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What is John Austin's definition of law?
According to Austin "Law is the command of the sovereign and is accepted due to fear of sanction".
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meaning of article 13 sec. 1, 2, 3? The United States Constitution has no Article XIII, we'll assume you mean Amendment XIII to the U.S. Constitution, which goes like this: …"Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation." This made it constitutional-level law that slavery cannot exist within the U.S., except as a punishment for crime upon conviction. Although the Emancipation Proclamation, an executive order of President Lincoln, had proclaimed the freedom of slaves in the ten rebel States, this Amendment made sure that it would outlawed everywhere in the U.S. and anywhere subject to its laws. The Supreme Court has subsequently interpreted Amendment XIII to insure that the "badges and incidents of slavery" were progressively eliminated from American society.
A systematic ill-defined law that the government applied to legal regulations in controlling the use of data over electronic network. This is used to prevent the general p…ublic from accessing certain information that is considered unfavorable by the government.
The French chemist Joseph Proust is generally believed to have been the first person to formulate this theory. Proust's theory may have had it's roots in the work of an Englis…hman called William Prout, who is credited with having put forward 'Prout's hypothesis'.
All law that is not criminal is civil.
Model law aims at resolving disparities in national laws on arbitration. National laws proved to be inappropriate for international cases; consequently, model law came i…nto existence to solve this inefficiency. Oftentimes, local concepts were used when deciding international cases and the needs of modern practice are not satisfied. Modern law brings the desired harmonization and improvement to national laws.
Jim Crow Laws are laws that were set in place in the 1900s that separated blacks from whites, like they couldn't use the same restroom as white people, couldn't sit in the fro…nt of bus...etc. They were still legal even because of the equality of the U.S. because people said that they were equal, just separate.
conversation of energy of electromagnetic
Common law is the system of deciding cases that originated in England and which was latter adopted in the U.S.. Common law is based on precedent (legal principles developed in… earlier case law) instead of statutory laws. It is the traditional law of an area or region created by judges when deciding individual disputes or cases. Common law changes over time. The U.S. is a common law country. In all states except Louisiana, which is based on Napoleonic code, the common law of England was adopted as the general law of the state, or varied by statute. Today almost all common law has been enacted into statutes with modern variations by all the states. Broad areas of the law, such as property, contracts and torts are traditionally part of the common law. Because these areas of the law are mostly within the jurisdiction of the states, state courts are the main source of common law. The area of federal common law is primarily limited to federal issues that have not been addressed by a statute. See below link:
austin said that the law is a commend, sovereign authoty and scantion by backdaded . without sovereign has no law. law is a order or commend but all commend is not law accordi…ng to Austin.if violed the law he get fine or punishment. e.g punishment for mader life jail or death.
'le droit administratif' (administrative law) is a major set of rules within the Public Law. This is the part giving the rights and obligations of the government and administr…ative bodies. The administrative acts are recognized from the hallmark that they become binding without the consent of the other involved parties. The contracts between authorities and private persons fall usually to the jurisdiction of the general court system. Official decisions contested in administrative courts include:taxationdispensation of monetary benefitsenvironmental licensesbuilding inspectionchild custodyinvoluntary commitmentimmigration decisionssummary public payments
An authoritative rule of conduct...or i think it is a statement of fact to the effect that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions are present!! but fu…rthermore, i want to confrm my answer.
A chemical compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------…------------- A law that states that a compound always contains the same elements in the same proportions. Source: e2020
International Law is not a real Law, but a positive International Morality.
In Business Law
From the related link below: the principles and regulations established in a community by some authority and applicable to its people, whether in the form of legislation or o…f custom and policies recognized and enforced by judicial decision. The related link below contains other definitions of law also.
The Law of Universal Gravitation definition is : E= -GmM/r + mc V This law is different from Newton's , E = -GmM/r in that Newton did not include the vector energy mc V…. Einstein's Law of Gravity, General Relativity also wrong in neglects the vector energy mcV, but Einstein did add a "Cosmological Constant", which he disowned. The basic problem is that Newton and Einstein did not realize that the Universe is quaternion quantities consisting of scalars and vectors. Their equations lead them to concepts like "Dark Energy" and Expanding Universe. When the proper Quaternion Law of Gravity is applied the Universe has no "Dark Energy" and is not expanding and Relativity and Quantum Theory are Unified.
"Lawful subject" is a term used in law and legal matters that is define through a legal dictionary. Any "subject" in lawful terms, by definition, is a person who is a "cas…e, experimentee, liegeman, recipient, testee, or victim."
John Austin's "Command Theory" is a concept of law that holds that law is nothing more than a 'command' backed by threat, and is meant to be ubiquitous in its application.… Austin believed that every legal system had to have a 'sovereign' who creates the law while at the same time the sovereign is not subject to it. The sovereign is the only source of the 'commands' and the sovereign is not subject to commands by others. Arguments against this theory state that this is an inaccurate description of law, noting that laws may have several sources and the legislators who enact them are also subject to the same laws they create.