pregnancy

Top
(prĕg'nən-sē) pronunciation
n., pl., -cies.
    1. The condition of being pregnant: a test for pregnancy.
    2. An instance of being pregnant: Her second pregnancy was easy.
    3. The period during which one is pregnant: the first trimester of pregnancy.
  1. The quality or condition of being rich in significance, import, or implication.
  2. Creativity; inventiveness.


Full-term fetus in the uterus. The amnion, formed from the inner embryonic membrane, encloses the
(click to enlarge)
Full-term fetus in the uterus. The amnion, formed from the inner embryonic membrane, encloses the (credit: © Merriam-Webster Inc.)
Process of human gestation that takes place in the female's body as a fetus develops, from fertilization to birth ( parturition). It begins when a viable sperm from the male and egg from the ovary merge in the fallopian tube ( fertility; fertilization). The fertilized egg (zygote) grows by cell division as it moves toward the uterus, where it implants in the lining and grows into an embryo and then a fetus. A placenta and umbilical cord develop for nutrient and waste exchange between the circulations of mother and fetus. A protective fluid-filled amniotic sac encloses and cushions the fetus. Early in pregnancy, higher estrogen and progesterone levels halt menstruation, cause nausea, often with vomiting (morning sickness), and enlarge the breasts and prepare them for lactation. As the fetus grows, so does the uterus, displacing other organs. Normal weight gain in pregnancy is 2025 lbs (911.5 kg). The fetus's nutritional needs require the mother to take in more calories and especially protein, water, calcium, and iron. Folic-acid supplements are recommended during early pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects. Smoking, alcohol, and many legal and illegal drugs can cause congenital disorders and should be avoided during pregnancy. Ultrasound imaging is often used to monitor structural and functional progress of the growing fetus. The due date is estimated as 280 days from the time of last menstruation; 90 of babies are born within two weeks of the estimated date. amniocentesis; preeclampsia and eclampsia; premature birth.

For more information on pregnancy, visit Britannica.com.

The period during which a developing fetus is carried within the uterus. In humans, pregnancy averages 266 days (38 weeks) from conception to childbirth. Traditionally, pregnancy duration is counted from the woman's last menstrual period, which adds roughly 2 weeks to gestational age. This is how physicians arrive at a pregnancy length of 40 weeks (280 days).

The 9 months of pregnancy are typically divided into three periods (trimesters) of 3 months. The first sign of pregnancy is often the absence of an expected menstrual period. Common symptoms include nausea, breast tenderness, fatigue, and frequent urination. The diagnosis of pregnancy can be made as early as 10 days after fertilization by means of blood tests. By 6 weeks (from the last menstrual period), the uterus feels soft and is palpably enlarged. Pregnancy can be positively confirmed by observing cardiac motion of the fetus by ultrasound scanning (8 weeks) or by hearing fetal heart “tones” by using a Doppler detection instrument (10–12 weeks).

Early in the first trimester, the embryo's germ layers differentiate into organs and systems, a process that is nearly completed by the twelfth week. It is during this critical period of development that the fetus is most vulnerable to the adverse effects of drugs and other teratogenic influences. The second and third trimesters of pregnancy are characterized by increased fetal growth and gradual physiologic maturation of fetal organ systems. During this time, the maternal changes of pregnancy are greatest. The enlarging uterus encroaches on the abdominal region by the fourth month and at term nearly reaches the diaphragm. The breasts gradually enlarge in preparation for lactation. Striking cardiovascular changes, including nearly a 50% increase in cardiac output, provide the increased blood flow to accommodate the growing fetoplacental unit. Other changes in the renal, digestive, pulmonary, and endocrine systems reflect the numerous maternal adaptations that eventually must occur in a healthy pregnancy. See also Embryology.

Early, regular prenatal care is associated with improved pregnancy outcome and seeks to identify risk factors in the pregnancy that may apply to mother or fetus. At 6–8 weeks, a complete physical examination, along with blood and urine analyses, should be performed. In addition to undergoing traditional tests, patients are now routinely screened for hepatitis B at the beginning of pregnancy, for fetal neural-tube defects such as open spine at 16 weeks, and for gestational diabetes at about 28 weeks. In addition to these blood tests, many physicians offer a sonogram at 16–18 weeks to establish gestational age, check for a multiple pregnancy, and screen for birth defects. During prenatal visits, a physician can evaluate nutrition, blood pressure, and fetal growth. See also Prenatal diagnosis.

Ideally, at the end of the third trimester, the process of labor begins. The muscles of the uterus contract, dilating the cervix and allowing the baby to begin moving into the vagina or birth canal. Continued contractions push the baby out of the mother's body. In the final stage of labor, the placenta detaches from the uterine walls and is expelled as the afterbirth. An alternative to vaginal delivery is the cesarean section, in which the baby is removed surgically through an abdominal incision.

The legal status of pregnancy termination (therapeutic abortion) varies from country to country, but about two-thirds of women in the world have access to legal abortion. Over 90% of abortions in the United States are performed in the first trimester by suction curettage, a technique that uses suctioning and removal of the uterine contents through the vagina with surgical instruments. Later pregnancies are terminated by a procedure called dilatation and evacuation (D&E) or by administration of drugs to stimulate uterine contractions. Medical and psychological sequelae to abortion are few, and are fewest for terminations in the first trimester. See also Pregnancy disorders.


Although women with a history of poor health may be prescribed rest at various stages of pregnancy, it is now generally accepted that moderate exercise can be beneficial. The reported benefits include:

maintenance of physical fitness
avoidance of excessive weight increase
decreased risk of problems such as constipation, backache, and varicose veins
improved sleep
improved self-image and less risk of postnatal depression
easier labour.

An exercise programme for pregnant mothers should take into consideration physiological and anatomical changes. The mother's heart, lungs, and other vital organs are working much harder than usual, and hormonal changes make some joints less stable. Pregnancy is not the time to start a fitness programme, but most regular exercisers can continue their normal exercise programme, with their doctor's permission.

Several elite athletes have continued to train and compete successfully during the early stages of pregnancy. Three gold medallists in the 1956 Melbourne Olympics were pregnant when they competed. During the later stages of pregnancy (usually after the 5th month) strenuous physical activity is not recommended.

Exercises which are particularly beneficial during pregnancy should be learned in special, medically-approved antenatal classes. These include exercises to improve posture and general mobility; pelvic floor exercises to maintain the perineal muscles and reduce the risk of stress incontinence in later years; and relaxation exercises, to improve neuro-muscular control and the ability to cope with the pain of labour. Many experts advise against excessive stretching because the hormone relaxin is present in the body during pregnancy. Relaxin causes ligaments to relax, particularly those in the pelvis, which needs to widen during birth. Lax ligaments mean that joints can be overstretched easily, causing long-term problems of joint instability. During pregnancy the rectus abdominis (one of the stomach muscles) separates to accommodate an enlarged uterus. Sit-ups, or other strenuous abdominal exercises, can exaggerate the separation and result in an enlarged abdomen after giving birth. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists' guidelines for exercise during pregnancy state that pregnant mothers should be especially careful to take plenty of fluids before and during exercise to limit the risk of dehydration and assist cooling (maternal body temperature should not exceed 38°C).

During pregnancy, the mother is eating for both herself and her baby. At least in the later stages of pregnancy, she needs to consume more energy than usual, but this does not mean eating twice as much. The average weight gained during pregnancy is about 10-12.5 kg (22-28 lb). There is no merit in putting on less than that, but there are disadvantages in gaining much more. Carrying excess weight is tiring. It can also increase the risk of problems such as backache, diabetes, and varicose veins. On average, pregnancy demands 200 additional Calories daily. In the UK, the Health Education Authority recommend that these extra calories should be taken only during the last three months of pregnancy. It is only then that the energy cost of providing for the baby is high enough to necessitate a greater food intake, but this assumes that activity levels are reduced during pregnancy.

Pregnancy also increases nutrient requirements. It is important that the mother's diet contains sufficient protein, iron, calcium, folate, and vitamins C and D for the formation of the baby's muscles, bones, and teeth, and to make haemoglobin. Most extra nutrients are obtained simply by eating a balanced diet that satisfies the increased energy requirements. However, all women should take folate supplements to reduce the risk of neural defects in their babies (see folic acid). Pregnant women are advised not to eat liver or liver products although they are rich in folate, because of the possible harmful effects of their high vitamin A content on the health of the baby. Supplementary iron and vitamins C and D are often recommended, but iron tablets can cause constipation and other distressing effects in some people. Any supplements should be taken only after consultation with a medicallyqualified person or dietitian.

The biological event of pregnancy is established when a fertilized egg successfully implants itself in the lining of the uterus, about a week after conception.

The corpus luteum, which formed in the ovary when it released the egg, secretes hormones that keep the uterine lining in a suitable state for implantation; if fertilization had not occurred, this hormone secretion would have ceased, and the uterine lining would be shed after two weeks. The hormonal ‘message’ from an implanted embryo via the mother's bloodstream to the ovary prevents its own rejection.

Early pregnancy continues to be maintained by the hormones produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary that produced the egg; but later, when the placenta has fully developed (by about 3 months), this takes over the maintenance function through its own hormone production.

Pregnancy produces profound changes in the mother, which may be detected from early stages. There is a marked rise in the output of the heart by 3 months, and it rises further as pregnancy advances, reaching 30-40% above the non-pregnant level by the end. This rise is mainly due to an increase in output with each contraction of the heart muscle (stroke volume), although the heart rate also increases. The volume of blood in the circulation also increases, with a greater increase in plasma volume than in red blood cells, producing the so-called ‘physiological anaemia of pregnancy’. Although these changes in the circulation can produce serious consequences for pregnant women with certain types of heart disease, they are necessary to deal with the demands of the growing fetus, placenta, and uterus, and have no deleterious effects in healthy mothers.

There are changes in the breasts from an early stage of pregnancy; they enlarge, and surface blood vessels become prominent, reflecting preparation for eventual lactation. Hormonal changes cause development of the glandular tissue: the potential milk-secreting cells and the ducts to the nipples. Although the hormones which cause milk production (prolactins) are produced during pregnancy, the actual secretion of milk is suppressed by other hormones until after delivery.

Other changes include a laxity of the joints, which ultimately may assist labour and birth, and increased brown pigmentation of the skin (‘chloasma’ if in the face). Stretch marks are other hallmarks of pregnancy in the skin. The mother has increased blood flow to the kidneys, and therefore increased urine production, and this results in more frequent visits to the toilet — a common symptom of early pregnancy. The placenta produces large amounts of the hormone progesterone, which appropriately prevents the uterine smooth muscle from contracting, but also relaxes smooth muscle throughout the body. This results in many of the so-called minor symptoms of pregnancy, including constipation and heartburn, and it may exacerbate varicose veins.

The mother's appetite usually increases — but the extra energy requirement for the whole pregnancy is not more than about 60 000 Kcal — or 20-24 extra days' worth of food intake. Where there is abundance of food, excessive eating and undue weight gain are not uncommon, although there is in fact a normal physiological tendency to lay down more fat stores in the earlier months. Appetite for particular foods and drinks, or rejection of others, can be capricious. Occasionally the nausea of morning sickness, which is common in early pregnancy, may extend to other times of day, may be more severe than usual, and may be accompanied by vomiting or may be prolonged into later pregnancy.

The uterus enlarges considerably to accommodate the growing fetus. It emerges from the pelvis at around 12 weeks, reaches the navel at around 22 weeks, and the ribs at around 36 weeks.

Pregnancy normally reaches its dramatic conclusion with the onset of labour, between 35 and 39 weeks after conception.

The establishment of antenatal care to detect problems during pregnancy, and to attempt to ensure that women were in good health at the time of delivery, is generally credited to J. W. Ballantyne, an Edinburgh obstetrician, who took the first step towards this at the beginning of the twentieth century. Clinics became established in major centres in the UK, the US, and Australia by the time of the first World War.

