Particle Physics

Relatively recent experimental results have confirmed what philosophers throughout history had theorized all along; that all matter is made up of elementary particles. Those curious about this cutting-edge field of physics known as particle physics should post their questions here, including those about fundamental particles, fundamental forces, Grand Unified Theories, and the extraordinary devices that have been or need to be engineered to research them.

11,037 Questions
Physics
Nuclear Physics
Particle Physics

Matter attracts other matter does antimatter will repel the antimatter?

Antimatter observes and obeys the same fundamental forces that matter does:

  • gravity
  • electromagnetism
  • weak interactive
  • strong interactive

A positron, which is the anti-particle of the electron, for example, has the same mass as an electron and experiences the same attraction to all other matter (gravity) as an electron. That same positron is repelled by positively charged particles and attracted to negatively charged particles (electromagnetism).
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Physics
Nuclear Physics
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Particle Physics

Are quarks nucleons?

No, quarks are not nucleons. A nucleon is a term (in physics) that is given to either of the two component particles of an atomic nucleus: the proton and the neutron. Both protons and neutrons are composite particles from the family of hadrons, and hadrons are made up of quarks.

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Physics
Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Particle Physics

Is light made up of quarks and leptons?

No, light is not made up of quarks and/or leptons. Light is electromagnetic energy, and the carrier of this energy is the photon.

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Particle Physics

How many valance electrons are in XeF4?

12. Xe has +4 oxidation state in this compound. so if you use VSEPR Theory then you can understand the actual structure and total valence shell does it has.

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Physics
Particle Physics

What are the 6 flavors of quarks?

The six flavors of quarks are:

  • top
  • bottom
  • up
  • down
  • charm
  • strange
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Astrophysics
Particle Physics

What is a space rift?

A space rift is that event in space in which everything (even subatomic particles) gets torn apart due to the growing repulsion from dark energy destroying nearly every galaxy present.

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Particle Physics

What is an element that needs three electrons to become stable?

Anything in column 15 - nitrogen and phosphorus are two examples.

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Atoms and Atomic Structure
Particle Physics

What is the most unstable subatomic particle?

There are three commonly referred to subatomic particles, the proton, the neutron, and the electron. Inside of the atom itself, all three are stable. However, as free particles, only protons and electrons are stable. Neutrons are radioactive and decay with a half-life of around 15 minutes.

Edit: Although those are the three most common particles, there are several others (e.g.: Delta Particle, Lambda, Upsilon, etc.) made of different types of quarks besides Up and Down (two U and one D make a proton, two D and one U make a neutron) and have charges of 2/3 and -1/3, respectively. The general rule of thumb is if a particle has more massive constituents then it will be more unstable than a particle with less massive constituents.

Another Edit: Sorry for just now remembering to add this in. In addition to the above, some models predict that protons aren't stable but merely have a very long half-life. The most notable one is Supersymmetry, where all particles have very massive superpartners; these are called sparticles. Fermions will have s to distinguish them and bosons are distinguished by having ino at the end (e.g.: squark, slepton, photino)

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Chemical Bonding
Particle Physics

Why do electrons travel in pairs?

Electrons do not travel in pairs. An atomic or molecular orbital can hold a pair of electrons, which is probably what you're thinking of.

The reason for this is that electrons are fermions: two electrons in an atom or molecule cannot have the exact same quantum state. Specifying the orbital uses up 3 of the 4 quantum numbers for describing an electron's quantum state; the last quantum number is the spin angular momentum which can either be +1/2 or -1/2, so two electrons per orbital. After that it's full and no more electrons can go into that orbital.

Note that far from "traveling in pairs", fermions really don't like to be even that close to each other. If there are three orbitals at the same energy level, one electron will go into each before they start to "double up".

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Nuclear Physics
Particle Physics
Uranium

What is size of uranium nucleus neutron?

All the neutrons in all the elements have the same mass and dimensions. The neutron mass is 1, 674 927 29.10-27 kg.

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Atoms and Atomic Structure
Particle Physics

How many protons and neutrons does Cu2 plus have?

Copper's, or Cu's, atomic number is 29. This number tells us that copper has 29 protons. The two stable isotopes of copper are 63Cu and 65Cu, which have 34 and 36 neutrons per atom, respectively. The 2+ that you mentioned in your question only concerns electrons, so what I wrote above applies for Cu2+ as well.

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Nuclear Physics
Particle Physics

Why neutrino has much penetrating power?

I'm going to assume that you're wondering why they can travel through matter so easily, which is kind of a layman's term for asking why their cross section is so low.

There's a number of reasons:

- They have almost no mass, so they travel at nearly the speed of light.

- They have no charge so they don't interact electromagnetically.

- They don't decay.

- They have no color so they aren't bound, unlike quarks.

- They only interact via the weak nuclear force, who's range is about 10-18m

This is why a neutrino can easily travel through a light-year of lead without interacting.

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Science
Particle Physics

Who invented the hadron collider?

The LHC is the culmination of many years of work by many different scientists, no one person invented it.

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Chemistry
Particle Physics

Is an electron the smallest particle?

No. So far it looks like there is nothing smaller inside an atom than quarks.

