravity is that they are made up of particles called gravitons. This theory is in the early stages, though.
Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Physics apply to so many aspects of science that, despite how radical it is, its still accepted. This is because almost all of astronomical physics and other areas of science would just collapse! For example, black holes appear to radiate energy, but a black hole (by...
E_c = 10^{18} Volt/meter Global cyrillic mode disabled
normally it is considered to be the charge on an electron. however quarks come in increments of 1/3 of this charge.
Associated with each measurable parameter in a physical system is a quantum mechanical operator. Now although not explicitly a time operator the Hamiltonian operator generates the time evolution of the wavefunction in the form H*(Psi)=i*hbar(d/dt)*(Psi), where Psi is a function of both space and...
In a word. No. Grand unification is also commonly called the Theory of everything. Which in a sense, there would exist an equation of a set of equations that every other physics equation can be derived from. A quantum theory of gravity would only help to better blend quantum mechanics and classical...
Quantum internet refers to the application of quantum cryptography  over a "quantum" network. Quantum cryptography yields unbreakable  encryption due to the uncertainty principle. The technology is  still very new and needs more research for commercialization.
Yes. Objects deeper in a gravity well see things further away as moving faster; likewise, objects far away see objects deep in the well moving more slowly. This has real consequences here on Earth: a plane flying high in the sky is in a shallower region of Earth's gravitational well, while a...
The system is doing net work.
He is famous for his two papers on relativity. Special relativity and general relativity. He is also famous for his paper on brownian motion.
There are many important quantum mechanic properties of particles. Some of them include spin, isospin, momentum, mass, rest mass, electrical charge, colour charge, quark structure (only hadrons) wave function (wave - particle duality), strangeness, interactions (electromagnetism, strong nuclear...
Wave-particle duality is how electrons can behave like either waves or particles in different situations. This is one of the fundamental things about quantum that we do not yet understand.
a free electron may absorb a photon only if its parity changes
The Speed of Light is considered infinite speed, as no matter can reach the speed of light.
In physics, a quantum is the minimum unit of any physical entity involved in an interaction. Since there is no minimum unit of time that is currently known then, no, there is no quantum time. Aside: If one thinks of the term "quantum" more colloquially then you might say that it is a unit that is...
There is a certain level of similarity between NLP & QM   NLP = Neuro-linguistic programming: This is a method invented in the 1970's by a linguist, physiologist, and anthropologist. It is a method used to change behavior, i.e. develop good habits and eliminate negative ones.It relies on the...
The following is the most correct answer- -Heisenberg's Uncertainty principles arises as one cannot find simultaneous eigenstates of conjugate operators (i.e. p and x or Lx and Ly) for atomic and subatomic objects. Because one cannot find such simultaneous eigenstates, the particle in question can...
Answer  quantum field theory, quantum electrodynamics, quantum chromodynamics, string theory   Energy is quantized
Unitary matrices leave the expectation value unchanged.We need the mixing matrix to be unitary (to preserve the mixed quarks as a basis, to preserve length);if VCKM were not unitary, it would perhaps suggest that a fourth generation ofquarks needed to be considered or included.
That their was a unit of charge, for which no smaller amount of charge could exist, was first suggested in the late 1800s. In 1896, J.J. Thomson showed that a negatively charged particle was a fundamental particle of nature -- ie, that electrons had a particle nature.Louis de Broglie, in his 1924...
The distinction is sometimes made to distinguish normal quantum mechanics (which does not incorporate special relativity) and quantum field theory (relativistic quantum mechanics). Since we know special relativity is correct it is the relativistic form of quantum mechanics which is true, but non...
A ballistic electron travels a straight course through a semiconductor without scattering off any atoms. In other words it travels through a material as if the material had no atoms in it.
A object smaller than a quark has been found but not directly. This object is the singularity at the centre of every black hole. This is a place where all the laws of physics, mathematics or anything else break down and are cast aside. Our universe in theory started with a singularity.It is the kind...