— Jim Neilson

Pregnancy: the cultural context

Pregnancy occupies potent symbolic space in cultures around the world. As both the development of a life and a significant transitional event within the woman's lifespan, pregnancy becomes the focus of cultural desires and anxieties around gender, power, selfhood, and even nationhood. Medical technology has increasingly refigured the physiological possibilities of pregnancy, especially through assisted reproduction for the infertile, its extensions to surrogacy and older-age pregnancy, and through genetic testing.

One of the most common cultural mythologies about pregnancy is that it is evidence of full womanhood. Because mothering is so closely tied into cultural gender roles, to be pregnant is to fulfill one's gendered destiny. Although this emphasis on pregnancy emerges from culturally-specific definitions of femininity and womanhood, many people see the urge as instinctive and the process itself as natural, even as industrialized countries increasingly rely on medical technologies to avoid, create, sustain, and complete pregnancies.

Differential worldwide rates of fertility, infant mortality, and maternal mortality have led the World Health Organization to focus attention on women's differential access to services and opportunities with respect to men as well as between different countries and regions. At least partly because of this focus, all three of these rates dropped by about one-third over the twenty years up to 1998, when overall fertility rate was 2.7 births per woman; Europe was lowest at 1.6, while Africa remained highest at 5.4. Infant mortality rate world-wide was 57 deaths per 1000 live births, whereas highly industrialized countries such as the US and the UK had rates as low as 7 deaths per 1000. Maternal mortality rate (expressed as deaths per 100 000 births) in the UK showed a dramatic drop from the 1930s onwards, whereas until then it had been essentially unchanged at around 500 for 100 years; in the 1980s it was below 10. By the end of the twentieth century, according to the World Health Organization, developed nations averaged a rate of 27 deaths per 100 000 live births. This contrasts with 480 on average in developing nations (comparable to Victorian Britain), with some regions as high as 1000. The global average was 430. While these numbers are specific to pregnancy, and associated with disparities in medical services and supplies, they may also reflect the status of girls and women in different cultures, and their relative power in their societies.

Pregnancy, in the natural order of things, becomes possible and physiologically appropriate as soon as ovulation is established after the menarche, usually during the teens, or even earlier. But in modern developed societies, the issue of teenage pregnancy is increasingly a concern to both moral leaders and health educators. In the UK the rate has been rising: in 1997, under-16s accounted for over 8% of all known conceptions in the under-20 age group; meanwhile rates declined in other European countries and in the US there has been some reduction since the late 1980s. The spectre of the pregnant young girl is often cited as a wake-up call for issues as diverse as promiscuity, health education, and the viability of the welfare state.

Young women who maintain pregnancies are less likely to finish or continue their education, face greater marital instability, have fewer lifelong assets, and have lower incomes later in life than women who did not become pregnant young. Yet pregnant teenagers have become symbolic more of the decline of social morality than of the lack of resources granted to young women worldwide.

Teenage and unmarried pregnancies have always existed, but the advent of new methods of contraception in the twentieth century has changed the significance and experience of pregnancy for hundreds of millions of women worldwide. Before these methods were widely and legally available, pregnancy often signified the end of a woman's career choices, if not her need to work; closely successive pregnancies, when timing could not be controlled, often led to early death, as it still does in many places worldwide today.

Female-directed methods, such as the modern intrauterine device (IUD) and hormonal control by the Pill or by long-lasting implants, have allowed women to choose not only the occurrence but also the timing of pregnancy. Earlier barrier methods of contraception had allowed women to control their pregnancies somewhat, although they also required them to negotiate with their husbands. Hormonal contraceptives have changed many women's relationship to pregnancy by putting the choice in their own hands. Indeed, world health leaders are calling for this globally as a step towards women's liberation from socially imposed controls.

Relative size of the uterus at the end of (a) the third; (b) the sixth; and (c) the ninth month. Near the end of pregnancy the head usually sinks down into the pelvis (d) ; this is called 'lightening'. Reproduced, with permission, from Youngson (1995), Encyclopedia of family health, Bloomsbury Publishing
Relative size of the uterus at the end of (a) the third; (b) the sixth; and (c) the ninth month. Near the end of pregnancy the head usually sinks down into the pelvis (d) ; this is called 'lightening'. Reproduced, with permission, from Youngson (1995), Encyclopedia of family health, Bloomsbury Publishing



As women have been afforded more control over pregnancy, they have also been granted more responsibility for the outcomes. European societies of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries often assumed that strong maternal emotions would mark the fetus; disfigured babies were blamed on maternal viewing of disfigured persons or other disturbing events. Modern versions of maternal responsibility relate to the links between birth outcomes and maternal behaviors, such as drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, or taking drugs (licit or illicit). Whilst high risks for fetal abnormality are established for some maternal excesses (e.g. alcohol, cocaine), for specific nutritional deficiencies (some vitamins and trace elements), and for certain prescription drugs, prohibitions and exhortations may often be overstated. While women around the world and through time have made sacrifices and personal changes for the good of the fetus, this modern focus on risk and risk management has defined what constitutes ‘the good of the fetus’. The rights of women to bodily integrity and self-determination seem sometimes to be undermined by a society's concern to protect the fetus from any possibility of harm.

In the latter half of the twentieth century also, medical technologies began to address infertility, and to develop methods of assisted reproduction. These have not only benefited childless couples, but have also resulted in extensions of pregnancy in two other contexts. Surrogacy, the creation and carrying of a pregnancy for another woman or couple, has gained both prominence and notoriety in recent years. The practice has spawned high-profile custody cases, the most famous of which is the Mary Beth Whitehead case, as well as more prosaic cases of women carrying babies for their sisters, daughters, and friends — as demonstrated in Sisters, US television drama. While this has created legal disputes about the relative importance of genetic parenthood over physical parenthood, it has also enabled infertile couples, including lesbian couples, to create genetically-connected families.

The medical procedures involved in surrogacy — hormone treatments, ova extraction, in-vitro fertilization (IVF), and gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT), for example — have also allowed post-menopausal women to bear children. A number of cases have recently occurred in the US, where several women in their 50s and 60s have given birth. These events touched off a national debate about appropriate motherhood and the dual pressures towards a career and a family that modern women often face.

Even routine pregnancies in industrialized countries are increasingly technological, as couples are offered genetic counselling, and ultrasound scans and amniocentesis have become commonplace. While these procedures can sometimes highlight problems that medical technology can successfully address, they may create anxiety through false positives, nebulous results, and the construction of pregnancy as problematic, instead of generally successful. While technology has long been able to transform, and has often usefully assisted the procedure of birth, these diagnostic procedures have only recently allowed the medical profession immediate and even cellular control over the management of pregnancy.

Pregnancy is essentially a personal event, but international attention is currently focusing on pregnancy around the world. While the World Health Organization is focused on lowering rates of fertility, infant mortality, and maternal mortality in order to improve the lives of women and children, national concern for differential pregnancy rates frequently betrays racist undertones; industrialized countries, and well-off populations within them, worry about how ‘they’ will outnumber and overtake ‘us’. Although often categorized as a ‘woman's issue’, pregnancy and the social attitudes towards it thus highlight important cultural issues, such as the relationship between life and technology, the definitions of gender roles in a given society, and the relationship between nations and their citizens.

— Julie Vedder

See also antenatal development; assisted reproduction; birth; contraception; fertility; infertility; labour; ovaries; placenta; sex hormones; uterus.

Top

noun

    The condition of carrying a developing fetus within the uterus: gestation, gravidity, gravidness, parturiency. See reproduction/barrenness.

A great deal of public health resources is spent on pregnancy. It is clear that prenatal and neonatal health play a large role in determining the health of a population, and in fact, pregnancy outcomes are often used as an indicator of a nation's health.

Epidemiology of Pregnancy

Globally, there are approximately 240 million pregnancies annually. These pregnancies result in 134 million births and 50 million induced abortions, 20 million of which are performed under unsafe conditions. Approximately 6 to 7 million of these 240 million pregnancies occur each year in the United States. These result in about 4 million liveborn babies, over 1 million induced abortions, at least 1 million spontaneous abortions (miscarriages), nearly 100,000 ectopic pregnancies (a pregnancy in which the fetus develops outside the uterus), and about 30,000 fetal deaths.

Of the 4 million babies born in the United States in 1999, 12 percent were born to women under 20 years of age. Approximately 4.5 percent of white teens (ages 15 to 19), 8.1 percent of African-American teens, and 9.3 percent of Hispanic teens gave birth. Since 1991, the teenage birth rate has been declining in the United States, particularly among African Americans, largely because of an increased use of effective contraception.

In 1999, 13 percent of the babies born in the United States were born to women 35 years old and older. The birth rate among this age group increased during the last three decades of the twentieth century, despite the fact that older women have an increased risk for having babies with chromosomal abnormalities (the risk is approximately 1 in 1,000 at age 25, 1 in 200 at age 35, and 1 in 20 at age 45).

About half of all pregnancies are unintended or unplanned, and one in three babies are born to single or unmarried mothers. (Nearly 70% of African-American babies and over 40% of Hispanic babies are born to unmarried mothers.)

Four out of five women who gave birth in 1999 started prenatal care in the first trimester, though this percentage was lower among African-American and Hispanic women. Despite an overall improvement in prenatal care utilization, the proportion of low birthweight (LBW) births and preterm births have been increasing gradually since the mid-1980s. This increase is accounted for, in part, an increase in multiple gestations and the growing number of infants born to women older than 35 years of age.

Of the 1.2 million legal induced abortions performed in 1999, 20 percent were obtained by women less than 20 years old, 60 percent by white women, and 80 percent by unmarried women.

Physiology of Pregnancy

A human pregnancy starts when the male sperm fertilizes the ovum (egg) in a woman's Fallopian tube, and it lasts, on average, 266 days. Contraception works by inhibiting the release of the ovum from the ovary (birth control pill, injectible, or subdermal implant), by impeding the release of sperm (vasectomy), by blocking sperm from entering the vagina or cervix (male or female condom, diaphragm, or cervical cap), or by blocking the Fallopian tubes (tubal ligation). Once conception takes place, the fertilized egg travels through the Fallopian tube into the uterus, where it implants about seven days later. The intrauterine device (IUD) impedes such implantation, and medications like mifepristone (RU486) causes the implanted embryo to abort.

A developing human is called an embryo between two and eight weeks after conception; thereafter it is called a fetus until delivery. Development of the major organs begins during the early embryonic period, and interference with this process may result in birth defects. Women taking harmful substances, or women with preexisting diseases like diabetes mellitus, are at increased risk for having babies with birth defects. Because the development of major organs begins during early pregnancy, often before a woman starts prenatal care or realizes that she is pregnant, preconceptional care is recommended for every woman of reproductive age.

Although most major organs are present at the end of the embryonic period, the development of their functions continues well into the fetal period, infancy, and early childhood. Interference with this process may lead to functional deficits. For example, undernutrition during this period of growth has been associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease, and maternal alcohol use during pregnancy has been linked to mental retardation and other birth defects.

Remarkable changes take place in a woman during pregnancy. The heart circulates 40 percent more blood volume to supply nutrients and oxygen to the growing baby, deeper breaths occur and an increased amount of harmful substances are cleansed through the kidneys. Digestion slows down for better absorption or nutrients, which may cause problems such as heartburn and constipation. The baby is sustained in the uterus by the placenta, which serves as the interface between maternal and fetal circulations. Hormones prepare the breasts for lactation, and the immune system is altered so that it does not reject the baby as a foreign body. While most healthy women make these adaptations readily, pregnancy can jeopardize the health, and sometimes the lives, of women who are less healthy and suffer increased stress to the system during pregnancy.

Pathophysiology of Pregnancy

When things go wrong during pregnancy, the health of both mother and baby may be at risk of certain health problems associated with pregnancy.