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Particle Physics

What isotope has 28 protons and 31 neutrons?

The isotope nickel-59 has 28 protons and 31 neutrons

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Mechanics
Gravity
Particle Physics

Who first discovered neutron?

An English physicist named James Chadwick discovered the neutron- winning him a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1932.

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Physics
Money Management
Particle Physics

Where do CERN get their money from?

The respective countries, which are involved in studies at CERN.

Such are:

  • Germany - 144,0 Mio€
  • France - 111,2 Mio€
  • United Kingdom - 106,5 Mio€
  • Italy - 83,4€
  • Spain - 61,8€
  • The Netherlands - 34,7 Mio€
  • Switzerland - 21,8 Mio€
  • Poland - 20,7 Mio€
  • Belgium - 20,1 Mio€
  • Sweden - 20,0 Mio€
  • Norway - 18,3 Mio€
  • Austria- 16,3 Mio€
  • Greek - 13,5 Mio€
  • Denmark - 12,8 Mio€
  • Finland - 11,2 Mio€
  • Czechia - 8,4 Mio€
  • Portugal - 8,2 Mio€
  • Hungary - 5,6 Mio€
  • Slowakia - 3,9 Mio€
  • Bulgaria - 1,6 Mio€
251252253
Particle Physics

Are neutrinos dangerous?

No, they are so small they barely interact with matter - in the region of 10 billion pass through the area the size of your fingernail every second!

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Quantum Mechanics
Particle Physics

What is definition of electron clouds?

The composite quantum mechanical wave function describing the space of an atom in which there is probability of there being an electron at an arbitrary time and place.

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Chemistry
Atoms and Atomic Structure
Chemical Bonding
Particle Physics

How do you count the valence electrons of an atom?

The number of valence electrons is just how many electrons an atom has in its outer shell. It's easy to figure out if you've got a periodic table.

(See the link below this answer for a good periodic table).

All the elements in each column have the same number of electrons in their outer shells. All the elements in the first column all have a single valence electron (H, Li, Na, K, etc.).

The second column elements all have 2 valence electrons (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, etc.).

Skipping over the gap, go to the Group 3 elements, which all have 3 valence electrons (B, Al, Ga, etc.).

The elements in the next column (C, Si, Ge, etc.) all have 4 valence electrons.

The elements in the next column (N, P, As, etc.) all have, yes, you guessed it, 5 valence electrons.

O, S, Se, and the others in this column have 6 valence electrons.

The halogens in the next-to-last column (F, Cl, Br, etc.) have 7 valence electrons.

The noble gases in the right-most column (Ne, Ar, Kr, etc.) all have 8 electrons in their out except for He, which only has 2 electrons.

In column 1 all of those elements have 1 valence electron.

In column 2 there are 2 valence electrons. He(Helium) is included here.

Skip columns 3 to 12 because their valence electrons vary.

Column 13 has 3 valence electrons.

Column 14 has 4 valence electrons.

Column 15 has 5 valence electrons.

Column 16 has 6 valence electrons.

Column 17 has 7 valence electrons.

Column 18,except for He(Helium), has 8 valence electrons.

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Physics
Nuclear Physics
Particle Physics

What is positron capture?

The decay of an unstable atom by absorbing a wandering positron into the nucleus, converting a neutron into a proton.

One example is how a radioactive form of iodine, 131I, can use positron capture to become xenon, 131Xe. This is a stable, so the conversion is a big help.

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Chemistry
Particle Physics

What does electron shielding have to do with melting points?

Well, if you look at it in a purely elemental capacity we see trends that with an increase in electron shielding, we get a decrease in melting point.

This is said to be because with larger electron shielding we have a lower Z(eff) (effective nuclear charge) between atoms meaning weaker forces keeping them together and thus a lower melting point.

I think this is an important logical procedure when understanding why things melt and what things like Z(eff) really mean in terms of an atom's behaviour. It's a good learning tool but, outside of periodicity, I would never feel comfortable attributing a melting point to electron shielding. Good idea for elements, terrible idea for molecules.

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Particle Physics

What is an example of a subatomic particle explain?

A subatomic particle is any particle that is smaller than, and located inside of, an atom. Protons, neutrons, and electrons are common examples of subatomic particles. Not every small particle fits this criteria though. For example, one wouldn't call a tau neutrino a subatomic particle since they aren't found in atoms.

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Quantum Mechanics
Particle Physics

What is smaller than a boson?

Bosons are particles with integer spin which do not obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle, therefore a number of them may occupy the same quantum state.

In general, all bosons can be classified as either mesons (composite particles) or gauge bosons (elementary bosons). Pions are examples of mesons, while photons are examples of gauge bosons.

Since the name "boson" applies to a number of particles there can be no answer to this question.

Bosons are part of 3 families of fundamental particles described by the Standard Model of quantum physics, and being fundamental means they have no known substructure - i.e., there isn'tanything smaller than a boson. (The same applies to quarks and leptons.)

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Physics
Chemistry
Nuclear Physics
Particle Physics

What is a fermion?

a small land mammal such as a rat mouse ferret mole ect.

A fundamebtal particle with half-integral spin, such as an electron.

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