Only gas engines use blow off valves.
On a standard V12 it has 24 valves however some newer engines have 3 or 4 valves per cylinder making the number 36 or 48.
Yes. The camshaft operates valves that permit air entry to the cylinder, and exhaust exit from the cylinder. Many modern engines have two camshafts, one for the inlet and one for the exhaust.
In many cars YES, but not all cars.The engines will be "Interference Engines" or "Noninterference engines"When the belt breaks in interference engines the valves strike the pistons and bend.
Generally, the more valves an engine has the more efficient it is.
Pneumatic valves are used to close valves in high-speed internal combustion engines, pneumatic valves are mostly to help racing engines to get to high speeds.
Some two stroke engines have 4 valves, Detroit Diesel 71 series and 53 series engines for example. Most small 2 stroke engines have no "Valves" at all in the sense of the "POP" valve used in four stroke engines. Some people feel these engine has one valve because the piston acts as the valve covering the ports cut into the cylinder walls.
how to adjust valves on a 1050 kohler engines
Gasoline engines can be designed so that even if the timing belt breaks, the valves will not contact the pistons, regardless of what position the camshaft stops in (a so-called non-interference engine). Not all gasoline engines are non-interference ... but they can be. This is impossible with a diesel engine because of the high compression ratio, and the small space between the piston and head in order to achieve that compression ratio. All 4-stroke diesel engines are therefore interference engines.
For D7F 8 valve engines: Intake valves - 0.10mm, Exhaust valves - 0.20mm