Infertility. Infertility is defined as failure to conceive following a period of 12 months or longer of unprotected sexual intercourse. In 1988, over 8 million American women 15 to 44 years of age reported an impaired ability to have children. Major causes include endometriosis, poor sperm quality or low sperm count, failure to ovulate, and tubal damage.

Ectopic Pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that has implanted outside of the uterus, most commonly in the Fallopian tubes, which may have been scarred from a previous infection, ectopic pregnancy, or tubal ligation. The growing pregnancy, if not surgically terminated, may rupture the tube, causing hemorrhage. Ectopic pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal deaths among African-American women.

Abortion. Abortion refers to the termination of pregnancy before the twentieth week of gestation (counting from the last menstrual period). Abortion can be spontaneous or induced. Most spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) involve some chromosomal abnormalities; the causes of the rest are not known, but some may be due to exposure to environmental toxins.

Birth Defects. Birth defects are the leading cause of infant death and the fifth leading cause of potential years of life lost. About 3.6 percent of all babies in the United States are born with major birth defects, the most common being cleft lip and palate, Down syndrome, neural tube defect, and congenital heart disease.

Low Birth Weight (LBW). LBW, defined as birth weight under 2,500 grams (5.5 pounds), is the second leading cause of infant death, and the leading cause of infant death among African Americans. Risk factors include short interpregnancy interval, low prepregnancy weight, inadequate weight gain during pregnancy, history of LBW or preterm birth, cigarette smoking, and socioeconomic factors.

Preterm Birth. Preterm birth, defined as delivery before 37 weeks of gestation, may result in major problems, including neurological damage from brain hemorrhage or respiratory distress from immature lungs.

Fetal Death. Fetal death refers to the death of a fetus after 20 weeks of gestation. Major causes include preexisting maternal conditions like diabetes mellitus or hypertension, and premature separation of the placenta from the uterus (placental abruption) as a result of drug use or trauma.

Infant Death. Infant death refers to death of a baby under one year of age. Major causes include birth defects, LBW, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Maternal Death. Maternal death is defined as the death of a woman as a result of her pregnancy, from the first stages of gestation to within 42 days after the pregnancy has terminated. Risk factors include age greater than 35, unmarried status (owing to socioeconomic factors, including a lack of access to health care), and lack of prenatal care. The classic HIT triad (hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia or preelcampsia) contributes to about half of all maternal deaths. Approximately 300 women in the United States and 500,000 women in the world die every year from pregnancy-related causes. The maternal mortality ratio of 7.5 deaths per 100,000 live births in the United States did not changed significantly during the last 20 years of the twentieth century.

Preeclampsia. Preeclampsia, caused by high blood pressure during the latter part of pregnancy, is characterized by hypertension, protein in the urine, edema, and organ damage as a result of hypertension. Such organ damage may include seizure, stroke, kidney failure, liver damage, and fluid in the lungs. Preeclampsia is treated by effecting prompt delivery (and thereby ridding the body of the circulating toxin released by the placenta). Magnesium is commonly used to prevent seizure. Complications of severe preeclampsia can often be prevented with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Obstetrical Hemorrhage. Obstetrical hemorrhage is characterized by excessive blood loss. It occurs prenatally as a result of premature separation (placental abruption) or abnormal location (placenta previa) of the placenta. It can also occur as a result of injury to the birth canal during delivery, retained placenta within the uterus after delivery, or the inability of the uterus to firm up (uterine atony) after delivery.

Puerperal Infection. Puerperal infections are those that occur during labor, delivery, or the postpartum period. The infection is typically caused by bacteria from the vagina ascending into the uterus. Risk factors include cesarean section, prolonged time from when the "water breaks" to delivery, poor nutrition, and maternal anemia. Prompt treatment with antibiotics can prevent significant morbidity associated with puerperal infections.

Embolism. An embolus is a clot. It could be a blood clot (thromboembolus), or a clot of fetal tissues (amniotic fluid embolus) that travels in maternal circulation. If it blocks off circulation in the lungs or the heart, the embolus could be fatal.

Healthy Pregnancy

Between 1900 and 2000, infant mortality in the United States declined by 90 percent, and maternal mortality by 99 percent. This was one of the greatest achievements of public health in the twentieth century. However, the goal, established in 1994 by the International Conference on Population and Development, of every pregnancy being healthy has not been achieved. Current efforts to ensure healthy pregnancy work at three different levels of prevention.

Primary prevention involves efforts to prevent diseases from occurring during pregnancy. Examples of primary prevention during pregnancy include family planning, preconceptional care, and health promotion during prenatal care. By preventing unintended pregnancies, family planning can prevent morbidity associated with unintended pregnancies. Preconceptional care has been shown to reduce certain birth defects. Proper nutrition and cessation of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use during pregnancy can prevent low birth weight and other complications.

Secondary prevention involves efforts to facilitate early detection and treatment of diseases during pregnancy. Prenatal care provides early and continuous assessment of the pregnant woman, and includes early detection of preeclampsia, syphilis, and tuberculosis.

Tertiary prevention attempts to avert severe complications resulting from diseases during pregnancy. Examples of tertiary prevention include the administration of antibiotics in the treatment of puerperal infection, magnesium to prevent eclampsia (convulsions) in women affected by severe preeclampsia, and transfusion of blood products when obstetrical hemorrhage occurs. Regionalization of perinatal health services, so that high-risk women deliver only in hospitals equipped to deal with potential complications, plays an important role in tertiary prevention.

Much of the improvement in maternal and infant health is attributable to improved health conditions such as better sanitation, sewage control, and safer water supplies. Continued improvement is likely to come from social and behavioral changes rather than from advancement in medical care. Such developments as the expansion in the availability of legal abortions, increased education for women, and better family planning practices have all contributed to improved maternal and infant health. It is important, therefore, for public health professionals to learn how to better address social and behavioral determinants of health. For example, because smoking cigarettes during pregnancy can cause low birth weight and prematurity, it is important to find out how to stop women from smoking during pregnancy.

Because the health of a baby is tied to health of the mother, efforts to improve pregnancy outcomes must begin with women's health. Current efforts fall short by doing too little too late—to expect prenatal care to reverse all the cumulative effects of risk exposures over the course of a woman's life may be expecting too much. Future efforts should promote health not only during pregnancy, but during all of a woman's life.

(SEE ALSO: Abortion; Abortion Laws; Birthrate; Child Health Services; Child Mortality; Contraception; Family Health; Family Planning Behavior; Fecundity and Fertility; Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; Fetal Death; Folic Acid; Infant Mortality Rate; Maternal and Child Health; Newborn Screening; Planned Parenthood; Prenatal Care; Reproduction; Women's Health)

Bibliography

Barker, D. J. P. (1998). Mothers, Babies and Health in Later Life, 2nd edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Brown, S. S, and Eisenberg, L., eds. (1995). The Best Intentions: Unintended Pregnancy and the Well-Being of Children and Families. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000). "Abortion Surveillance: Preliminary Analysis—United States, 1997." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48:1171–1174.

Cunningham, F. G.; MacDonald, P. C.; Gant, N. F.; Leveno, K. J.; and Gilstrap, L. C. (1997). Williams Obstetrics, 20th edition. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Curtin, S. C., and Martin, J. A. (2000). "Births: Preliminary Data for 1999." National Vital Statistics Reports 48:14. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

Moore, K. L. (1988). Essentials of Human Embryology. Toronto: Decker.

Smedley, B. D., and Syme, S. L., eds. (2000). Promoting Health: Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

— MICHAEL C. LU



The folklore of pregnancy, like that of childbirth, is inadequately recorded in England. The process was jokingly compared with baking bread; a pregnant woman is still said to ‘have a bun in the oven’, and a mentally impaired child to be ‘half-baked’. Various signs were thought to indicate the baby's sex. Ancient Greek authorities had taught that a male foetus lay to the right of the mother's womb and affected the right side of her body, and this notion can be found as late as 1724 in Jane Sharp's The Compleat Midwife's Companion: ‘If it be a Boy, she is better Coloured, her Right Breast will swell more, for Males lie most on the right side and her Belly especially on the right side and her Belly especially on that side lieth rounder and more tumefied and the Child will be first felt to move on that side, the Woman is more cheerful and in better Health, her Pains are not so often or so great’ (cited in Chamberlain, 1981: 190).

Women still pass on such tips to one another, though often with amusement rather than belief. Some say one can tell the baby's sex by whether it is carried high or low, and whether it kicks to the right or to the left; others, that ‘boy baby bumps are all out at the front, while girl baby bumps are spread round the side as well’. Many say boy babies kick harder (‘He'll be a footballer!’), but the reverse is recorded too: ‘If you don't feel much movement from the baby it is a boy’ (Chamberlain, 1981: 241).

A divination frequently mentioned is to suspend a wedding ring or a key over the pregnant woman's womb on a thread, or one of her own hairs, to see if it spins clockwise or anti-clockwise, or straight; however, informants disagree on which movement means which sex (Opie and Tatem, 1989: 302-3; Chamberlain, 1981: 241; Sutton, 1992: 57).

Blemishes in a newborn infant were blamed on the circumstances of its conception, or events during the mother's pregnancy. The best known is the harelip, caused by a hare crossing the mother's path, but virtually any troubles could be explained this way. If, for instance, a child had an ugly birthmark, it would be said to resemble something the mother had stared too hard at, or been frightened by, or longed in vain to eat. Examples of this belief can be found from the 16th century to the present. A woman from Hackthorn (Lincolnshire) recalled in the 1980s:

I knew of a child who was born with a perfect mouse on his wrist. His mother had gone into the pantry and had seen a mouse (it's the truth I'm telling you) and she grabbed her wrist like this and the child was born with the shape of a mouse on his wrist. My husband used to say it was balderdash, but it's true. Anyway, he had to go into hospital to have it taken off, so there. (Sutton, 1992: 56)


Deformities were also sometimes seen as God's judgement on a sin of the mother (not the father), typically a blasphemous remark, or a refusal of charity. The belief was exploited for propaganda by both sides during the Civil War. A royalist pamphleteer claimed a Puritan woman had declared while pregnant that she would rather bear a headless baby than let her baby be baptized, and that this had duly happened; a Puritan pamphleteer matched this with the story that a royalist woman had said it would be better her child had no head than become a Roundhead, with the same result. In 1871, the Revd Francis Kilvert learnt of a crippled woman then living in Presteigne, who was said to have the face and feet of a frog:
The story about this unfortunate being is as follows. Shortly before she was born, a woman came begging to her mother's door with two or three little children. Her mother was angry and ordered the woman away. ‘Get away with your young frogs,’ she said. And the child she was expecting was born partly in the form of a frog, as a punishment and a curse upon her. (Kilvert's Diary, ed. W. Plomer (1960), i. 380-1)


See also CHILDBIRTH, CONCEPTION, CRADLE, LIONS, MONSTROUS BIRTHS.

The period of time (about 280 days) between conception and birth. Although women with a history of poor health may be prescribed rest at various stages of pregnancy, many women exercise and even compete during pregnancy with no ill effects. It is generally agreed that as long as an exercise programme is properly designed, the benefits of exercise during pregnancy outweigh the potential risks. However, all pregnant women should obtain medical clearance before engaging in exercise and should acquire expert advice in designing an individualized programme. The best exercises are non-weight bearing (e.g. cycling and swimming). Exertion levels should be individually determined. Contact sports, exercises in the supine position, and exercising in a warm, humid environment should be avoided. It is important that pregnant women drink plenty of liquids before and after exercise to avoid dehydration. Maximal physical exertion is generally not recommended after the fifth month of pregnancy.

pregnancy, period of time between fertilization of the ovum (conception) and birth, during which mammals carry their developing young in the uterus (see embryo). The duration of pregnancy in humans is about 280 days, equal to 9 calendar months. After the fertilized ovum is implanted in the uterus, rapid changes occur in the reproductive organs of the mother. The uterus becomes larger and more flexible, enlargement of the breasts begins, and alteration of renal function, blood volume, and blood cell count occur. Movement of the fetus and fetal heartbeat can be detected early in pregnancy.