It explaines the structure of atoms, atomic nuclei , and molecules; the behaviour of subatomic particles; the nature of chemical bonds ; the properties of crystalline solids ; nuclear energy; and the forces that stabilize collapsed stars. It also led directly to the development of the laser, the...
a ballistic galvanometer is a specially designed galvanometer suitable for measuring the total quantity of electricity or charge displaced by a varying current of short duration such as charging & discharging of a capacitor >>>>
Plastic melts. Metals conduct heat energy just as well as the do electrical energy. That leaves Ceramic.
The real science behind Flashforward http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/09/17/flashforward/
Supersymmetry is a theory that says every fermion (a type of particle like protons, neutrons and electrons) has a supermassive (not sure what supermassive is) partner. Not sure about supergravity either so i think I've just raised more questions.
We now know there are are six quarks (or called flavours of quarks), which are grouped into 3 pairs (or generations); up & down, charmed & strange and top and bottom. It is these fundamental particles which form neutrons, protons etc, which are collectively known as hadrons, (it is mainly...
No. Planck's paternal great-grandfather and grandfather were both professors of theology in Göttingen. His father was a law professor in Kiel and Munich, and his paternal uncle was a judge. Planck was baptised with the name of Karl Ernst Ludwig Marx Planck.
Actually, we can't even confirm the existence of atoms, let alone subatomic particles. But when scientists conduct experiments, they come to the conclusion that the particles are indeed valid. The more discrete physics becomes, the more theoretical it is.
Negatively charged pions decay into muons and muon anti-neutrinos via the weak nuclear interaction. The probability of such a decay occurring is approximately 99.98%. Muons can also decay into electrons and electron anti-neutrinos, but the probability of such a thing occurring is only about 0.012%...
Einstein theorized that in the same why mass was energy, time was space. So, in effect, time could be nothing more than a simplification of the three dimensions we live in.
The central component of a flux capacitor is a charged dilithium crystal. This is very difficult to obtain, but the other components (pre-rearranged dark matter etc.) are quite common. Try and find a scrapped space-drone, as most of these contain a small amount of lesser, or opaque dilithium. Once...
Yes, energy can be converted into matter and vice versa. Consider the creation of an electron-positron pair in pair production by the passage of a high energy electromagnetic ray (a high energy photon) near an atomic nucleus. This is the conversion of electromagentic energy into matter. It might...
when data shows electron energy levels are not related to light wavelengths.
The mass of matter explains the warping effect of space but what gives the matter mass in the first place? Theorists say there is a large particle, which is a product of symmetry, that gives things mass. And that particle is the Higgs boson. As for gravitons, these are the (theorized) gauge bosons...
everything is both a wave and a particle. consider a baseball, we see it as only a particle because its wavelength is much too small to observe.
Yes, beta energies are "stronger" than visible light. Beta is in the x-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, placing it above visible light.
The modern theory of light states that photons of light behave as both particles and as waves. This is referred to as wave-particle duality.
There are actually two ways to do this. I'll explain how to use Rydberg's formula, though, because it's significantly simpler to use. Rydberg's Formula states: 1/(wavelength)=R (1/n1^2-1/n2^2) R= 1.097x10^7m^-1 (this is Rydberg's constant so you can look this up) n1=nfinal (or n=2 in this problem...
It was announced in an Invitrogen press release Oct 6, 2005https://ir.lifetechnologies.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=539847
It depends on the hamiltonian but it would be of the form of a regular plane wave.
A lot of high-power particle Physicists in the world believe that the chances are pretty good, otherwise CERN would not have pumped $10 billion and counting into the LHC so far. A great deal of money has been invested in making these experiments possible, chiefly in hopes of observing the elusive...
According to the Uncertainty Principle, certain physical properties cannot be simultaneously and precisely determined. Such properties include momentum or position. In general the more precisely one property of one system is known, the less precisely the other property of the same system is. It can...
Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Born, Jordan, Pauli, Fermi, Schrodinger, Dirac, de Broglie, Bose made significant contributions to the invention of Quantum mechanics.They all took part in the discovery of Quantum Mechanics and they are called the founding fathers.
Everyone knows that he ate a squirrel
wave theory can't explain some effects of light. Light photons act  as both waves and as particles, very similar as to how electrons  behave. Both theory of light and wave theory is correct because  each will predict the behavior of light for certain phenomena.
Lasers are used for producing holograms, burning and reading dvd/cd's, and are the light sources used in many fiber-optic telecommunication systems.
