## Quantum Mechanics

Parent Category: Physics
Quantum Mechanics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of the structure and behavior of atoms and molecules. It is primarily based on Max Planck's Quantum theory, which incorporates Heisenberg's uncertainly principle and the de Broglie wavelength to establish the wave-particle duality on which Schrodinger's equation is based.
String theory refers to any one of five specific theories that attempts to unify the four fundamental forces: electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, and the most difficult of them all, gravity, via oscillatory dimensional analysis. In other words, it attempts to mathematically d…
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Bose - Einstein Condensate When matter is cooled to within a very very small fraction of the coldest temperature it is possible to have (absolute zero) the atoms comprising the matter become stiller and stiller (heat is the movement/vibration of atoms). When they become very still, quantum effects b…
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Lasers don't really "make use" of either the wave or particle nature of light. Or they make use of both. But because a laser emits what is called coherent light, it could be argued that the wave nature of light is best at describing the light the laser emits. Lasers make use of Boltzmann energy dis…
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Start with Hyperphysics and Wikipedia. Follow links to other sites like Physics.org.Start with Wikipedia and Hyperphysics and Physics.org.Perhaps websites may amuse you for a day, but the only way to go is to get a real QM text like griffith's or if your feeling adventurous Shankar's.
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If V is only a function of x, then the equation's general solution can be nearly solved using the method of separation of variables. Starting with the time dependent Schrödinger equation: (iℏ)∂Ψ/∂t = -(ℏ2/2m)∂2Ψ/∂x2 + VΨ, where i is the imaginary number, ℏ is Plank's constant/2π…
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A Newton*Meter (N·m) is a Joule (J) and a Joule is the derived unit of energy in SI units. N=(kg*m/s^2) so a N·m=(kg*m^2/s^2)=J. An electron volt is also a quantity of energy equal to approximately 1.602×10−19 J. Correspondingly, one joule equals 6.24150974×1018 eV. By definition, it is equal…
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There is a certain level of similarity between NLP & QM NLP = Neuro-linguistic programming: This is a method invented in the 1970's by a linguist, physiologist, and anthropologist. It is a method used to change behavior, i.e. develop good habits and eliminate negative ones.It relies on the assu…
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The following is the most correct answer- -Heisenberg's Uncertainty principles arises as one cannot find simultaneous eigenstates of conjugate operators (i.e. p and x or Lx and Ly) for atomic and subatomic objects. Because one cannot find such simultaneous eigenstates, the particle in question can n…
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quantum field theory, quantum electrodynamics, quantum chromodynamics, string theory Energy is quantized
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You are referring to the Schrodinger Equation. This is because it comes from the classical view that the total energy is equal to the hamiltonian of a system: Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy = Total energy. Classically the kinetic energy is (1/2)mv2 = p2/(2m) ; where m is mass, v is velocity, p …
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Not necessarily. In the case of supercooled helium-4, the probability amplitude is positive for the atoms to get on top of each other since they are Bose particles. Bose-Einstien condensation is the name for this process of Bose particles going into the same state, and then when enough particles ge…
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Quantum Mechanics proves that the idea of absolute determinism is flawed. Thus future events cannot be predicted and so there is an element of freedom. _______  Quantum Mechanics and Determinism Quantum Mechanics is a science, and it is not the function of science to answer for questions in p…
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Max Planck assumed that the radiation energy is emitted in discrete packets called quanta rather than in a continuous way. The energy E of the quantum is related to the frequency ν by E = hν. The quantity h, now known as the Planck constant, is a universal constant with the approximate value of 6.…
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Answer (1) The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory Written by Brian Greene Quantum Mechanics, written by Albert MessiahThe Quantum Universe, by Tony Hey and Patrick Walters http://books.google.com/books?id=mwssSDXzkNcC Answer (2) The Elegant Un…
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There is no substitute for attending university classes on the subject, also participating in research related to any of those fields is very helpful in linking the concepts with application. As for on your own, I highly recommend studying textbooks on the subjects available for lend at any public u…
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Quantum mechanics deals with things on the atomic and subatomic level. Statistical mechanics deals with large systems, on the order of 10^23 particles. So those are currently mutually exclusive areas of physics. That is not to say that one day that issue will be rectified, but as of current there is…
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Answer Zero-point energy (not to be confused with Vacuum Energy) is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have and is the energy of the ground state. This energy comes from the fact that after you remove all thermal and kinetic energy from an atom there is still qu…
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Newton's 2nd law state that the rate of momentum is proportional to the impressed force & the change in momentum takes place in the direction of force. Mathematically , F = dP/dt = m dv/dt + vdm/dt = m dv/dt = ma [for constant mass system dm/dt = 0] Application: In rocket propulsion, rocket…
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Energy is quantized into groups of E=hf, where h is Planck's constant.