One test that has been used to determine pregnancy uses blood or urine samples to detect a hormone known as BhCG, found exclusively in pregnant women. Later, prenatal diagnostic tests such as alpha fetoprotein, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling may be performed as screening measures for congenital defects. Ultrasound, a sonar device using high-frequency wavelengths, is used to detect defects, measure fetal heartbeat, and monitor growth of a fetus.

Complications of pregnancy include eclampsia, premature birth, and erythroblastosis fetalis (Rh incompatibility). Ectopic pregnancy, in which the fetus begins to develop outside the uterus, often in a fallopian tube, is another complication. It is often the result of scarring from a sexually transmitted disease. Smoking has been linked to low-birth weight infants; alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been linked to a group of defects called fetal alcohol syndrome.

The technology relating to pregnancy has made great advances and has created a number of ethical issues. Many women in their 40s are now able to sustain successful pregnancies, due to technological devices that carefully monitor the progress of the fetus. In vitro fertilization and other infertility treatments have allowed even postmenopausal women to give birth. The use of fertility drugs has led to a marked increase in multiple births. Abortion, in which pregnancy is terminated prior to birth, has long been a subject of heated debate, and surrogate motherhood (see surrogate mother) has also raised ethical issues in recent years.

See also amenorrhea; birth defects; midwifery.

Bibliography

See J. T. Queenan and C. N. Queenan, ed. A New Life (1992); C. A. Bean, Methods of Childbirth (1990);; Boston Women's Health Book Collective, Our Bodies, Ourselves for the New Century (1998).


Word Tutor:

pregnancy

Top
pronunciation

IN BRIEF: The condition of having unborn young growing within the body.

pronunciation The woman was very excited about her pregnancy after being married for so many years.

LearnThatWord.com is a free vocabulary and spelling program where you only pay for results!

The condition of having a developing embryo or fetus in the body, after union of an ovum and spermatozoon. The duration of pregnancy in each animal species varies widely. See also gestation.

  • abdominal p. — ectopic pregnancy within the peritoneal cavity.
  • p. diagnosis — see pregnancy tests (below).
    Pregnancy diagnosis by rectal examination in a cow. By permission from Parkinson TJ, England GCW, Arthur GH, Arthur's Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics, Saunders, 2001
  • p. duration — see gestation period.
  • ectopic p., extrauterine p. — development of the fertilized ovum outside the cavity of the uterus. The site of implantation usually is one of the uterine tubes. Not recorded as occurring in animals.
  • p. edema — see udder edema.
  • p. failure — includes fetal resorption, fetal mummification, abortion, miscarriage.
  • false p., phantom p. — development of all the signs of pregnancy without the presence of an embryo. Commonly seen in bitches, 40 to 60 days after estrus, associated with the persistence of corpora lutea. There may be all the signs of impending parturition with mammary development, milk and behavior changes including nest building and aggression. Tends to recur in the same bitch. Sometimes pyometra is a sequel. Called also pseudopregnancy, pseudocyesis.
  • p. prolonged — see prolonged gestation.
  • p. rate (overall) — the percentage of all services given to a group of females during a defined period which result in pregnancies (diagnosed at 42 days or more after service), or percentage of all females which become pregnant during a specified (usually seasonal) breeding period.
  • p. specific protein B — a potential pregnancy diagnosis test; secreted by the trophoblastic ectoderm and present in the cow's peripheral circulation at day 24 of gestation; persists in the circulation for long periods after parturition.
  • p. termination — in the early stages of pregnancy prostaglandins are used; in the later stages corticosteroids are used. The efficacy of the various treatments varies between the species. See also parturition induction.
  • p. tests — cover a wide range with different tests being most satisfactory in different species. Mare—ultrasound at 24 days, rectal palpation of the uterus 30 to 35 days, serum gonadotropin levels at day 40 to 100. Cow—rectal palpation from 35 days onwards; progesterone assay in milk at day 24 after breeding. Ewes—ultrasound after 60 days, rectal probe after 70 days. Sow—estrone sulfate content of the urine at 25 days, rectal examination at 30 days, ultrasound at 28 days. Bitch, queen—palpation through the abdominal wall in a cooperative patient at 21 days, radiographic examination at day 45, ultrasound at 35 days.
  • p. toxemia — is recorded in ruminants.
  • — 1. Ewes. Pregancy toxemia occurs only in the last month of pregnancy, most commonly in fat ewes carrying twin lambs, and in circumstances in which the feed supply is declining. See also fat ewe pregnancy toxemia. — 2. Cows. Fat cows in the last 6 weeks of pregnancy and which suffer a sharp decrease in feed are subject. Dairy cows that calve in an excessively fat state and then are stressed nutritionally develop a syndrome very similar to pregnancy toxemia but called more commonly fat cow syndrome. In all of the diseases there is blindness, recumbency and severe ketosis. In early cases there may be some excitation, even convulsions. — 3. in guinea pig sows, particularly obese ones, uteroplacental ischemia caused by aortic compression and iliac arterial hypoplasia occurs in late pregancy, causing lethargy, anorexia and rapid death.

n

The gestational process, comprising the growth and development within a woman of a new individual from conception through the embryonic and fetal periods to birth. Pregnancy lasts approximately 266 days from the day of fertilization, but is clinically considered to last 280 days (40 weeks, or 10 lunar months) from the first day of the last menstrual period.

Random House Word Menu:

categories related to 'pregnancy'

Top
Random House Word Menu by Stephen Glazier
For a list of words related to pregnancy, see:

This article is about humans. For pregnancy in other mammals, see Pregnancy (mammals). For pregnancy in fish, see Pregnancy in fish.
Pregnancy
PregnantWoman.jpg
A pregnant woman
Classification and external resources
Specialty Obstetrics
ICD-10 Z33
ICD-9 650
DiseasesDB 10545
MedlinePlus 002398
eMedicine article/259724
MeSH D011247

Pregnancy, also known as gravidity or gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.[1] A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins.[2] Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology. It usually last around 40 weeks (10 lunar months) from the last menstrual period (LMP) and ends in childbirth.[1][3] This is about 38 weeks after conception. An embryo is the developing offspring during the first 8 weeks following conception after which the term fetus is used until birth.[3] Symptom of early pregnancy may include a missed periods, tender breasts, nausea and vomiting, hunger, and frequent urination.[4] Pregnancy may be confirmed with a pregnancy test.[5]

Pregnancy is typically divided into three trimesters. The first trimester is from week one to twelve and includes conception. Conception is followed by the fertilized egg traveling down the fallopian tube and attaching to the inside of the uterus where it begins to form the fetus and placenta.[1] The first trimester carries the highest risk of miscarriage (natural death of embryo or fetus).[6] The second trimester is from week 13 to 28. Around the middle of the second trimester movement of the fetus may be felt. At 28 weeks more than 90% of babies can survive outside of the uterus if provided high quality medical care. The third trimester is from 29 weeks to 40 weeks.[1]

Prenatal care improves pregnancy outcomes.[7] This may include taking extra folic acid, avoiding drugs and alcohol, regular exercise, blood tests, and regular physical examinations.[7] Complications of pregnancy may include high blood pressure of pregnancy, gestational diabetes, iron deficiency anemia, and severe nausea and vomiting among others.[8] Term pregnancy is 37 weeks to 41 weeks, with early term being 37 and 38 weeks, full term 39 and 40 weeks, and late term 41 weeks. After 41 weeks it is known as post term. Babies born before 37 weeks are preterm and are at higher risk of health problems such as cerebral palsy.[1] It is recommended that delivery not be artificially started with either labor induction or caesarean section before 39 weeks unless required for other medical reasons.[9]

About 213 million pregnancies occurred in 2012 of which 190 million were in the developing world and 23 million were in the developed world. This is about 133 pregnancies per 1,000 women between the ages of 15 and 44.[10] About 10% to 15% of recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage.[6] In 2013 complications of pregnancy resulted in 293,000 deaths down from 377,000 deaths in 1990. Common causes include maternal bleeding, complications of abortion, high blood pressure of pregnancy, maternal sepsis, and obstructed labor.[11] Globally 40% of pregnancies are unplanned. Half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted.[10] Among unintended pregnancies in the United States, 60% of the women used birth control to some extent during the month pregnancy occurred.[12]

Terminology[edit]

One scientific term for the state of pregnancy is gravidity (adjective "gravid"), Latin for "heavy" and a pregnant female is sometimes referred to as a gravida.[13] Similarly, the term parity (abbreviated as "para") is used for the number of times a female has given birth, counting twins and other multiple births as one pregnancy, and usually including stillbirths. Medically, a woman who has never been pregnant is referred to as a nulligravida, a woman who is (or has been only) pregnant for the first time as a primigravida,[14] and a woman in subsequent pregnancies as a multigravida or multiparous.[13][15] Therefore, during a second pregnancy a woman would be described as gravida 2, para 1 and upon live delivery as gravida 2, para 2. An in-progress pregnancy, as well as abortions, miscarriages or stillbirths account for parity values being less than the gravida number. In the case of twins, triplets, etc., gravida number and parity value are increased by one only. Women who have never carried a pregnancy achieving more than 20 weeks of gestation age are referred to as nulliparous.[16]

Recent medical literature prefers the terminology preterm and postterm to premature and postmature. Preterm and postterm are unambiguously defined as above, whereas premature and postmature have historical meaning and relate more to the infant's size and state of development rather than to the stage of pregnancy.[17][18]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Melasma pigment changes to the face due to pregnancy

The symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy are those presentations and conditions that result from pregnancy but do not significantly interfere with activities of daily living or pose a threat to the health of the mother or baby. This is in contrast to pregnancy complications. Still, there is often no clear separation between symptoms versus discomforts versus complications, and in some cases the same basic feature can manifest as either a discomfort or a complication depending on the severity. For example, mild nausea may merely be a discomfort (morning sickness), but if severe and with vomiting causing water-electrolyte imbalance it can be classified as a pregnancy complication (hyperemesis gravidarum).

Common symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy include:

Complications[edit]

Each year, ill-health as a result of pregnancy is experienced (sometimes permanently) by more than 20 million women around the world.[21] In 2013 complications of pregnancy resulted in 293,000 deaths down from 377,000 deaths in 1990. Common causes include maternal bleeding (44,000), complications of abortion (44,000), high blood pressure of pregnancy (29,000), maternal sepsis (24,000), and obstructed labor (19,000).[11]

The following are some examples of pregnancy complications:

There is also an increased susceptibility and severity of certain infections in pregnancy.

Intercurrent diseases[edit]

In addition to complications of pregnancy that can arise, a pregnant woman may have intercurrent diseases, that is, other diseases or conditions (not directly caused by the pregnancy) that may become worse or be a potential risk to the pregnancy.

Physiology[edit]

Timeline of pregnancy by gestational age

Initiation[edit]

Fertilization and implantation in humans

The most commonly used event to mark the initiation of pregnancy is the first day of the woman's last normal menstrual period, and the resulting fetal age is called the gestational age. This choice is a result of a lack of a convenient way to discern the point in time when the actual creation of the fetus naturally happens. In case of in vitro fertilisation, gestational age is calculated by days from oocyte retrieval + 14 days.[25]

Still, already at the initiation of the preceding menstrual period the female body goes through changes to prepare for an upcoming conception, including a rise in follicle stimulating hormone that stimulates folliculogenesis and subsequently oogenesis in order to give rise to a mature egg cell, which is the female gamete. Fertilization is the event where the egg cell fuses with the male gamete, spermatozoon. After the point of fertilization, the fused product of the female and male gamete is referred to as a zygote or fertilized egg. The fusion of male and female gametes usually occurs following the act of sexual intercourse. It can also occur by assisted reproductive technology such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilisation, which may be undertaken as a voluntary choice or due to infertility.