Neutrino modulation of certain individuals via the pineal gland and/or the hippocampus is under intense investigation. Cosmic ray wavelet resonant dispersion diffraction is another contender. Resonant semi-singularities due to interaction of the ambient omnipresent EMF may play an important...
It is also called wave mechanics because quantum mechanics governed by Schrodinger's wave equation in it's wave-formulation.
There were 5, but they were all disproved and replaced with M theory.
6.626 x 10-34 Joule seconds.
A system of mechanics that was developed from quantum theory and is used to explain the properties of atoms and molecules. Using the energy quantum as a starting point it incorporates Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the de Broglie wavelength to establish the wave-particle duality on which...
In fact, the laws of motion do apply; you just have to be careful which set of laws you use. Newtonian laws of motion do not apply to light or to the movement of atoms, but relativity theory applies to light, and quantum mechanics applies to movements at the atomic and sub-atomic levels.
Quantum cosmology is a field attempting to study the effect of quantum mechanics on the formation of the universe, especially just after the Big Bang. Despite many attempts, such as the Wheeler-deWitt equation this area of interest has yet to be fruitful. Quantum cosmology is a branch of quantum...
As stated earlier:Violet light: 380-450 nmRed light: 620-750 nmnm=nanometer=10-9 meter
In a vacuum there is no matter to interact with, with matter  present the photons of light are delayed by repeated absorption by  that matter and then reemission from that matter. This process not  only delays the photons due to the time between absorption and  emission, but scatters the light...
The Heisenberg uncertainty principal is an aspect of the axiomatic system associated with Quantum Mechanics. The Fist Law of Thermodynamics is an aspect of the axiomatic system of Classical Thermodynamics. To state that one 'goes against' another is to say that an apple 'goes against' an orange. ...
Quantum decoherence (also known as dephasing) is the mechanism by which quantum systems interact with their environments to exhibit probabilistically additive behavior. Decoherence can be viewed as the loss of information from a system into the environment.
Because there is no communication between the photons. This the foundation of the EPR paradox but was resolved by Bell's Inequality.
it describes a type of radioactive decay in which a nucleus emits an alpha particle. -Akilae
The sun's radiation comes as 45 percent visible light. 40 percent infared, and the remainder as Ultraviolet.This is why the Sun is damaging to our eyes as well as skin while giving us the light we need.
completely: coin is simple probability, quantum uncertainty is based on how increasing accuracy of measurement of one property of a tiny particle reduces the accuracy of measurement of another complementary property of the same particle. No probability there, just measurement limitations.
The name photon derives from the Greek word for light, φως (transliterated phôs), and was coined in 1926 by the physical chemist Gilbert Lewis.
When the system gets big. This is called the correspondence principle.
This is the energy formula for hydrogen Ejn=(-13.6eV/n2)*[1+(α2/n2)*((n/(j+0.5))-0.75)] where n is the energy level (n=0 is the ground state), α is the fine-structure constant, and j and the eigenvalue of angular momentum (j=1 +/- 0.5). This can be verified experimentally because if the electron...
There are many founders of the quantum theory. Max Planck, a German scientist is generally considered to be its founding father but there are many other scientists who contributed to it. Although Gustav Kirchhoff identified the problem of black body radiation in 1859, Max Planck's quantum hypothesis...
It is possible for one particle to affect another at a great distance, but as a matter of practicle application, the force (or forces) acting between them probably won't have much of an effect. Let's look at a couple of examples.If two particles are examined, we'll note that each has some gravity...
Heisenberg. He was also the top scientist on the Nazi A-bomb project. They spent all their time working on reactor development and never understood the fast neutron fission process needed for a bomb until after the British captured him and gave him the August 6, 1945 London newspaper and he read...
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle shows that one cannot say precisely where an electron is located and precisely what its momentum (mass times velocity) is. More correctly, the uncertainty principle says that the uncertainty in the location of a particle times the uncertainty in its position is...
The history of quantum mechanics began with the 1838 discovery of cathode rays by Michael Faraday, the 1859 statement of the black body radiation problem by Gustav Kirchhoff, the 1877 suggestion by Ludwig Boltzmann that the energy states of a physical system could be discrete, and the 1900 quantum...