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The most famous is E=MC2, meaning Energy=Mass times the Speed of Light squared.
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Quantum theory is the mathematical representation of the universe assuming that everything is divided into well defined amounts (quanta, plural of quantum if we ignore the context) that behave both like particles and waves. One of its basic concepts is that nothing is in one defined position but ex…
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Max Plank discovered quantum mechanics (hail be his great name) Mark Plank discovered that eating blue-berry muffins caused him to gain weight.Sylvia Plank discovered that her husband was seeing another woman.
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No, the particles become entangled in the process of their creation. Long before any measurement. Yes, entanglement has been verified by many experiments.
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Particle theory states that all matter is made of particles. It is an ancient concept, going as far back as Greek philosophers in 500BC who believed in atomism - the notion that all matter comprises tiny, indestructible particles. Skipping ahead to the 1800's, John Dalton postulated that each elemen…
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absolutely. I think.Interesting answer, but I'm not sure about it . . .
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State in which all electrons are at their lowest possible energy level - this is the ground state of an atom.
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Entanglement is a state that sub-atomic patricles can enter, where the properties of one particle mimic exactly the properties of another. No matter the physical distance between the two particles, they will continue to mimic each others properties. If one particle is infused with energy, the other …
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No, he did not. The widely regarded "father of quantum mechanics" was Planck, although at the time he did not understand his contirubtion, and it was unintentional. It is almost impossible, however, to realisticaly choose a founder of quantum mechanics, as many people many many small contirbutions…
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The Higgs boson is a massive scalar boson whose existence is necessary for our current working model of fundamental particles and interactions, called the standard model, to be correct. Let's step back a minute and define some terms so as to allow you to get a better understanding of what the above…
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Answer Just learn stuff off Wikipedia or the internet. Alternative answer Unfortunately you will need to develop a great understanding of mathematics, especially calculus. The best way I have found to acquire the necessary skills is take a correspondence course. This is easier to fit in with …
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Electron shells.
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Well light can weigh something, but I know this for sure: gravity can pull light in so therefor there has to be a number of its weight (even if it is very small).
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Quantum dispute is one where you are trying to figure out how much damage has been done. One party will claim all was done at that time and the other will say it is not possible.
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Answer A "quantum" is a measure of energy that can "kick" an electron up one complete energy level within an atom. Applying, for instance, heat (thermal energy) to a substance will excite electrons to go "up" an energy level at a time. You may note that heated things often glow or give off visib…
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Schrödinger's cat is a thought experiment sometimes described as a paradox, devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935. It illustrates what he saw as the problem of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics applied to everyday objects. The scenario presents a cat which may be…
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Quantum physics is the study of the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular, atomic, nuclear, and even smaller microscopic levels. In the early 20th century, it was discovered that the laws that govern microscopic objects do not function the same in such small realms.
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Schrödinger's wave equation was based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principal that the position and velocity of a electron cannot be determined accurately (accuracy in one will sacrifice accuracy in another). Schrödinger's wave equation gave a wave function, which squared gave the probability clou…
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Atoms.