The event of fertilization is sometimes used as a mark of the initiation of pregnancy, with the derived age being termed fertilization age, and is an alternative to gestational age. Fertilization usually occurs about two weeks before her next expected menstrual period, and if either date is unknown in an individual case it is a frequent practice to add 14 days to the fertilization age to get the gestational age and vice versa.

Development of embryo and fetus[edit]

The initial stages of human embryogenesis

The sperm and the egg cell, which has been released from one of the female's two ovaries, unite in one of the two fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg, known as a zygote, then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take up to a week to complete. Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the male and female cells unite. Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as a blastocyst. The blastocyst arrives at the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall, a process known as implantation.

The development of the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately 10 weeks of gestation. During this time, cells begin to differentiate into the various body systems. The basic outlines of the organ, body, and nervous systems are established. By the end of the embryonic stage, the beginnings of features such as fingers, eyes, mouth, and ears become visible. Also during this time, there is development of structures important to the support of the embryo, including the placenta and umbilical cord. The placenta connects the developing embryo to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply. The umbilical cord is the connecting cord from the embryo or fetus to the placenta.

After about 10 weeks of gestational age, the embryo becomes known as a fetus instead. At the beginning of the fetal stage, the risk of miscarriage decreases sharply,[26] When the fetal stage commences, a fetus is typically about 30 mm (1.2 inches) in length, and the heart can be seen beating via ultrasound; the fetus can be seen making various involuntary motions at this stage.[27] During continued fetal development, the early body systems and structures that were established in the embryonic stage continue to develop. Sex organs begin to appear during the third month of gestation. The fetus continues to grow in both weight and length, although the majority of the physical growth occurs in the last weeks of pregnancy.

Electrical brain activity is first detected between the 5th and 6th week of gestation, though this is still considered primitive neural activity rather than the beginning of conscious thought, something that develops much later in fetation. Synapses begin forming at 17 weeks, and at about week 28 begin to multiply at a rapid pace which continues until 3 to 4 months after birth.[28]

Maternal changes[edit]

Breast changes as seen during pregnancy. The areolae are larger and darker.

During pregnancy, the woman undergoes many physiological changes, which are entirely normal, including cardiovascular, hematologic, metabolic, renal and respiratory changes that become very important in the event of complications. The body must change its physiological and homeostatic mechanisms in pregnancy to ensure the fetus is provided for. Increases in blood sugar, breathing and cardiac output are all required. Levels of progesterone and oestrogens rise continually throughout pregnancy, suppressing the hypothalamic axis and subsequently the menstrual cycle.

The fetus inside a pregnant woman may be viewed as an unusually successful allograft, since it genetically differs from the woman.[33] The main reason for this success is an increased maternal immune tolerance during pregnancy.

Pregnancy is typically broken into three periods, or trimesters, each of about three months.[34][35] Obstetricians define each trimester as lasting for 14 weeks, resulting in a total duration of 42 weeks, although the average duration of pregnancy is actually about 40 weeks.[36] While there are no hard and fast rules, these distinctions are useful in describing the changes that take place over time.

First trimester[edit]

The uterus as it changes in size over the duration of the trimesters

Minute ventilation is increased by 40% in the first trimester.[37] The womb will grow to the size of a lemon by eight weeks. Many symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy like nausea and tender breasts appear in the first trimester.[38]

Second trimester[edit]

By the end of the second trimester, the expanding uterus has created a visible "baby bump". Although the breasts have been developing internally since the beginning of the pregnancy, most of the visible changes appear after this point.

Weeks 13 to 28 of the pregnancy are called the second trimester. Most women feel more energized in this period, and begin to put on weight as the symptoms of morning sickness subside and eventually fade away. The uterus, the muscular organ that holds the developing fetus, can expand up to 20 times its normal size during pregnancy.

Although the fetus begins to move and takes a recognizable human shape during the first trimester, it is not until the second trimester that movement of the fetus, often referred to as "quickening", can be felt. This typically happens in the fourth month, more specifically in the 20th to 21st week, or by the 19th week if the woman has been pregnant before. It is common for some women not to feel the fetus move until much later. During the second trimester, most women begin to wear maternity clothes.

Third trimester[edit]

The uterus expands making up a larger and larger portion of the woman's abdomen. At left anterior view with months labeled, at right lateral view labeling the last 4 weeks. During the final stages of gestation before childbirth the fetus and uterus will drop to a lower position.

Final weight gain takes place, which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy. The woman's abdomen will transform in shape as it drops due to the fetus turning in a downward position ready for birth. During the second trimester, the woman's abdomen would have been very upright, whereas in the third trimester it will drop down quite low, and the woman will be able to lift her abdomen up and down. The fetus begins to move regularly, and is felt by the woman. Fetal movement can become quite strong and be disruptive to the woman. The woman's navel will sometimes become convex, "popping" out, due to her expanding abdomen.

Head engagement, where the fetal head descends into cephalic presentation, relieves pressure on the upper abdomen with renewed ease in breathing. It also severely reduces bladder capacity, and increases pressure on the pelvic floor and the rectum.

It is also during the third trimester that maternal activity and sleep positions may affect fetal development due to restricted blood flow. For instance, the enlarged uterus may impede blood flow by compressing the lower pressured vena cava, with the left lateral positions appearing to providing better oxygenation to the infant.[39]

Determining gestational age[edit]

Since these are spread over a significant period of time, the duration of pregnancy necessarily depends on the date selected as the starting point chosen.

As measured on a reference group of women with a menstrual cycle of exactly 28-days prior to pregnancy, and who had spontaneous onset of labor, the mean pregnancy length has been estimated to be 283.4 days of gestational age as timed from the first day of the last menstrual period as recalled by the mother, and 280.6 days when the gestational age was retrospectively estimated by obstetric ultrasound measurement of the fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) in the second trimester.[40] Other algorithms take into account a variety of other variables, such as whether this is the first or subsequent child (i.e., pregnant woman is a primipara or a multipara, respectively), the mother's race, parental age, length of menstrual cycle, and menstrual regularity), but these are rarely used by healthcare professionals. In order to have a standard reference point, the normal pregnancy duration is generally assumed to be 280 days (or 40 weeks) of gestational age.

The best method of determining gestational age is ultrasound during the first trimester of pregnancy. This is typically accurate within seven days.[41] This means that fewer than 5 percent of births occur on the day of being 40 weeks of gestational age; 50 percent of births are within a week of this duration, and about 80 percent are within 2 weeks.[40] For the estimation of due date, mobile apps essentially always give consistent estimations compared to each other and correct for leap year, while pregnancy wheels made of paper can differ from each other by 7 days and generally do not correct for leap year.[42] Once the estimated due date (EDD) is established, it should rarely be changed, as the determination of gestational age is most accurate earlier in the pregnancy.[43]

The most common system used among healthcare professionals is Naegele's rule, which was developed in the early 19th century. This calculates the expected due date from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (LMP or LNMP) regardless of factors known to make this inaccurate, such as a shorter or longer menstrual cycle length. Pregnancy most commonly lasts for 40 weeks according to this LNMP-based method, assuming that the woman has a predictable menstrual cycle length of close to 28 days and conceives on the 14th day of that cycle.

As measured from the day of ovulation, the average time to birth has been estimated to be 268 days (38 weeks and two days), with a coefficient of variation of 3.7%.[44]

Accurate dating of pregnancy is important, because it is used in calculating the results of various prenatal tests, (for example, in the triple test). A decision may be made to induce labour if a fetus is perceived to be overdue. Furthermore, if LMP and ultrasound dating predict different respective due dates, with the latter being later, this might signify slowed fetal growth and therefore require closer review.

The stage of pregnancy defined as the beginning of legal fetal viability varies around the world. It sometimes incorporates weight as well as gestational age.[45] It ranges from 16 weeks in Norway, to 20 weeks in the US and Australia, 24 weeks in the UK and 26 weeks in Italy and Spain.[45][46][47]

Timing of childbirth[edit]

Further information: Preterm birth and Postterm pregnancy

Stages of pregnancy term
stage starts ends
Preterm[48]
-
at 37 weeks
Early term[49] 37 weeks 39 weeks
Full term[49] 39 weeks 41 weeks
Late term[49] 41 weeks 42 weeks
Postterm[49] 42 weeks
-

In the ideal childbirth labor begins on its own when a woman is "at term".[50] Pregnancy is considered at term when gestation has lasted between 37 and 42 weeks.[49] Unless there is a medical reason to do so, planned delivery of a child should not happen until after the completion of 39 weeks of pregnancy.[49]

Events before completion of 37 weeks are considered preterm.[48] Preterm birth is associated with a range of risks and problems and whenever possible should be avoided in favor of giving birth when the pregnancy is at term.[51]

Sometimes if a woman's water breaks or contractions before 39 weeks, birth is unavoidable.[49] A natural beginning to an early term delivery is usually a physiological sign that the time is right for birth and not usually a cause for worry.[citation needed] Intentionally planning to give birth before 39 weeks by Caesarean section or labor induction, even if considered "at term", results in an increased risk of complications and harm to mother and child.[52] This is from factors including underdeveloped lungs of newborns, infection due to underdeveloped immune system, feeding problems due to underdeveloped brain, and jaundice from underdeveloped liver.[53] Some hospitals in the United States have noted a significant increase in neonatal intensive care unit patients when women schedule deliveries for convenience and are taking steps to reduce induction for non-medical reasons.[53]

Babies born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation have better outcomes than babies born either before or after this range.[49] This special time period is called "full term".[49] Whenever possible, waiting for labor to begin on its own in this time period is best for the health of the mother and baby.[50] Because of the likelihood of increased problems including the need for a c-section, between 39–41 weeks inducing labor without a medical indication is discouraged unless the cervix is favorable.[50]

Events after 42 weeks are considered postterm.[49] When a pregnancy exceeds 42 weeks, the risk of complications for both the woman and the fetus increases significantly.[54][55] Therefore, in an otherwise uncomplicated pregnancy, obstetricians usually prefer to induce labour at some stage between 41 and 42 weeks.[56]

Childbirth[edit]

Main article: Childbirth

Childbirth is the process whereby an infant is born.

A woman is considered to be in labour when she begins experiencing regular uterine contractions, accompanied by changes of her cervix – primarily effacement and dilation. While childbirth is widely experienced as painful, some women do report painless labours, while others find that concentrating on the birth helps to quicken labour and lessen the sensations. Most births are successful vaginal births, but sometimes complications arise and a woman may undergo a cesarean section.

During the time immediately after birth, both the mother and the baby are hormonally cued to bond, the mother through the release of oxytocin, a hormone also released during breastfeeding. Studies show that skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn immediately after birth is beneficial for both the mother and baby. A review done by the World Health Organization found that skin-to-skin contact between mothers and babies after birth reduces crying, improves mother-infant interaction, and helps mothers to breastfeed successfully. They recommend that neonates be allowed to bond with the mother during their first two hours after birth, the period that they tend to be more alert than in the following hours of early life.[57]

Postnatal period[edit]

Main article: Postnatal

The postnatal period begins immediately after the birth of a child and then extends for about six weeks. During this period, the mother's body begins the return to prepregnancy conditions that includes changes in hormone levels and uterus size.

Diagnosis[edit]

The beginning of pregnancy may be detected either based on symptoms by the pregnant woman herself, or by using medical tests with or without the assistance of a medical professional. Approximately 1 in 475 women at 20 weeks, and 1 in 2500 women at delivery, refuse to acknowledge that they are pregnant, which is called denial of pregnancy.[58] Some non-pregnant women have a very strong belief that they are pregnant along with some of the physical changes. This condition is known as pseudocyesis or false pregnancy.[59]

Physical signs[edit]

Linea nigra in a woman at 22 weeks pregnant

Most pregnant women experience a number of symptoms,[60] which can signify pregnancy. The symptoms can include nausea and vomiting, excessive tiredness and fatigue, cravings for certain foods that are not normally sought out, and frequent urination particularly during the night.