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actually einstein developed one of the earliest parts of quantum mechanics: the theory of the photoelectric effect. he worked directly with many of the scientists that later developed the complete theory of quantum mechanics and the mathematics to solve its apparent paradoxes to get usable predictio…
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matter is just a broad definition for different substances that make up life. This may sound confusing, so here's a better way to put it. Matter can exist in four states: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Water can be a liquid, gas, or solid so it is made up of matter, or lots of atoms of the same typ…
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The Copenhagen interpretation was traditionally the most popular among physicists, next to a purely instrumentalist position that denies any need for explanation. (This latter view is expressed by David Mermin's famous quote "shut up and calculate", often attributed to Richard Feynman.) However, the…
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Max Planck and Quantum Theory Max Planck 'discovered' Quantum theory in 1900.The theory basically describes energy being emitted in quanta each of which has an energy equal to hν, where h is the Planck constant (named after its discoverer) and ν is the frequency of the radiation.So all in all, thi…
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Max Plank
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A boson is a particle having the following properties: Whole integer spin.Bosons like to collect at the same point in space in the same state all at the same time. This is coherence. Also called Bose-Einstein statistics.The bosons in the Standard Model transmit forces of the 4 types between the ferm…
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A photon
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Absolutely not; uncertainty does not go out the window. On the contrary, quantum effects become observable at the macro level in the form of the bizarre Bose-Einstein Condensate. The Bose-Einstein Condensate has been created in the lab by several people. This question highlights something wonderful…
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Nature of light : Light has wave-particle duality . If you didn't understand this answer you may move to another similiar question such as : what is the precise nature of light ? you'll get what you need. :)
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The basic particle theory states that there are three states of matter - solids, liquids and gases. A solid substance has all its particles very close together, and strongly bound to each other so that the cannot move around (they can only vibrate on the spot). A liquid still has its particles close…
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Heisenberg's uncertainty principle concerns electron momentum and position. It states that for any moving particle, its position and its momentum cannot be determined at a same time. Mathematically, the product (dx)(dp) is greater than or equal to h/4(pi) dx = uncertainty in position dp = uncertai…
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Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is the principle that states that the momentum and the position of a quantum particle can not be simultaneously accurately known. This means that the more precisely you know the momentum, the less you know about the position and vice-versa.
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Yes, gamma radiation is rays. Specifically it is photons, like light but much much higher in energy.
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Short Answer: The history of quantum theory is somewhat complex, but Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901 - 1976) was awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the creation of quantum mechanics". It would be unrealistic to describe the work of Heisenberg as encompassing the whole process of discovery, bu…
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This is the title of a book that teaches how to perform the calculations of Quantum Mechanics, in very simple easy to follow terms.
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The speed of electromagnetic radiation is determined by the electrical characteristics of the material it's traveling through ... specifically, the electrostatic permittivity and the magnetic permeability. Those numbers are different for every material. The speed of light in the material is 1/(the s…
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Answer: It is not clear . Some books advocates Max plank, some Neils Bohr , some Erwin Schrodinger and some even say Heisenberg . Definitely Max Planck. No Doubt ! Answer: Max Planck was the first to use ideas of quantum theory when he solved the "ultraviolet catastrophe" in December of 1900. At…
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Max Planck is not only the father of quantum mechanics.Those who took part in the discovery of quantum mechanics are known as founding fathers and they are Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Born,Jordan, Pauli, Fermi, Schrodinger, Dirac, de Broglie, Bose. They all made notable contributions. Note:…
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For every quantum state, the standard deviation of it's position multiplied by the standard deviation of it's momentum has to be larger than or equal to the reduced Planck constant divided by two. σxσp ≥ hbar/2 This doesn't mean that you can't measure position and momentum at the same time. Wh…
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In a sense Niels Bohr did by introducing different orbits in which electrons spin around the nucleus. Bohr argued that each electron has a certain fixed amount of energy, which corresponds to its fixed orbit. Therefore, when an electron absorbs energy, it jumps to the next higher orbit rather than m…
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The first level can hold 2, the second can hold 8, and the third can hold 18 electrons. However, the outer level never holds more than 8; therefore an atom containing only 3 levels will have only 8 in the 3rd level.
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A Bose Einstein Condensate is a state of matter that occurs when matter is cooled to its lowest energy state, the fermions in the matter, normally excluded from each other due to the exclusion principle, collapse onto each other to form Cooper pairs and achieve a bosonic behavior
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Answer (1): I apologize for my answer but physicists assume everything is round. It just makes the math easier. Answer (2): Saying that an object is round suggests that it can be observed (seen, touched, tasted... well maybe not tasted). Quantum theory describes the behavior of objects too small…
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This is a tough question to answer, but in general yes. The principles hold very firmly such that we are able to make devices based on them. For example a flash drive (thumb drive) utilizes QM principles in such a way that if QM was wrong there is no way that device would exist.
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If this question is related to the photoelectric effect the answer should be as follows (but I have learned the work function for sodium is 2.35 eV) Photoelectric effect: Photon energy h f = W + KE h := Planck constant f:= freqency of emitted light W:= Work function in Joule 1.82 eV * 1.6*10-1…
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Atoms True atoms make up all matter, but quarks make up all atoms. So fundamentally quarks make up all matter. Atoms_________________________________________________________________dft.ba/quarksAll you'll need to know about what make up hadrons, which make up matter.