A number of early medical signs are associated with pregnancy.[61][62] These signs typically appear, if at all, within the first few weeks after conception. Although not all of these signs are universally present, nor are all of them diagnostic by themselves, taken together they make a presumptive diagnosis of pregnancy. These signs include the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the blood and urine, missed menstrual period, implantation bleeding that occurs at implantation of the embryo in the uterus during the third or fourth week after last menstrual period, increased basal body temperature sustained for over 2 weeks after ovulation, Chadwick's sign (darkening of the cervix, vagina, and vulva), Goodell's sign (softening of the vaginal portion of the cervix), Hegar's sign (softening of the uterus isthmus), and pigmentation of linea alba – Linea nigra, (darkening of the skin in a midline of the abdomen, caused by hyperpigmentation resulting from hormonal changes, usually appearing around the middle of pregnancy).[61][62] Breast tenderness is common during the first trimester, and is more common in women who are pregnant at a young age.[63] Shortly after conception, the nipples and areolas begin to darken due to a temporary increase in hormones.[64] This process continues throughout the pregnancy.

Despite all the signs, some women may not realize they are pregnant until they are far along in pregnancy. In some cases, a few have not been aware of their pregnancy until they begin labour. This can be caused by many factors, including irregular periods (quite common in teenagers), certain medications (not related to conceiving children), and obese women who disregard their weight gain. Others may be in denial of their situation.

Biomarkers[edit]

Further information: Pregnancy test

Pregnancy detection can be accomplished using one or more various pregnancy tests,[65] which detect hormones generated by the newly formed placenta, serving as biomarkers of pregnancy. Blood and urine tests can detect pregnancy 12 days after implantation.[66] Blood pregnancy tests are more sensitive than urine tests (giving fewer false negatives).[67] Home pregnancy tests are urine tests, and normally detect a pregnancy 12 to 15 days after fertilization. A quantitative blood test can determine approximately the date the embryo was conceived. Testing 48 hours apart can provide useful information regarding how the pregnancy is doing. A single test of progesterone levels can also help determine how likely a fetus will survive in those with a threatened miscarriage (bleeding in early pregnancy).[68]

Ultrasound image of fetus at 14 weeks (profile)

Ultrasound[edit]

3D ultrasound image of fetus at 20 weeks

Obstetric ultrasonography can detect some congenital diseases at an early stage, estimate the due date as well as detecting multiple pregnancy.[69] The resultant estimated gestational age and due date of the fetus are slightly more accurate than methods based on last menstrual period.[70] In those who are at low risk it is unclear if obstetric ultrasound before 24 weeks makes a significant difference in outcomes.[71]

Management[edit]

Attending prenatal care[edit]

Prenatal medical care is the medical and nursing care recommended for women before and during pregnancy. The aim of good prenatal care is to identify any potential problems early, to prevent them if possible (through recommendations on adequate nutrition, exercise, vitamin intake etc.), and to manage problems, possibly by directing the woman to appropriate specialists, hospitals, etc. if necessary.

Nutrition[edit]

A balanced, nutritious diet is an important aspect of a healthy pregnancy. Eating a healthy diet, balancing carbohydrates, fat, and proteins, and eating a variety of fruits and vegetables, usually ensures good nutrition. Those whose diets are affected by health issues, religious requirements, or ethical beliefs may choose to consult a health professional for specific advice.

Adequate periconceptional folic acid (also called folate or Vitamin B9) intake has been shown to decrease the risk of fetal neural tube defects such as spina bifida, a serious birth defect. The neural tube develops during the first 28 days of pregnancy, explaining the necessity to guarantee adequate periconceptional folate intake.[72][73] Folate (from folia, leaf) is abundant in spinach (fresh, frozen, or canned), and is found in green leafy vegetables e.g. salads, beets, broccoli, asparagus, citrus fruits and melons, chickpeas (i.e. in the form of hummus or falafel), and eggs. In the United States and Canada, most wheat products (flour, noodles) are fortified with folic acid.[74]

DHA omega-3 is a major structural fatty acid in the brain and retina, and is naturally found in breast milk. It is important for the woman to consume adequate amounts of DHA during pregnancy and while nursing to support her well-being and the health of her infant. Developing infants cannot produce DHA efficiently, and must receive this vital nutrient from the woman through the placenta during pregnancy and in breast milk after birth.[75]

Several micronutrients are important for the health of the developing fetus, especially in areas of the world where insufficient nutrition is prevalent.[76] In developed areas, such as Western Europe and the United States, certain nutrients such as Vitamin D and calcium, required for bone development, may require supplementation.[77][78][79]

Dangerous bacteria or parasites may contaminate foods, including Listeria and Toxoplasma gondii. Careful washing of fruits and raw vegetables may remove these pathogens, as may thoroughly cooking leftovers, meat, or processed meat. Soft cheeses may contain Listeria; if milk is raw, the risk may increase. Cat feces pose a particular risk of toxoplasmosis. Pregnant women are also more prone to Salmonella infections from eggs and poultry, which should be thoroughly cooked. Practicing good hygiene in the kitchen can reduce these risks.[80]

Weight gain[edit]

The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies.[81] Weight gain is only partly related to the weight of the baby and growing placenta, and includes extra fluid for circulation, and the weight needed to provide nutrition for the growing fetus.[82] Most needed weight gain occurs later in pregnancy.[82]

The Institute of Medicine recommends an overall pregnancy weight gain for those of normal weight (body mass index of 18.5–24.9), of 11.3–15.9 kg (25–35 pounds) having a singleton pregnancy.[83] Women who are underweight (BMI of less than 18.5), should gain between 12.7–18 kg (28–40 lbs), while those who are overweight (BMI of 25–29.9) are advised to gain between 6.8–11.3 kg (15–25 lbs) and those who are obese (BMI>30) should gain between 5–9 kg (11–20 lbs).[84]

During pregnancy, insufficient or excessive weight gain can compromise the health of the mother and fetus.[82] The most effective interventions for weight gain in underweight women is not clear.[82] Being or becoming very overweight in pregnancy increases the risk of complications for mother and fetus, including cesarean section, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, macrosomia and shoulder dystocia.[81] It can make losing weight after the pregnancy difficult.[81][85]

Around 50% of women of childbearing age in developed countries like the United Kingdom are overweight or obese before pregnancy.[85] A systematic review found that diet is the most effective way to reduce weight gain and associated risks in pregnancy.[85] The review did not find evidence of harm associated with diet control and exercise.[85]

Medication use[edit]

Drugs used during pregnancy can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus. Therefore many physicians would prefer not to prescribe for pregnant women, the major concern being over teratogenicity of the drugs.

Drugs have been classified into categories A,B,C,D and X based on the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rating system to provide therapeutic guidance based on potential benefits and fetal risks. Drugs, including some multivitamins, that have demonstrated no fetal risks after controlled studies in humans are classified as Category A. On the other hand drugs like thalidomide with proven fetal risks that outweigh all benefits are classified as Category X.[86]

Use of recreational drugs[edit]

Use of recreational drugs in pregnancy can cause various pregnancy complications.

http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/tobaccousepregnancy/index.htm</ref>

Exposure to environmental toxins[edit]

Intrauterine exposure to environmental toxins in pregnancy has the potential to cause adverse effects on the prenatal development of the embryo or fetus, as well as pregnancy complications. Potential effects of toxic substances and pollution include congenital abnormalities. Also, neuroplastic effects of pollution can give rise to neurodevelopmental disorders for the child later in life. Conditions of particular severity in pregnancy include mercury poisoning and lead poisoning. To minimize exposure to environmental toxins, the American College of Nurse-Midwives recommends for example checking whether lead paint has been used if living in a home built before 1978, washing all produce thoroughly and buying organic produce, as well as well as avoiding any cleaning supply labeled "toxic" or any product with a warning on the label.[93]

Sexual activity[edit]

Most women can continue to engage in sexual activity throughout pregnancy.[94] Most research suggests that during pregnancy both sexual desire and frequency of sexual relations decrease.[95][96] In context of this overall decrease in desire, some studies indicate a second-trimester increase, preceding a decrease during the third trimester.[97][98] Some individuals are sexually attracted to pregnant women (pregnancy fetishism, also known as maiesiophilia).

Sex during pregnancy is a low-risk behavior except when the healthcare provider advises that sexual intercourse be avoided for particular medical reasons. Otherwise, for a healthy pregnant woman who is not ill or weak, there is no safe or right way to have sex during pregnancy: it is enough to apply the common sense rule that both partners avoid putting pressure on the uterus, or a partner's full weight on a pregnant belly.[99]

Exercise[edit]

Lifting objects can be safe during pregnancy.

Regular aerobic exercise during pregnancy appears to improve (or maintain) physical fitness; however, the quality of the research is poor and the data was insufficient to infer important risks or benefits for the mother or infant.[100] Physical exercise during pregnancy does appear to decrease the risk of C-section.[101]

The Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee of Canada recommends that "All women without contraindications should be encouraged to participate in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises as part of a healthy lifestyle during their pregnancy". Although an upper level of safe exercise intensity has not been established, women who were regular exercisers before pregnancy and who have uncomplicated, healthy pregnancies should be able to engage in high intensity exercise programs, such as jogging and aerobics for less than 45 minutes, with no adverse effects if they are mindful of the possibility that they may need to increase their energy intake and are careful to not become overheated. In the absence of either medical or obstetric complications, they advise an accumulation of 30 minutes a day of exercise on most if not all days of the week. In general, participation in a wide range of recreational activities appears to be safe, with the avoidance of those with a high risk of falling such as horseback riding or skiing or those that carry a risk of abdominal trauma, such as soccer or hockey.[102]

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reports that in the past, the main concerns of exercise in pregnancy were focused on the fetus and any potential maternal benefit was thought to be offset by potential risks to the fetus. However, they write that more recent information suggests that in the uncomplicated pregnancy, fetal injuries are highly unlikely. They do, however, list several circumstances when a woman should contact her health care provider before continuing with an exercise program. Contraindications include: Vaginal bleeding, dyspnea before exertion, dizziness, headache, chest pain, muscle weakness, preterm labor, decreased fetal movement, amniotic fluid leakage, and calf pain or swelling (to rule out thrombophlebitis).[102]

Sleep[edit]

It has been suggested that shift work and exposure to bright light at night should be avoided at least during the last trimester of pregnancy to decrease the risk of psychological and behavioral problems in the newborn.[103] A proposed underlying mechanism is that the circadian rhythm of the mother programs the developing rhythm of the fetus.[103]

Epidemiology[edit]

About 213 million pregnancies occurred in 2012 of which 190 million were in the developing world and 23 million were in the developed world. This is about 133 pregnancies per 1,000 women between the ages of 15 and 44.[10] About 10% to 15% of recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage.[6] Globally 40% of pregnancies are unplanned. Half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted.[10]

Of pregnancies in 2012 120 million occurred in Asia, 54 million in Africa, 19 million in Europe, 18 million in Latin America and the Caribbean, 7 million in North America, and 1 million in Oceania.[10] Pregnancy rates are 140 per 1000 women of childbearing age in the developing world and 94 per 1000 in the developed world.[10]

The rate of pregnancy among the female population, as well as the ages at which it occurs, differ by country and region. It is influenced by a number of factors, such as cultural, social and religious norms; access to contraception; and rates of education. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2013 was estimated to be highest in Niger (7.03 children born per woman) and lowest in Singapore (0.79 children/woman).[104]

In Europe, the average childbearing age has been rising continuously for some time. In Western, Northern, and Southern Europe, first-time mothers are on average 26 to 29 years old, up from 23 to 25 years at the start of the 1970s. In a number of European countries (Spain), the mean age of women at first childbirth has now even crossed the 30-year threshold.

This process is not restricted to Europe. Asia, Japan and the United States are all seeing average age at first birth on the rise, and increasingly the process is spreading to countries in the developing world like China, Turkey and Iran. In the US, the age of first childbirth was 25.4 in 2010.[105]

In the United States and United Kingdom, 40% of pregnancies are unplanned, and between a quarter and half of those unplanned pregnancies were unwanted pregnancies.[106][107]

Society and culture[edit]

In most cultures, pregnant women have a special status in society and receive particularly gentle care.[108] At the same time, they are subject to expectations that may exert great psychological pressure, such as having to produce a son and heir. In many traditional societies, pregnancy must be preceded by marriage, on pain of ostracism of mother and (illegitimate) child.

Overall, pregnancy is accompanied by numerous customs that are often subject to ethnological research, often rooted in traditional medicine or religion. The baby shower is an example of a modern custom.

Pregnancy is an important topic in sociology of the family. The prospective child may preliminarily be placed into numerous social roles. The parents' relationship and the relation between parents and their surroundings are also affected.

Arts[edit]

Due to the important role of the Mother of God in Christianity, the Western visual arts have a long tradition of depictions of pregnancy.[109]

Pregnancy, and especially pregnancy of unmarried women, is also an important motif in literature. Notable examples include Hardy's Tess of the d'Urbervilles and Goethe's Faust.

Infertility[edit]

Main article: Infertility

Modern reproductive medicine offers many forms of assisted reproductive technology for couples who stay childless against their will, such as fertility medication, artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.

Abortion[edit]

Main article: Abortion

An abortion is the termination of an embryo or fetus, either naturally or via medical methods.[110] When done electively, it is more often done within the first trimester than the second, and rarely in the third.[26] Not using contraception, contraceptive failure, poor family planning or rape can lead to undesired pregnancies. Legality of socially indicated abortions varies widely both internationally and through time. In most countries of Western Europe, abortions during the first trimester were a criminal offense a few decades ago[when?] but have since been legalized, sometimes subject to mandatory consultations. In Germany, for example, as of 2009 less than 3% of abortions had a medical indication. r

Legal protection[edit]

Many countries have various legal regulations in place to protect pregnant women and their children. Maternity Protection Convention ensures that pregnant women are exempt from activities such as night shifts or carrying heavy stocks. Maternity leave typically provides paid leave from work during roughly the last trimester of pregnancy and for some time after birth. Notable extreme cases include Norway (8 months with full pay) and the United States (no paid leave at all except in some states). Moreover, many countries have laws against pregnancy discrimination.