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Taken from Britney Spears Guide to Semiconductor Physics (which is linked below): "Prince Louis De-Broglie, hypothesised that if waves could exhibit particle-like properties, then might particles also exhibit wave-like properties? This idea is expressed as particle-wave duality and allows us to giv…
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the attraction of metal ions to mobile electrons
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The central component of a flux capacitor is a charged dilithium crystal. This is very difficult to obtain, but the other components (pre-rearranged dark matter etc.) are quite common. Try and find a scrapped space-drone, as most of these contain a small amount of lesser, or opaque dilithium. Once y…
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Max Plank
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Lasers are used for producing holograms, burning and reading dvd/cd's, and are the light sources used in many fiber-optic telecommunication systems.
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Yes they do.
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It has been predicted and many physicists are banking on it existing, however it has not yet been detected with any reasonable certainty. If it exists, it is expected that the LHC at CERN will find it.
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All matter is made up of 'atoms', which are generally treated as tiny particles, although they have been shown to also have the properties of waves (just like light has both particle and wave nature). They are constantly in motion, and move faster in matter at a higher temperature. The temperature a…
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The Heisenberg uncertainty principle shows that one cannot say precisely where an electron is located and precisely what its momentum (mass times velocity) is. More correctly, the uncertainty principle says that the uncertainty in the location of a particle times the uncertainty in its position is a…
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When we "look" at the smallest things known, we must consider the group of subatomic particles. The tiniest units of matter exist in this quantum mechanical world. As we're still sorting out some things here, it may be hard to be more specific. But let's nominate the electron neutrino, a fundamental…
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Parity. This is the eigenvalue under reflection, and is positive (i.e. +1) for states which came from even l and negative (i.e. -1) for states which came from odd l. The former is also known as even parity and the latter as odd parity From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_number l stands fo…
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K space refers to a space where things are in terms of momentum and frequency instead of position and time and the way you convert between real space and k-space (or Fourier space) is a mathematical transformation called the Fourier transform (and Inverse Fourier transform). This K-space also exists…
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TlCuCl3 and rubidium-87 at very low temperatures.
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Most likely Max Planck.
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not only is it possible but no experiment has ever been done that contradicts it in any way. it has been shown correct in its predictions to more digits than any other theory.
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One type of energy level would be in the Bohr model of the atom, suggesting that electrons are held in discrete energy levels around the nucleus. Any of these electrons may be excited to a higher energy level if sufficient energy is applied to the atom. In some materials, the excited electrons spont…
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If anyone knew, then they would be a very famous person. The fact is that there is no known "correct" interpretation of quantum mechanics. Every interpretation has its critics and proponents, and every interpretation has its flaws. The previous answer says there is no known correct interpretation. …
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The atom is a positively charged nucleus surrounded by electron clouds whose quantum probability functions determine the regions in which electrons would most likely be found.
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Max Plank & Albert Einstein.
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No, Higgs Boson is a theoretical particle yet to be observed directly or indirectly by humans. Quarks on the other hand have been observed directly and indirectly. Also, the Higgs boson is responsible for a field, however quarks are responsible for matter, and are the basic constituents of the nucle…
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How quickly the wave travels
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From Wikipedia: Quantum mechanics (QM) is a set of scientific principles describing the known behavior of energy and matter that predominate at the atomic and subatomic scales. The name derives from the observation that some physical quantities-such as the energy of an electron-can be changed only b…
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A group of theoretical and experimental physicist, perhaps the most famous of which was Schrödinger.
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The obvious choice would be a research or academic physicist. These are professions that are primarily in the public sector meaning that you would be employed by a university or the government. As for industry, there are still some companies that employ quantum physicists but they are usually R and …
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There are numerous mathematically equivalent formulations of quantum mechanics. One of the oldest and most commonly used formulations is the transformation theory proposed by Cambridge theoretical physicist Paul Dirac, which unifies and generalizes the two earliest formulations of quantum mechanics,…
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Gamma rays are radiation from nuclear decay, when a nucleus changes from an excited energy state to a lower energy state. Gamma rays are typically waves of frequencies greater than 1019 Hz. They have high energies (greater than 104 eV per photon) and extremely short wavelengths (less than 10-14 m). …
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mg+ 2e
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QM is the branch of physics which deals with phenomena on the order of the Planck constants.
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According to the laws of physics as currently known: The concept of the multiverse is purely hypothetical. Although the term has been around since 1895, the ideas around it are constantly evolving, and the subject is often visited in science fiction. Multiverses are still in the theories stage, and …
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The atom will never split in or with the spectrum it will either reflect off a light or a reflective object and become the colours of the rainbow
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