In 2014, the American state of Kentucky passed a law which allows prosecutors to charge a woman with criminal assault if she uses illegal drugs during her pregnancy and her fetus or newborn is considered harmed as a result.[111]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Pregnancy: Condition Information". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. December 19, 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  2. ^ Wylie, Linda (2005). Essential anatomy and physiology in maternity care (Second Edition ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 172. ISBN 9780443100413. 
  3. ^ a b Abman, Steven H. (2011). Fetal and neonatal physiology (4th ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. pp. 46–47. ISBN 9781416034797. 
  4. ^ "What are some common signs of pregnancy?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. July 12, 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  5. ^ "How do I know if I’m pregnant?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. November 30, 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c The Johns Hopkins Manual of Gynecology and Obstetrics (4 ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012. p. 438. ISBN 9781451148015. 
  7. ^ a b "What is prenatal care and why is it important?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. July 12, 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  8. ^ "What are some common complications of pregnancy?". http://www.nichd.nih.gov/. July 12, 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  9. ^ World Health Organization (November 2014). "Preterm birth Fact sheet N°363". who.int. Retrieved 6 Mar 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Sedgh, G; Singh, S; Hussain, R (September 2014). "Intended and unintended pregnancies worldwide in 2012 and recent trends.". Studies in family planning 45 (3): 301–14. PMID 25207494. 
  11. ^ a b GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442. 
  12. ^ K. Joseph Hurt, Matthew W. Guile, Jessica L. Bienstock, Harold E. Fox, Edward E. Wallach (eds.). The Johns Hopkins manual of gynecology and obstetrics (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 382. ISBN 9781605474335. 
  13. ^ a b "definition of gravida". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 17 January 2008. 
  14. ^ Robinson, Victor, Ph.C., M.D. (editor) (1939). "Primipara". The Modern Home Physician, A New Encyclopedia of Medical Knowledge. WM. H. Wise & Company (New York). , page 596.
  15. ^ "Definition of nulligravida". Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  16. ^ "Nulliparous definition". MedicineNet, Inc. 18 November 2000. 
  17. ^ "Definition of Premature birth". Medicine.net. Retrieved 16 January 2008. 
  18. ^ Lama Rimawi, MD (22 September 2006). "Premature Infant". Disease & Conditions Encyclopedia. Discovery Communications, LLC. Retrieved 16 January 2008. 
  19. ^ Merck. "Urinary tract infections during pregnancy". Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. 
  20. ^ Vazquez, JC (Aug 3, 2010). "Constipation, haemorrhoids, and heartburn in pregnancy". Clinical evidence 2010: 1411. PMC 3217736. PMID 21418682. 
  21. ^ "Reproductive Health and Research Publications: Making Pregnancy Safer". World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia. 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2009. 
  22. ^ Merck. "Pregnancy complicated by disease". Merck Manual, Home Health Handbook. Merck Sharp & Dohme. 
  23. ^ C. Blackwell, Sean (December 2008). "Thromboembolic Disorders During Pregnancy". Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. 
  24. ^ a b Page 264 in: Gresele, Paolo (2008). Platelets in hematologic and cardiovascular disorders: a clinical handbook. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-88115-3. 
  25. ^ Tunón K, Eik-Nes SH, Grøttum P, Von Düring V, Kahn JA (2000). "Gestational age in pregnancies conceived after in vitro fertilization: a comparison between age assessed from oocyte retrieval, crown-rump length and biparietal diameter". Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 15 (1): 41–6. doi:10.1046/j.1469-0705.2000.00004.x. PMID 10776011. 
  26. ^ a b
    • Lennart Nilsson, A Child is Born 91 (1990): at eight weeks, "the danger of a miscarriage … diminishes sharply."
    • "Women's Health Information", Hearthstone Communications Limited: "The risk of miscarriage decreases dramatically after the 8th week as the weeks go by." Retrieved 2007-04-22.
  27. ^ Kalverboer, Alex Fedde; Gramsbergen, Albertus Arend (1 January 2001). Handbook of Brain and Behaviour in Human Development. Springer. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-7923-6943-1. 
  28. ^ Illes, ed. by Judy (2008). Neuroethics : defining the issues in theory, practice, and policy (Repr. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9780198567219. 
  29. ^ 3D Pregnancy (Image from gestational age of 6 weeks). Retrieved 2007-08-28. A rotatable 3D version of this photo is available here, and a sketch is available here.
  30. ^ 3D Pregnancy (Image from gestational age of 10 weeks). Retrieved 2007-08-28. A rotatable 3D version of this photo is available here, and a sketch is available here.
  31. ^ 3D Pregnancy (Image from gestational age of 20 weeks). Retrieved 2007-08-28. A rotatable 3D version of this photo is available here, and a sketch is available here.
  32. ^ 3D Pregnancy (Image from gestational age of 40 weeks). Retrieved 2007-08-28. A rotatable 3D version of this photo is available here, and a sketch is available here.
  33. ^ Clark DA, Chaput A, Tutton D (March 1986). "Active suppression of host-vs-graft reaction in pregnant mice. VII. Spontaneous abortion of allogeneic CBA/J x DBA/2 fetuses in the uterus of CBA/J mice correlates with deficient non-T suppressor cell activity". J. Immunol. 136 (5): 1668–75. PMID 2936806. 
  34. ^ trimester. CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  35. ^ thefreedictionary.com > trimester Citing:
    • The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, copyright 2000
  36. ^ Cunningham, et al., (2010). Williams Textbook of Obstetrics, chapter 8.
  37. ^ Campbell LA, Klocke RA (April 2001). "Implications for the pregnant patient". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 163 (5): 1051–54. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.163.5.16353. PMID 11316633. 
  38. ^ "Your baby at 0-8 weeks pregnancy - Pregnancy and baby guide - NHS Choices". www.nhs.uk. 
  39. ^ Stacey T, Thompson JM, Mitchell EA, Ekeroma AJ, Zuccollo JM, McCowan LM (Jun 14, 2011). "Association between maternal sleep practices and risk of late stillbirth: a case-control study". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 342: d3403. doi:10.1136/bmj.d3403. PMC 3114953. PMID 21673002. 
  40. ^ a b Dr H. Kieler, O. Axelsson, S. Nilsson, U. Waldenströ (1995). "The length of human pregnancy as calculated by ultrasonographic measurement of the fetal biparietal diameter". Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology 6 (5): 353–357. doi:10.1046/j.1469-0705.1995.06050353.x. PMID 8590208. 
  41. ^ "Committee opinion no 611: method for estimating due date.". Obstet Gynecol 124 (4): 863–6. October 2014. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000454932.15177.be. PMID 25244460. 
  42. ^ Chambliss LR, Clark SL (2014). "Paper gestational age wheels are generally inaccurate". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 210 (2): 145.e1–4. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2013.09.013. PMID 24036402. 
  43. ^ "Committee Opinion Number 611: Method for Estimating Due Date". Obstet Gynecol 124 (4):863-6. October 2014. October 2014. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000454932.15177.be. PMID 25244460. 
  44. ^ Jukic AM, Baird DD, Weinberg CR, McConnaughey DR, Wilcox AJ (2013). "Length of human pregnancy and contributors to its natural variation". Hum. Reprod. 28 (10): 2848–55. doi:10.1093/humrep/det297. PMC 3777570. PMID 23922246. 
  45. ^ a b Li, Z; Zeki, R; Hilder, L; Sullivan, EA (2012). "Australia's Mothers and Babies 2010". Perinatal statistics series no. 27. Cat. no. PER 57. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Perinatal Statistics Unit, Australian Government. Retrieved 4 July 2013. 
  46. ^ Mohangoo AD, Blondel B, Gissler M, Velebil P, Macfarlane A, Zeitlin J (2013). Wright, Linda, ed. "International comparisons of fetal and neonatal mortality rates in high-income countries: should exclusion thresholds be based on birth weight or gestational age?". PLoS ONE 8 (5): e64869. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064869. PMC 3658983. PMID 23700489. 
  47. ^ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists UK (April 2001). "Further Issues Relating to Late Abortion, Fetal Viability and Registration of Births and Deaths". Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists UK. Retrieved 4 July 2013. 
  48. ^ a b World Health Organization (November 2013). "Preterm birth". who.int. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i j American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (October 22, 2013). "Ob-Gyns Redefine Meaning of 'Term Pregnancy'". acog.org. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  50. ^ a b c American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (February 2013), "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question", Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation (American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists), retrieved August 1, 2013 , which cites
    • ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins --, Obstetrics (Aug 2009). "ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 107: Induction of labor.". Obstetrics and gynecology 114 (2 Pt 1): 386–97. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181b48ef5. PMID 19623003. 
  51. ^ Saigal, Saroj; Doyle, Lex W (2008). "An overview of mortality and sequelae of preterm birth from infancy to adulthood". The Lancet 371 (9608): 261–269. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60136-1. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 18207020. 
  52. ^ American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (February 2013), "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question", Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation (American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists), retrieved August 1, 2013 , which cites
  53. ^ a b Michele Norris (18 July 2011). "Doctors To Pregnant Women: Wait At Least 39 Weeks". All Things Considered. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  54. ^ Norwitz, MD, PhD, Errol R. "Postterm Pregnancy (Beyond the Basics)". UpToDate, Inc. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  55. ^ The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (April 2006). "What To Expect After Your Due Date". Medem. Medem, Inc. Retrieved 16 January 2008. 
  56. ^ "Induction of labour – Evidence-based Clinical Guideline Number 9" (PDF). Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2001. Archived from the original on 30 December 2006. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  57. ^ http://apps.who.int/rhl/newborn/gpcom/en/index.html
  58. ^ Jenkins A, Millar S, Robins J (July 2011). "Denial of pregnancy: a literature review and discussion of ethical and legal issues". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 104 (7): 286–91. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2011.100376. PMID 21725094. 
  59. ^ Gabbe, Steven. Obstetrics : normal and problem pregnancies (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. p. 1184. ISBN 9781437719352. 
  60. ^ "Pregnancy Symptoms". National Health Service (NHS). 11 March 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2010. 
  61. ^ a b "Early symptoms of pregnancy: What happens right away". Mayo Clinic. 22 February 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2007. 
  62. ^ a b "Pregnancy Symptoms – Early Signs of Pregnancy : American Pregnancy Association". Retrieved 16 January 2008. 
  63. ^ MedlinePlus > Breast pain Update Date: 31 December 2008. Updated by: David C. Dugdale, Susan Storck. Also reviewed by David Zieve.
  64. ^ "Pregnancy video". Channel 4. 2008. Retrieved 22 January 2009. 
  65. ^ "NHS Pregnancy Planner". National Health Service (NHS). 19 March 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  66. ^ Qasim SM, Callan C, Choe JK (1996). "The predictive value of an initial serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level for pregnancy outcome following in vitro fertilization". Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 13 (9): 705–8. doi:10.1007/BF02066422. PMID 8947817. 
  67. ^ "BestBets: Serum or Urine beta-hCG?". 
  68. ^ Verhaegen J, Gallos ID, van Mello NM, Abdel-Aziz M, Takwoingi Y, Harb H, Deeks JJ, Mol BW, Coomarasamy A (Sep 27, 2012). "Accuracy of single progesterone test to predict early pregnancy outcome in women with pain or bleeding: meta-analysis of cohort studies". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 345: e6077. doi:10.1136/bmj.e6077. PMC 3460254. PMID 23045257. 
  69. ^ Whitworth M, Bricker L, Neilson JP, Dowswell T (Apr 14, 2010). Whitworth, Melissa, ed. "Ultrasound for fetal assessment in early pregnancy". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (4): CD007058. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007058.pub2. PMID 20393955. 
  70. ^ Nguyen TH, Larsen T, Engholm G, Møller H (1999). "Evaluation of ultrasound-estimated date of delivery in 17 450 spontaneous singleton births: do we need to modify Naegele's rule?" (abstract). Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 14 (1): 23–28. doi:10.1046/j.1469-0705.1999.14010023.x. PMID 10461334. Retrieved 18 August 2007. 
  71. ^ "Screening for Ultrasonography in Pregnancy". U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  72. ^ Klusmann A, Heinrich B, Stöpler H, Gärtner J, Mayatepek E, Von Kries R (2005). "A decreasing rate of neural tube defects following the recommendations for periconceptional folic acid supplementation". Acta Paediatr. 94 (11): 1538–42. doi:10.1080/08035250500340396. PMID 16303691. Retrieved 20 January 2008. 
  73. ^ Stevenson RE, Allen WP, Pai GS, Best R, Seaver LH, Dean J, Thompson S (2000). "Decline in prevalence of neural tube defects in a high-risk region of the United States". Pediatrics 106 (4): 677–83. doi:10.1542/peds.106.4.677. PMID 11015508. 
  74. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2008). "Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age—United States, 2007". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57 (1): 5–8. PMID 18185493. 
  75. ^ Salem N, Litman B, Kim HY, Gawrisch K (September 2001). "Mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system". Lipids 36 (9): 945–59. doi:10.1007/s11745-001-0805-6. PMID 11724467. 
  76. ^ Haider BA, Bhutta ZA (2006). Bhutta, Zulfiqar A, ed. "Multiple-micronutrient supplementation for women during pregnancy". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD004905. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004905.pub2. PMID 17054223. 
  77. ^ Theobald HE (2007). "Eating for pregnancy and breast-feeding". J Fam Health Care 17 (2): 45–9. PMID 17476978. 
  78. ^ Basile LA, Taylor SN, Wagner CL, Quinones L, Hollis BW (2007). "Neonatal vitamin D status at birth at latitude 32 degrees 72': evidence of deficiency". J Perinatol 27 (9): 568–71. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7211796. PMID 17625571. 
  79. ^ Kuoppala T, Tuimala R, Parviainen M, Koskinen T, Ala-Houhala M (1986). "Serum levels of vitamin D metabolites, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and alkaline phosphatase in Finnish women throughout pregnancy and in cord serum at delivery". Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 40 (4): 287–93. PMID 3488981. 
  80. ^ Tarlow, MJ (August 1994). "Epidemiology of neonatal infections". The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 34 Suppl A: 43–52. doi:10.1093/jac/34.suppl_a.43. PMID 7844073. 
  81. ^ a b c Viswanathan M; Siega-Riz, AM; Moos, M-K; et al (May 2008). "Outcomes of Maternal Weight Gain". Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 168. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  82. ^ a b c d Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. "Weight gain in pregnancy". Fact sheet. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  83. ^ "Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexaminging the Guidelines, Report Brief". Institute of Medicine. Retrieved 29 July 2010. 
  84. ^ American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (January 2013). "Weight Gain During Pregnancy". Obstet Gynecol 121 (1): 210–12. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000425668.87506.4c. PMID 23262962. 
  85. ^ a b c d Thangaratinam, S; Rogozińska, E; Jolly, K; et al (July 2012). "Interventions to Reduce or Prevent Obesity in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review". Health Technology Assessment, No. 16.31. NIHR Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  86. ^ Shaji, Reena (13 January 2009). "Drugs in pregnancy and teratogenicity". LifeHugger. 
  87. ^ Ornoy A, Ergaz Z (February 2010). "Alcohol abuse in pregnant women: effects on the fetus and newborn, mode of action and maternal treatment". International journal of environmental research and public health 7 (2): 364–79. doi:10.3390/ijerph7020364. PMC 2872283. PMID 20616979. 
  88. ^ Hackshaw A, Rodeck C, Boniface S (Sep–Oct 2011). "Maternal smoking in pregnancy and birth defects: a systematic review based on 173 687 malformed cases and 11.7 million controls". Human reproduction update 17 (5): 589–604. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmr022. PMC 3156888. PMID 21747128. 
  89. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. Preventing Smoking and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Before, During, and After Pregnancy.
  90. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/tobaccousepregnancy/index.htm
  91. ^ a b "New Mother Fact Sheet: Methamphetamine Use During Pregnancy". North Dakota Department of Health. Retrieved 7 October 2011. 
  92. ^ Della Grotta S, LaGasse LL, Arria AM, Derauf C, Grant P, Smith LM, Shah R, Huestis M, Liu J, Lester BM (30 June 2009). "Patterns of Methamphetamine Use During Pregnancy: Results from the IDEAL Study". Matern Child Health J 14 (4): 519–527. doi:10.1007/s10995-009-0491-0. PMC 2895902. PMID 19565330. 
  93. ^ Environmental Hazards During Pregnancy Volume 51, No. 1, January/February 2006.
  94. ^ http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sex-during-pregnancy/HO00140
  95. ^ Bermudez MP, Sanchez AI, Buela-Casal G (2001). "Influence of the Gestation Period on Sexual Desire". Psychology in Spain 5 (1): 14–16. 
  96. ^ Fok WY, Chan LY, Yuen PM (October 2005). "Sexual behavior and activity in Chinese pregnant women". Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 84 (10): 934–938. doi:10.1111/j.0001-6349.2005.00743.x. PMID 16167907. 
  97. ^ Reamy K, White SE, Daniell WC, Le Vine ES (June 1982). "Sexuality and pregnancy. A prospective study". J Reprod Med. 27 (6): 321–7. PMID 7120209. 
  98. ^ Malarewicz A, Szymkiewicz J, Rogala J (September 2006). "[Sexuality of pregnant women]". Ginekol. Pol. (in Polish) 77 (9): 733–9. PMID 17219804. 
  99. ^ Cory Silverberg (19 September 2011). "Pregnancy Sex Positions: ideas for comfortable sex positions during pregnancy". About.com Guide. 
  100. ^ Kramer MS, McDonald SW (19 July 2006). Kramer, Michael S, ed. "Aerobic exercise for women during pregnancy". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 3 (3): CD000180. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000180.pub2. PMID 16855953. 
  101. ^ Domenjoz, I; Kayser, B; Boulvain, M (October 2014). "Effect of physical activity during pregnancy on mode of delivery.". American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 211 (4): 401.e1–11. PMID 24631706. 
  102. ^ a b Artal R, O'Toole M (February 2003). "Guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists for exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period". British journal of sports medicine 37 (1): 6–12; discussion 12. doi:10.1136/bjsm.37.1.6. PMC 1724598. PMID 12547738. 
  103. ^ a b Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Korkmaz A, Rosales-Corral SA (2014). "Melatonin and stable circadian rhythms optimize maternal, placental and fetal physiology". Hum. Reprod. Update 20 (2): 293–307. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmt054. PMID 24132226. 
  104. ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov. 
  105. ^ National Vital Statistics Reports from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics. Volume 61, Number 1 August 28, 2012: Births: Final Data for 2010
  106. ^ "40% of pregnancies 'unplanned'". BBC News. 16 March 2004. 
  107. ^ Jayson, Sharon (20 May 2011). "Unplanned pregnancies in U.S. at 40 percent". PhysOrg.com. 
  108. ^ Womack, Mari (2010). The anthropology of health and healing. Plymouth: AltaMira Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-7591-1044-1. 
  109. ^ Rossi, Timothy Verdon ; captions by Filippo (2005). Mary in western art. New York: In Association with Hudson Hills Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-9712981-9-X. 
  110. ^ "Abortion - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". merriam-webster.com. 
  111. ^ Katie Mcdonough (April 30, 2014). "Tennessee just became the first state that will jail women for their pregnancy outcomes". Salon. Retrieved May 5, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]


Misspellings:

pregnancies

Top

Common misspelling(s) of pregnancies

  • pregancies

Translations:

Pregnancy

Top

Dansk (Danish)
n. - graviditet

idioms:

  • pregnancy test    graviditetstest

Nederlands (Dutch)
zwangerschap

Français (French)
n. - grossesse

idioms:

  • pregnancy test    test de grossesse

Deutsch (German)
n. - Schwangerschaft, Trächtigkeit, Bedeutungsgehalt, Bedeutungsschwere

idioms:

  • pregnancy test    Schwangerschaftstest

Ελληνική (Greek)
n. - εγκυμοσύνη, κυοφορία

idioms:

  • pregnancy test    τεστ εγκυμοσύνης

Italiano (Italian)
gravidanza

idioms:

  • pregnancy test    esame di gravidanza

Português (Portuguese)
n. - gravidez (f)

idioms:

  • pregnancy test    teste de gravidez

Русский (Russian)
беременность

idioms:

  • pregnancy test    тест на беременность

Español (Spanish)
n. - embarazo, preñez

idioms:

  • pregnancy test    prueba o test de embarazo

Svenska (Swedish)
n. - havandeskap, graviditet, betydelse(fullhet), uppfinningsrikedom

中文(简体)(Chinese (Simplified))
怀孕, 丰富, 妊娠

idioms:

  • pregnancy test    妊娠试验

中文(繁體)(Chinese (Traditional))
n. - 懷孕, 豐富, 妊娠

idioms:

  • pregnancy test    妊娠試驗

한국어 (Korean)
n. - 임신, 풍만

日本語 (Japanese)
n. - 妊娠, 妊娠期間, 含蓄, 意味深長

idioms:

  • pregnancy test    妊娠テスト

العربيه (Arabic)
‏(الاسم) حمل‏

עברית (Hebrew)
n. - ‮שפע, משמעות, מלאות, פוריות, היריון‬


Post a question - any question - to the WikiAnswers community:

Copyrights: